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NASA Commercial Cargo Program

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Title: NASA Commercial Cargo Program


1
NASA Commercial Cargo Program
Commercial Cargo Program
Cargo Resupply Service-1
Reference Information
2
Commercial Cargo Program - Page 1 of 3
  • NASAs Commercial Crew and Cargo Program Office
    (C3PO) established a two-phased approach to
    implement its International Space Station (ISS)
    logistics strategy after the Shuttle was retired
    providing an opportunity for commercial space
    transportation services.
  • C3PO is responsible for challenging private
    industry to establish capabilities and services
    that open new space markets while meeting the
    logistics transportation needs of the ISS.
  • - Commercial partners can serve existing markets
    and develop new markets, launching a new era for
    commercial space.
  • Commercial Cargo Program
  • - Commercial Orbital Transportation Services
    (COTS)
  • Under COTS, NASA helped industry develop and
    demonstrate its own crew cargo space
    transportation capabilities.
  • -- Industry lead and directed its own efforts
    with NASA providing technical and financial
    assistance.
  • - NASA invested approximately 800M from 2006
    thru 2012 in cargo space transportation flight
    demonstrations.
  • -- NASA payments were made only upon completion
    of progress milestones by its industry partners.
  • - ISS Commercial Resupply Services - Phase 1
    (CRS-1)
  • The government conducted a competitive
    procurement for cargo services to support the
    ISS. -- On December 23, 2008, NASA entered into
    contracts with Orbital Sciences Corporation
    (Orbital) and Space Exploration Technologies
    (SpaceX) to utilize their COTS cargo vehicles,
    Cygnus and Dragon, respectively, for cargo
    delivery to the ISS.

3
Commercial Cargo Program - Page 2 of 3
  • Commercial Cargo Program
  • - ISS Commercial Resupply Services - Phase 2
    (CRS-2)
  • NASA posted a Request for Information (RFI) about
    a possible follow-on to the current Commercial
    Resupply Services (CRS-1) to the International
    Space Station (ISS) on February 21, 2014.
  • -- An Industry Day set of meetings was held in
    Houston on April 10, 2014 where seven high-level
    requirements for the second Cargo Resupply
    Services contract solicitation were disclosed to
    parties who may be interested in contracting with
    the government to supply nonscheduled chartered
    freight air transportation resupply services to
    the ISS in the 2015 to 2024 time period.
  • -- Capabilities required by the ISS in the RFI
    included delivery of pressurized and
    unpressurized cargo, return and disposal of
    pressurized cargo, disposal of unpressurized
    cargo, and ground support services for the
    end-to-end resupply mission.
  • - NASA released a Request for Proposals (RFP) for
    CRS-2 on September 26, 2014.
  • -- Under the RFP, NASA intends to award contracts
    with one or more companies for six or more
    flights per contract.
  • -- The contracted services would include
    logistical and research cargo delivery and return
    to and from the space station through fiscal year
    2020, with the option to purchase additional
    launches through 2024.
  • -- Proposals were due November 14, 2014 and NASA
    anticipated making a selection in April 2015.
  • -- Five companies are known to publicly state
    they submitted proposals to NASA SpaceX, Orbital
    ATK, Boeing, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and
    Lockheed Martin.
  • --- Lockheed Martin announced they were competing
    in March 2015.

4
Commercial Cargo Program - Page 3 of 3
  • Commercial Cargo Program
  • - ISS Commercial Resupply Services - Phase 2
    (CRS-2)
  • -- On November 5, 2015, NASA stated it would
    announce the award of new contracts for CRS-2 no
    later than January 30, 2016.
  • --- The notice said the delay allowed additional
    time for NASA to assess proposals.
  • -- Industry sources have said Lockheed Martins
    CRS-2 concept was eliminated from the competition
    earlier in 2015, but the company has not
    addressed the reports.
  • -- NASA has also eliminated an uncrewed version
    of Boeings human-rated CST-100 Starliner capsule
    from the CRS-2 competition.
  • -- On January 14, 2016, NASA announced the
    contract award winners for CRS-2 phase of the
    agencys ongoing partnership with commercial
    companies for cargo resupply of the ISS starting
    in 2019 the three winners were
  • --- Orbital ATK and SpaceX to continue flying
    their Dragon and Cygnus vehicles.
  • --- Sierra Nevada Corporation to fly its Dream
    Chaser mini-Shuttle in an unmanned cargo resupply
    configuration.
  • ---- A Dream Chaser manned configuration had been
    developed to transport/return crew members
    to/from the ISS.

