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Title: The Use of Faceted Analytico-Synthetic Theory as Revealed in the Practice of Website Construction and Design Author: klabarre Last modified by – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Website taxonomy


1
Website taxonomy
  • ASIST-AM, Austin TX
  • November 3-8, 2006
  • Kathryn La Barre
  • GSLIS/UIUC

2
Taxonomy?
  • The science of categorization, or classification,
    of things based on a predetermined system.
  • webopedia http//isp.webopedia.com/TERM/T/taxonom
    y.html

3
Linnean Taxonomy
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Phylum Chordata
  • Class Mammalia
  • Order Primates
  • Family Hominidae
  • Genus Homo
  • Species Homo sapiens

4
Taxonomy, website ?
  • In reference to Web sites and portals taxonomy
    is the way data is organized into categories and
    subcategories.
  • webopedia http//isp.webopedia.com/TERM/T/taxonom
    y.html

5
Website taxonomy
  • Organization and access for web content
  • Browsing
  • Navigation

6
Research Questions
  • Prevalence of the use of facets as website
    organization and access devices?
  • Commonalities in website use of facets?
  • Do faceted approaches to website access or
    organization conform to or depart from more
    traditional applications of facet analysis or
    faceted classification?
  • In what ways can the practices of Information
    Architects inform or extend the theory underlying
    facet analysis or faceted classification?
  • Can the theory of facet analysis be useful in
    improving deployment of faceted access and
    organization devices on websites?



7
FAST in Cyberspace 2000-present
  • September 2001 - Peter Merholz
  • Innovation in classification
  • January 2002 - Travis Wilson FacetMap
  • March 2002 Phil Murray KMConnection
  • April 2002 - Discussion on SIG/IA list
  • May 2002 Peter Van Dijck XFML
  • July 2002 Rosenfeld and Morville Information
    Architecture for the World Wide Web. 2nd Ed.
  • December 2002 Van Dijck/ Murray establish
  • Faceted Classification discussion list

8
Background - facets
  • From Practice (1925-1932)
  • To Dynamic Theory of Classification
    (1947-1961)
  • Based on Explicitly stated
    (1962-1986)
  • normative principles
  • Canons
  • Postulates
  • Principles

9
Domain Information Architecture/Web



Facets main ingredient cuisine
preparation occasion meal dish
10
Open Directory Project - DMOZ directory
categories http//dmoz.org

n200 (stratified random
sample of websites)
Arts Movies, Television, Music... Business (251,352) Jobs, Real Estate, Investing... Computers Internet, Software, Hardware...
Games Video Games, RPGs, Gambling... Health Fitness, Medicine, Alternative... Home Family, Consumers, Cooking...
Kids and Teens Arts, School Time, Teen Life... News Media, Newspapers, Weather... Recreation Travel, Food, Outdoors, Humor...
Reference (66,887) Maps, Education, Libraries... Regional US, Canada, UK, Europe... Science Biology, Psychology, Physics...
Shopping (120,785) Autos, Clothing, Gifts... Society (275,687) People, Religion, Issues... Sports Baseball, Soccer, Basketball...
World Adult
  • COMPONENTS
  • Site map
  • Website navigation
  • Links
  • Browsing
  • Website search
  • Basic
  • Advanced

11
Interviewees (18)
  • 5 Software engineer/academic (IA-2) (KM-3)
  • 4 Systems analyst (KM)
  • 3 UX (user experience) (IA)
  • 2 Product manager (IA)
  • 2 Software designer/engineer (IA/professional)
  • 1 Software designer/engineer (KM/academic)
  • 1 Software developer/engineer (IA)

12
Area Product / Use of facets
8 Knowledge Management 10 Information Architecture 9 General applications 7 Websites searching, browsing, management 5 Database construction (/2) Back-end database access (/3) Database design 2 Taxonomy creation 2 Website construction and design 4 Document access search, browse, classification
N18 (multiple areas and products for some
interviewees)
13
Facet use 24/200 sites
Basic search Browse Navigation only Advanced search Integrated
Total /24 25 29 42 58 66
1/3 of the sample websites have integrated
features.
14
Common facets in use
  • who (personality),
  • what (matter),
  • where (space)
  • form
  • time
  • subject
  • author