5
Credit NASA
6
Commercial Resupply Services - Phase 1 (CRS -1)
Space X
Orbital
Credit NASA
NASA selects SpaceX to resupply the ISS for a
minimum of 12 flights.
Credit NASA
NASA selects Orbital to resupply the ISS for a
minimum of 8 flights.
7
Dragon Spacecraft Cargo Configuration
  • The Dragon spacecraft cargo configuration is
    comprised of 3 main elements
  • Nose Cap - protects the vessel and the ISS common
    berthing mechanism during ascent and jettisoned
    after stage separation
  • Spacecraft - houses the pressurized cargo as well
    as the service section containing avionics, the
    RCS system, parachutes, and other support
    subsystems
  • Trunk - provides for the stowage of unpressurized
    cargo and will support Dragons solar arrays and
    thermal radiators. The thermal radiators are not
    shown.

8
Dragon Spacecraft
The Spacecraft Engineering Model (left) is shown
at the SpaceX, Hawthorne, CA facility. The model
is a manufacturing pathfinder, made just as the
production flight units. This model and others
were used for splashdown and structural
testing. The capsule is 20 ft in length with a
maximum diameter of 12.1 ft. The side hatch
opening has a height of 26 in and the base is 29
in. The Nose Cap is located on top of the capsule
and jettisoned after launch. The ablative thermal
protection system is not shown.
Credit SpaceX
The Qualification Unit as seen at Hawthorne, CA
After using it for ground tests, SpaceX launched
it into low Earth orbit on the maiden flight of
the Falcon 9 rocket on June 4, 2010. SpaceX used
the launch to evaluate the aerodynamic conditions
on the spacecraft and performance of the rocket.
The spacecraft orbited the Earth over 300 times
before decaying from orbit and reentering the
atmosphere on June 29, 2010.
Credit SpaceX
9
Demo Flight 2 Launch
On May 22, 2012, the Falcon 9 rocket lifted off
from Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air
Force Station, FL successfully launching the
unmanned Dragon into orbit on a test flight to
deliver supplies to the ISS. The 1,150 lbs of
supplies included food, crew provisions,
student-developed experiments, and computer
equipment. Falcon 9 also carried small canisters
filled with cremated remains that included
Mercury astronaut Gordon Cooper, who died in
2004, and actor James Doohan, who portrayed chief
engineer Montgomery "Scotty" Scott on the
original Star Trek television series. James
Doohan died in 2005. After separation from the
rocket, Dragon released the aerodynamic shields
over its solar panels before deploying the arrays
to generate electricity. The approach to the ISS
was slow and methodical. Several planned and
unplanned pauses were made to make sure Dragon's
abort system was operating, its LIDAR laser
ranging sensors were working, and its thermal
cameras were seeing their target properly.
Dragon
Second Stage
First Stage
Credit SpaceX
10
Demo Flight 2 Capture and Berth to the ISS
On May 25, 2012, the Dragon cargo spacecraft was
captured by the ISS 56 ft Canadarm2 robotic arm.
The robotic arm (left) is shown maneuvering
Dragon into a position where it could be berthed
to the ISS Harmony module.
Credit NASA
The Dragon cargo spacecraft (right) was joined
using the active Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM)
on the Harmony module in a similar fashion to the
Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle. The Dragon
passive CBM was captured and drawn into the
desired position by 4 Harmony capture latches and
secured by 16 Harmony bolts.
Credit NASA
11
Demo Flight 2 ISS Operations and Return
On May 26, 2012, Dragons hatch was opened. An
ISS Expedition 31 crew member photographed the
interior (left). The hatch is at the top and the
supplies that have not been unloaded are shown
supported inside the spacecraft. After the
supplies were unloaded, the equipment to be
returned to Earth was loaded.
Credit NASA
After the hatch was closed, the robotic arm
grappled Dragon, maneuvered the spacecraft a safe
distance from the ISS and released it. The cargo
ship was then de-orbited and returned safely to
Earth landing 560 miles west of Baja California,
Mexico (right) completing a feat never before
achieved by private industry. A fleet of recovery
vessels, staffed with SpaceX engineers and
divers, retrieved the capsule from the sea.
SpaceX plans to reuse Dragon on future ISS cargo
missions.
Credit Michael Altenhofen/SpaceX
12
SpaceX CRS-1 Launch Manifest - Page 1 of 3
Credit SpaceX
Program Launch Date or Target Vehicle Launch Site Duration Flight Objective or Summary
NASA COTS - Demo Flight 1 Dec. 8, 2010 Falcon 9/ Dragon Cape Canaveral 3.3 hours Dragon spacecraft completed two 186 mile Earth circular orbits executing a series of maneuvers and systems checkouts that will be needed for an ISS rendezvous and docking. It was then de-orbited and landed in the Pacific Ocean off of the coast of Baja California, Mexico where the capsule was recovered.
NASA COTS - Demo Flight 2 May 22, 2012 Falcon 9/ Dragon Cape Canaveral 10 days Full cargo mission profile including mate to the ISS, resupply and cargo return.
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 1 Oct. 7, 2012 Falcon 9/ Dragon Cape Canaveral 21 days The launch successfully placed Dragon on course for the first operational mission to the ISS, but an engine failure led to the demise of a secondary payload for Orbcomm, Inc. Dragon delivered 882 lbs to the ISS and returned about 1,673 lbs.
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 2 March 1, 2013 Falcon 9/ Dragon Cape Canaveral 25 days After three-fourths of Dragon's thrusters failed to activate and engineers resolved the problem, the vehicle delivered 1,869 lbs of supplies to the ISS. Dragon returned to Earth with about 2,668 lbs of cargo inside the cabin.
13
SpaceX CRS-1 Launch Manifest - Page 2 of 3
Credit SpaceX
Program Launch Date or Target Vehicle Launch Site Duration Flight Objective or Summary
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 3 Apr. 18, 2014 Falcon 9/ Dragon Cape Canaveral 30 days Dragon successfully delivered 5,000 lbs of supplies and science experiments to the ISS, and returned with about 3,500 lbs.
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 4 Sep. 21, 2014 Falcon 9/ Dragon Cape Canaveral 34 days 5,000 lbs of cargo and science were delivered to the ISS by the spacecraft it returned with about 3,276 lbs.
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 5 Jan. 10, 2015 Falcon 9/ Dragon Cape Canaveral 32 days The spacecraft carried 5,108 lbs of cargo to the ISS and returned with about 3,700 lbs. SpaceX also attempted to return its Falcon 9 first stage through the atmosphere and land on a floating platform. Many of the test objectives were achieved but it landed hard.
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 6 Apr. 14, 2015 Falcon 9/ Dragon Cape Canaveral 33 days Dragon delivered 4,387 lbs of cargo to the ISS, and returned more than 3,000 lbs. The Falcon 9 booster landed on the floating platform, however it came down with too much lateral velocity, tipped over, and was destroyed.
14
SpaceX CRS-1 Launch Manifest - Page 3 of 3
Credit SpaceX
Program (1) Launch Date or Target Vehicle Launch Site Duration Flight Objective or Summary
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 7 June 28, 2015 Falcon 9/ Dragon Cape Canaveral Loss of Mission Following a nominal liftoff, Falcon 9 experienced an overpressure event in the upper stage liquid oxygen tank approximately 139 seconds into flight, resulting in the loss of mission. The event was initiated by a flawed strut inside the second stage. The strut will be replaced on subsequent upper stages, and additional hardware quality audits throughout the vehicle have occurred.
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 8 Feb.7, 2016 Falcon 9/ Dragon Cape Canaveral Not Available Complete the 8th planned operational cargo delivery mission to the ISS.
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 9 Mar. 21, 2016 Falcon 9/ Dragon Cape Canaveral Not Available Complete the 9th planned operational cargo delivery mission to the ISS.
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 10 June 10, 2016 Falcon 9/ Dragon Cape Canaveral Not Available Complete the 10th planned operational cargo delivery mission to the ISS.
Note (1) The Manifest does not include all of
the planned missions (blue) check
http//spaceflightnow.com/tracking/ for launch
dates that are subject to change.
15
Cygnus Spacecraft
Under a three-year COTS cooperative agreement
with NASA, Orbital Sciences Corporation developed
the new space transportation system to
demonstrate the capability to deliver supplies to
the ISS. The COTS program involves the full-scale
flight demonstration of a commercial cargo
delivery system employing the new Antares
medium-class launch vehicle, and the Cygnus
spacecraft. The spacecraft is not required to
return to the Earth. The first COTS demonstration
mission to the ISS was launched from Pad 0A,
Wallops Island, VA on September 18, 2013.
16
Antares Test Launch
Antares is a two-stage expendable launch vehicle
with a 12.8 ft diameter payload fairing designed
to provide access to space for medium-class
payloads weighing up to 13,492 lbs. It is
designed to launch payloads into a variety of low
inclination low-Earth orbits, and
sun-synchronous, geo-transfer and interplanetary
orbits. An object in a sun-synchronous orbit
ascends or descends over any given point of the
Earth's surface at the same local mean solar
time. The Antares development was funded by
Orbital Sciences Corporation and the NASA
Commercial Orbital Transportation Services
program. The first Orbital Sciences Antares
rocket is shown carrying the Cygnus Mass
Simulator, located inside the payload fairing,
during a test flight on April 21, 2013 from
Wallops Island, VA.
Payload Fairing
Second Stage
First Stage
Credit Orbital
17
Cygnus Demo Flight 1 Approaches/Berths to ISS
The Demonstration Flight 1 Cygnus cargo
spacecraft (left) approaches the ISS where the
Canadarm2 robotic arm prepares to capture the
vehicle on September 29, 2013. The robotic arm
then maneuvered Cygnus into a position where it
was joined using the active Common Berthing
Mechanism (CBM) on the Harmony module in a
similar fashion to the Japanese H-II Transfer
Vehicle. The Cygnus passive CBM was then captured
and drawn into the desired position by 4 Harmony
capture latches and secured by 16 Harmony bolts.
Credit Orbital
The Demonstration Flight 1 Cygnus spacecraft is
shown berthed to the Harmony module (right) where
cargo is unloaded. The spacecraft can then be
loaded with waste. After the Cygnus spacecraft is
loaded, the robotic arm grapples the vehicle,
maneuvers the spacecraft a safe distance from the
ISS and releases it. The spacecraft will then
de-orbit and burn-up when it enters Earths
atmosphere.
Credit Orbital
18
Cygnus Demo Flight 1 Hatch Opened at ISS
Credit Orbital
The ISS Expedition 37 crew opened the hatch
between the ISS and Cygnus on September 30, 2013.
The Cygnus spacecraft delivered 1,543 lbs of
non-critical cargo and supplies to the station
that included crew provisions and science
equipment. The Harmony module is shown with its
hatch open and a duct in the lower left corner
ventilating Cygnus. Straps are supporting two
bags of equipment on the left and top inside
Cygnus. Loose support straps are also seen inside
the cargo carrier. On October 7, 2013, the crew
completed unloading the cargo and had loaded the
first layer of 2,850 lbs of waste for disposal.
Cygnus unberthed from the station and re-entered
the atmosphere on October 23.
19
Enhanced Cygnus Spacecraft
Credit Orbital ATK
Beginning with the fourth operational Cygnus
mission, an enhanced spacecraft continued
providing logistics services to the ISS after the
Antares launch failure on October 28, 2014. The
first Enhanced Cygnus was launched to the ISS
using the Atlas V on December 6, 2015. Cygnus
incorporated a larger pressurized cargo module
than the spacecraft used in the first three
Cygnus missions. The enhanced vehicle can carry
an additional 1,600 lbs of crew supplies, spares
and scientific experiments to the ISS. The
spacecraft also used a pair of 11 ft diameter
lightweight ATK Ultraflex solar arrays. The
arrays provide the same power as those used in
the first three missions but with significantly
reduced mass.
20
First Enhanced Cygnus Launched on Atlas V
After the CRS-1 Flight 3 Antares rocket had a
failure after liftoff on October 28, 2014
destroying the rocket and the Cygnus spacecraft,
Orbital ATK announced Antares would be redesigned
and Cygnus would be launched on two CRS-1
missions by the Atlas V. CRS-1 Flight 4 launched
the first Enhanced Cygnus on the Atlas V (left)
to the ISS from Launch Complex 41, Cape Canaveral
Air Force Station, FL on December 6, 2015. Cygnus
with a liftoff weight of 16,517 lbs was the
heaviest payload to be launched by an Atlas V
rocket. A second Atlas V is scheduled to launch
the CRS-1 Flight 5 Enhanced Cygnus to the ISS on
March 10, 2016.
Credit NASA
The Antares rocket with two new Russian RD-181
engines return-to-flight is scheduled to liftoff
May 31, 2016 launching the CRS-1 Flight 6
Enhanced Cygnus to the ISS. Orbital ATKs
Enhanced Cygnus spacecraft is shown approaching
the ISS (right) on December 9, 2015. Cygnus was
grappled by the stations robotic arm, visible in
the lower right of the frame, and then berthed to
the ISS. The photograph was taken by ISS
Expedition 45 Commander Scott Kelly.
Credit NASA
21
Orbital CRS-1 Launch Manifest - Page 1 of 3
Credit Orbital
Program Launch Date or Target Vehicle Launch Site Time at the ISS Flight Objective or Summary
Antares Test Flight April 21, 2013 Antares/ Cygnus Mass Simulator Wallops Island, VA Not Applicable The first launch of the Antares rocket reached orbit, and the upper stage successfully deployed a 8,377 lb mass designed to simulate the flight characteristics of the Cygnus spacecraft. The vehicle reached a near-circular orbit with an average altitude of about 155 miles.
NASA COTS - Demo Flight 1 Sep. 18, 2013 Antares/ StandardCygnus Wallops Island, VA 35 days The first rendezvous of Cygnus and the ISS was delayed due to a GPS navigation software mismatch with the ISS but was successful. Cygnus was berthed to the ISS and delivered 1,543 lbs to the ISS. 2,850 lbs of waste was loaded and the vehicle re-entered the atmosphere and burned-up on Oct. 23.
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 1 Jan. 9, 2014 Antares/ StandardCygnus Wallops Island, VA 37 days Cygnus successfully completed its first operational mission carrying 2,780 lbs of cargo and science payloads to the ISS. It disposed of about 3,250 lbs of unneeded items when it reentered the atmosphere east of New Zealand.
22
Orbital CRS-1 Launch Manifest - Page 2 of 3
Credit Orbital
Program Launch Date or Target Vehicle Launch Site Time at the ISS Flight Objective or Summary
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 2 July 13, 2014 Antares/ StandardCygnus Wallops Island, VA 31 days The spacecraft delivered 3,669 lbs of cargo and science payloads to the ISS. Cygnus reentered the atmosphere with about 3,550 lbs of disposable items.
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 3 Oct. 28, 2014 Antares/ StandardCygnus Wallops Island, VA 0 days Antares launch attempt suffered an anomaly resulting in an explosion 15 seconds after launch. The failure originated in the turbopump of one of the boosters AJ-26 main engines. Orbital Sciences plans to redesign the booster using two new Russian RD-181 engines. More than 5,000 lbs of cargo and supplies, including research hardware, student experiments, spare parts, food and crew supplies, 32 nanosatellites and other gear, were lost in the mishap.
23
Orbital CRS-1 Launch Manifest - Page 3 of 3
Credit Orbital ATK
Program (1) Launch Date or Target Vehicle Launch Site Time at the ISS Flight Objective or Summary
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 4 Dec. 6, 2015 Atlas V/ EnhancedCygnus Wallops Island, VA Not Available The first of two Enhanced Cygnus missions launched by the Atlas V before return-to-flight of Antares with new Russian engines. Delivered a total cargo, including packaging, of about 7,745 lbs to the ISS. Cygnus reentered the atmosphere with about 3,000 lbs of disposable items.
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 5 Mar. 10, 2016 Atlas V/ EnhancedCygnus Cape Canaveral Not Available Launch the 5th planned operational mission with the Enhanced Cygnus to the ISS using the second Atlas V.
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 6 May 31, 2016 Antares 230/ EnhancedCygnus Cape Canaveral Not Available Launch the 6th planned operational mission with the Enhanced Cygnus to the ISS using Antares with new engines.
NASA Resupply to ISS - Flight 7 Oct. 4, 2016 Antares 230/ EnhancedCygnus Cape Canaveral Not Available Launch the 7th planned operational mission with the Enhanced Cygnus to the ISS using Antares.
Note (1) The Manifest does not include all of
the planned missions (blue) check
http//spaceflightnow.com/tracking/ for launch
dates that are subject to change.
24
Reference Information - Page 1 of 2
  • Images
  • NASA, SpaceX, Orbital Sciences Corporation,
    Orbital ATK
  • Text
  • http//www.nasa.gov/
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/
  • https//prod.nais.nasa.gov/
  • http//procurement.jsc.nasa.gov/
  • http//spacenews.com/
  • http//www.spacex.com/
  • http//spaceflightnow.com/
  • http//www.nasaspaceflight.com/
  • http//spacecraft.ssl.umd.edu/design_lib/ICES01-24
    35.ISS_CBM.pdf
  • http//spaceflight.nasa.gov/
  • http//www.orbital.com/
  • http//spacecraft.ssl.umd.edu/design_lib/ICES01-24
    35.ISS_CBM.pdf
  • Special Delivery by Mark Carreau, Aviation Week
    Space Technology October 7, 2013 Volume 175,
    Number 35, page 27 - first delivery of cargo and
    supplies by the Orbital Cygnus to the ISS
  • http//www.ulalaunch.com/
  • http//www.orbitalatk.com/

25
Reference Information - Page 2 of 2
  • Text (Continued)
  • http//www.space.com/
  • http//www.thalesaleniaspace-issmodules.com/cygnus

End
26
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27
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28
History of Commercial Orbital Transportation
Services
  • NASA explored a program for International Space
    Station (ISS) services in the mid 1990s titled
    Alternate Access. While NASA funded Alternate
    Access no further than preliminary studies, this
    program convinced numerous entrepreneurs that the
    ISS could emerge as a significant market
    opportunity.
  • After years of keeping orbital transport for
    human spaceflight in-house, NASA concluded that
    firms in a free market could develop and operate
    such a system more efficiently and affordably
    than a government bureaucracy.
  • In November 2005, Michael D. Griffin, the NASA
    Administrator, believed that when the engine of
    competition is engaged these services would be
    provided in a more cost-effective fashion than if
    the government would do it. He also believed
    that, with the advent of the ISS, there will
    exist for the first time a strong, identifiable
    market for routine transportation service to
    and from low Earth orbit, and this will be only
    the first step in what will be a huge opportunity
    for truly commercial space enterprise.
  • Furthermore, since such services were
    unavailable by the end of 2010 and NASA's own
    Crew Exploration Vehicle was not ready, NASA was
    forced to purchase Orbital Transportation
    Services on foreign spacecraft such as the
    Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress
    spacecraft, the European Space Agency's Automated
    Transfer Vehicle, or the Japan Aerospace
    Exploration Agency's H-II Transfer Vehicle.
  • NASA asserted that once Commercial Orbital
    Transportation Services (COTS) was operational,
    it would no longer procure Russian cargo delivery
    services.
  • COTS helped industry develop and demonstrate
    cargo space transportation capabilities.
  • ISS Commercial Resupply Services, Phase 1
    (CRS-1) began commercial operational cargo
    flights to the ISS started in 2012 and continue
    until 2016.
  • ISS Commercial Resupply Services, Phase 2
    (CRS-2) continues cargo flights from 2017 through
    2024 as of December 2015, contract awards have
    not been announced.

29
Dragon Spacecraft - Page 1 of 2
  • Space Exploration Technologies Corporation
    (SpaceX) is an American space transport company
    founded by PayPal co-founder Elon Musk in June
    2002. It has developed the Falcon 1 and Falcon 9,
    both of which are partially reusable launch
    vehicles. SpaceX is also developing the Dragon
    series of spacecraft orbited by Falcon 9
    launchers. SpaceX designs, tests and fabricates
    the majority of their components in-house,
    including the Merlin, Kestrel, and Draco rocket
    engines. SpaceX is based in Hawthorne, CA.
  • On 18 August 2006, NASA announced that SpaceX
    had won a Commercial Orbital Transportation
    Services contract worth 278 million to
    demonstrate cargo delivery to the International
    Space Station (ISS) with a possible option for
    crew transport.
  • In December 2008, NASA announced the selection
    of the SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle and Dragon
    spacecraft to resupply the ISS after the Space
    Shuttle retired. The 1.6 billion contract
    represented a minimum of 12 flights.
  • In August 2015, modifications to the NASA 2008
    Cargo Resupply Services, Phase 1 contract with
    SpaceX changed the total missions to 15 to
    satisfy the ISS cargo needs into early 2018.
  • Dragon
  • A free-flying, reusable spacecraft developed by
    SpaceX. Initiated internally by SpaceX in 2005,
    the Dragon spacecraft consists of a pressurized
    capsule and unpressurized trunk used for Earth to
    low Earth orbit transport of pressurized cargo,
    unpressurized cargo, and/or crew members.
  • For cargo launches, the inside of the spacecraft
    is outfitted with a modular cargo rack system
    designed to accommodate pressurized cargo in
    standard sizes and form factors.

30
Dragon Spacecraft - Page 2 of 2
  • Dragon (Continued)
  • Characteristics/capabilities include
  • - Overall length is 20 ft and maximum diameter is
    12.1 ft
  • - Fully autonomous rendezvous with manual
    override capability in crewed configuration
  • - 13,228 lbs payload up-mass to LEO 6,614 lbs
    payload down-mass to Earth
  • - Payload Volume 245 cubic ft pressurized, 490
    cubic ft unpressurized
  • - Two-fault tolerant avionics system with
    extensive heritage
  • - Reaction control system with 18 MMH/NTO
    (monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide)
    thrusters, designed and built in-house these
    thrusters are used for both attitude control and
    orbital maneuvering
  • - 2844 lbs of propellant supports a safe mission
    profile from sub-orbital insertion to ISS
    rendezvous to re-entry
  • Integral common berthing mechanism (CBM), with
    LIDS or APAS support, if required
  • - Designed for water landing under parachute for
    ocean recovery
  • - Lifting re-entry for landing precision and
    low-gravity
  • - Ablative, high-performance heat shield and
    sidewall thermal protection

31
Falcon 9 Launch Vehicle - Page 1 of 2
  • Falcon 9 - SpaceX is developing a family of
    launch vehicles that will provide light, medium
    and heavy lift capabilities to launch spacecraft
    into any altitude and inclination, from low Earth
    to geosynchronous to planetary missions. Falcon 1
    was the first privately developed liquid fuel
    rocket to achieve Earth orbit. It is a small,
    partially reusable rocket capable of placing 1480
    lbs into low Earth orbit. It also functioned as a
    test bed for developing concepts and components
    for the larger Falcon 9. Like Falcon 1, Falcon 9
    is a two stage, liquid oxygen and rocket grade
    kerosene (RP-1) powered launch vehicle. It is in
    the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV)
    class with a 17 ft diameter payload fairing. It
    delivers medium sized payloads into low Earth,
    geosynchronous, or transfer orbits.
  • First Stage - The Falcon 9 tank walls and domes
    are made from aluminum lithium alloy. SpaceX uses
    an all friction stir-welded tank. Like Falcon 1,
    the interstage, which connects the upper and
    lower stage for Falcon 9, is a carbon fiber
    aluminum core composite structure. The separation
    system is a larger version of the pneumatic
    pushers used on Falcon 1.
  • Nine SpaceX Merlin engines power the Falcon 9
    first stage with 125,000 lbs sea level thrust per
    engine for a total thrust on liftoff of just over
    1.1 million lbs. After engine start, Falcon is
    held down until all vehicle systems are verified
    to be functioning normally before release for
    liftoff.
  • SpaceX is developing a privately funded,
    re-useable launch system. Currently, the
    technology is under development for the first
    stages of the Falcon family of rockets.
  • - The first successful controlled landing of an
    orbital rocket first stage on the ocean surface
    was achieved in April 2014.
  • - In January 2015, a test flight attempted to
    land the Flight 5 operational mission by
    returning the first stage to a floating landing
    platform. Although the Falcon 9 booster was
    guided to the target, the landing was
    unsuccessful.
  • -- SpaceX successfully landed the Falcon 9
    booster on Landing Site 1 at Cape Canaveral Air
    Force Station, FL, and launched 11 Orbcomm
    communication satellites on December 21, 2015.

32
Falcon 9 Launch Vehicle - Page 2 of 2
  • Second Stage - The second stage tank of Falcon 9
    is a shorter version of the first stage tank and
    uses most of the same tooling, material and
    manufacturing techniques. This results in
    significant cost savings in vehicle production.
  • - A single Merlin engine powers the Falcon 9
    upper stage with an expansion ratio of 1171 and
    a nominal burn time of 345 seconds. For added
    reliability of restart, the engine has dual
    redundant pyrophoric igniters.
  • SpaceX Merlin Engine - The main engine, called
    Merlin, was developed internally at SpaceX, but
    draws upon a long heritage of space proven
    engines. The pintle style injector at the heart
    of Merlin was first used in the Apollo Moon
    program for the lunar module landing engine.
  • - Propellant is fed via a single shaft, dual
    impeller turbo-pump operating on a gas generator
    cycle. The turbo-pump also provides the high
    pressure kerosene for the hydraulic actuators
    which then recycles into the low pressure inlet.
    This eliminates the need for a separate hydraulic
    power system and means that thrust vector control
    failure by running out of hydraulic fluid is not
    possible. A third use of the turbo-pump is to
    provide roll control by actuating the turbine
    exhaust nozzle (on the second stage engine).
  • Characteristics/capabilities include
  • - Length 180 ft, Width 12 ft
  • - Mass (to low Earth orbit, 17.1 ft fairing)
    735,000 lbs
  • - Mass (to geosynchronous transfer orbit, 17.1 ft
    fairing) 733,800 lbs
  • - Thrust (vacuum) 1,110,000 lbs

33
Cygnus Advanced Maneuvering Spacecraft - Page 1
of 2
  • Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital), founded
    in 1982, specializes in satellite launch and
    manufacture. Products include space launch
    vehicles, missile defense systems, satellites and
    related systems, advanced space systems, and
    space technical services. Its headquarters was
    located in Loudoun County, VA.
  • Orbital initially developed the Antares launch
    vehicle and Cygnus spacecraft for the NASA
    Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS)
    development and demonstration program. Orbital
    used Cygnus to perform the International Space
    Station (ISS) resupply flights under the
    Commercial Resupply Service, Phase 1 (CRS-1)
    contract. In December 23, 2008, NASA authorized
    the contract for 8 missions between 2011 and 2015
    carrying approximately 44,092 lbs of cargo to the
    ISS as well as disposal of ISS waste.
  • The merger of Orbital Sciences Corporation and
    Alliant Techsystems Incorporated (ATK) into
    Orbital ATK began operations on February 10,
    2015.
  • - Orbital ATK headquarters is located in Dulles,
    VA.
  • In August 2015, modifications to the NASA 2008
    CRS-1 contract with Orbital ATK changed the total
    missions to 10 to satisfy the ISS cargo needs
    into early 2018.
  • Cygnus is a 10.1 ft in diameter spacecraft with
    two basic components the Pressurized Cargo
    Module (PCM) and the Service Module (SM).
  • The PCM is designed to transport the cargo that
    includes equipment, spare parts, scientific
    experiments and other items to the ISS.
  • - It is based on the ISS Multi-Purpose Logistics
    Module and built by Thales Alenia Space Italia.

34
Cygnus Advanced Maneuvering Spacecraft - Page 2
of 2
  • Cygnus (Continued)
  • Cygnus does not provide return capability but
    can be loaded with obsolete equipment and trash
    for destructive reentry similar to the Russian
    Progress vehicles.
  • - A formerly planned variant of Cygnus would have
    replaced the PCM with an unpressurized cargo
    module based on NASA's ExPRESS Logistics Carrier
    and could have been used to transport
    unpressurized cargo such as ISS Orbital
    Replacement Units.
  • The SM is manufactured by Orbital and based on
    their STAR spacecraft bus as well as components
    from the development of the Dawn spacecraft.
  • - Propulsion is provided by thrusters using the
    hypergolic propellants hydrazine and nitrogen
    tetroxide.
  • - The two solar arrays produces up to 4 KW of
    electrical power.
  • Information/characteristics/capabilities
    include
  • - Service Module
  • -- Design, integration and test performed by
    Orbital
  • -- Heritage STAR Bus, GEOStar, LEOStar
  • -- Power Generation 2 solar arrays
  • -- Power Output 3.5 KW (sun-pointed)
  • -- Propellant Dual-mode N2H4/MON-3 or N2H4
  • Pressurized Cargo Module
  • - Design, integration and test performed by
    Thales Alenia Space Italia (sub-contractor)
  • - Heritage ISS Multi-Purpose Logistics Module
  • - Total Cargo Mass 4,400 lbs (standard) 6,000
    lbs (enhanced)
  • - Pressurized Volume 667 cubic ft/925 cubic ft

35
Antares Launch Vehicle - Page 1 of 2
  • Antares - The Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport,
    part of the Wallops Flight Facility, VA, is the
    initial launch site for Antares, known during
    development as Taurus II. Launch pad 0A, the
    former launch pad for the Conestoga rocket has
    been modified to handle Antares.
  • - The launch vehicle is also compatible with the
    Western Range at Vandenberg Air Force Base,
    Eastern Range at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
    and Kodiak Launch Complex.
  • First Stage - Uses RP-1 (kerosene) and liquid
    oxygen (LOX) as propellants, powering two
    NK-33-derived engines (supplied by Aerojet as
    AJ-26 engines).
  • - In March 2010, Orbital Sciences and Aerojet
    successfully completed test firings of the NK-33
    engines.
  • - Since Orbital Sciences has little experience
    with large liquid stages and LOX propellant, some
    of the first stage was contracted to Yuzhnoye
    SDO, designers of the Zenit series.
  • The core tank assembly is provided by Yuzhnoye
    and includes propellant tanks, pressurization
    tanks, valves, sensors, feed lines, tubing,
    wiring and other associated hardware.
  • Second Stage - Comprised of the ATK Castor 30
    solid stage with electromechanical thrust vector
    control.
  • - It has been developed by ATK as a derivative of
    the Castor 120. On December 10, 2009, ATK test
    fired their Castor 30 motor for use as the
    Antares second stage.
  • Characteristics/capabilities include
  • - Payload capacity to low Earth orbit 11,000 lbs
  • - 12.8 diameter payload fairing, and first and
    second stages
  • - Height 133 ft
  • Mass 530,000 lbs

36
Antares Launch Vehicle - Page 2 of 2
  • Antares (Continued)
  • The CRS-1 Flight 3 Antares rocket had a failure
    moments after liftoff on October 28, 2014 at
    Wallops Island, VA destroying the rocket and the
    Cygnus spacecraft, and damaging the launch pad.
  • Orbital ATK investigation identified a
    manufacturing defect inside a Russian AJ26 engine
    turbopump as the most likely cause of the
    failure, and a team of NASA engineers identified
    three credible technical root causes which could
    have resulted in the failure.
  • Orbital ATK announced that it is taking maximum
    advantage of the technical recommendations of
    NASA and implementing them into the current
    program the plan is
  • - The Cygnus spacecraft would launch to the ISS
    twice on United Launch Alliance Atlas V rockets.
  • -- On December 6, 2015, an Atlas V successfully
    launched the first Enhanced Cygnus to the ISS
    during CRS-1 Flight 4.
  • -- On March 10, 2016, an Atlas V rocket is
    scheduled to launch the CRS-1 Flight 5 Enhanced
    Cygnus to the ISS.
  • - The Antares 230 rockets return-to-flight with
    two new Russian RD-181 engines is scheduled for
    May 31, 2016 launching the CRS-1 Flight 6
    Enhanced Cygnus to the ISS.
  • - The switch to the more powerful Atlas V and
    Antares 230, along with the Enhanced Cygnus
    increased volume, will enable Orbital ATK to
    cover their initial CRS-1 contracted payload
    obligation by Flight 7.
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