15
((SOC24 x.1 http//www.dol.gov))
16
((SOC24 x.1 http//www.dol.gov))
((??ba/adv??))
1
Search A-Z index
2a,b
((navigation bar)) Subscribe Reform Grants Speech
es News Calendar Library Offices About Agencies
Find it Jobs By Topic By Audience By Top 20
items By Form By Location
3
Text
facets
((External links to other agencies))
((navigation bar)) FAQFOIASurveyPrivacyDiscla
imersEmail site Contact
17
((SOC24 x.2 http//www.dol.gov/siteindex.htm))
Find it! By Topic By Audience By 20 requested
items By Form By Organization By Location
DOL Homegt Search/A to Z Index
((Search box)) Enter KW phrase or ? ((BA))
((search box also works within these areas))
((Letters of alphabet link to index areas))
facets
((I))
Search by agency or category
Search tips Advanced search((ADV))
A (site area links) B (site area links) Etc. on
to Y (site area links) ..
2b
Additional resources Find it! Interfaces Provide
links to resources on our Web site sorted By
Audience, by Topic, by Form, By Organization,
by Location, and by Top 20 Requested Items
2a
((navigation bar)) FAQFOIASurveyPrivacyDiscla
imersEmail site Contact
18
((SOC24 x.2 http//www.dol.gov/search/schall.htm))

3
((ADV))
((I))
2b
19
((SOC24 x.3 http//www.dol.gov/libraryforms/))
Find it! By Topic By Audience By 20 requested
items By Form By Organization By Location
Subscribe Reform Grants Speeches News Calendar Li
brary Offices About Agencies
((Search box)) ((BA))
DOL Homegt DOL forms
facets
((Text)) DOL forms Forms by Title Forms by
Form Number Forms by Agency
3
((navigation bars))
FAQFOIASurveyPrivacyDisclaimersEmail site
Contact
20
Principles of order within facet
BY TOPIC Disability Resources Termination Equal Employment Opportunity Training Health Plans Benefits Unemployment ins. Hiring Wages Leave Benefits Work hours Other Benefits Workers Compensation Retirement Plans, Ben. Savings Safety Statistics Youth and Labor BY AUDIENCE
BY ORGANIZATION Office of the Secretary (OSEC) Key Personnel Office of the 21st Century Workforce (21CW) ((Then ordered by alphabetical arrangement) BY LOCATION
Workers Employers Job Seekers/ Unemployed
Labor Unions Researchers Kids/Youth Students
Educators Women
Homeless Service Providers to the Homeless
Nonprofits/ Nongovernmental Organizations
Faith-based and Community Organizations
Government People with Disabilities Veterans
Audience interest
Alphabetical

21
((REF37 x.1 http//ads.ac.uk ))
22
((REF37 x.1 http//ads.ac.uk))
((Text))
((??ba/adv??))
Introduction Overview Query Help
  • Information
  • Search
  • Project Archives
  • Special collections
  • Library

((??ba/adv??))
3
((Text))
2a,b
((navigation bars))
1
23
Searches   Basic    Map    Search by resource
   Advanced    Help
((REF37 x.2a http//ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/searc
h/index.cfm))
2b
((ADV))
Basic searches ((BA))
facets
  • Select a type of search
  • ( )Keyword  ( )Project title  ( )Who (
    )What ( )Where ( )Postcode ( )ADS record id
  • ((I))
  • (2) Enter a search term
  • Information
  • Search
  • Project Archives
  • Special collections
  • Library


((navigation bar))
2a
24
Searches   Basic    Map    Search by resource
   Advanced    Help
((REF37 x.2b http//ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/searc
h/boolean.cfm))
Advanced search ((ADV))
2
1
  • Information
  • Search
  • Project Archives
  • Special collections
  • Library

((I)) search allows integrating 1 terms
2 refs, 3resources
3
2b

25
Query (database) ((I))
((REF37 x.2b http//ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/specC
oll/eab_eh_2004/query.cfm))
facets
geographical
((EMB))
Principles of order within facet
alphabetical
3
26
Search by Resource Map search
((REF 37 http//ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/search/ke
yRes.cfm http//ads.ahds.ac.uk/c
atalogue/search/map.cfm ))
Other search
27
Historical connections
  • Facets help users locate and navigate
  • (Vickery 1950/2004)
  • Experimentation over time with fundamental
    categories
  • Overwhelming interfaces Cranfield studies
  • Questions of universality
  • Theory and Practice

28
Participant observations - summary
  • Facet
  • User-driven and should reflect user needs 14
  • Integral to construction of CV, taxonomies,
    metadata
  • Serious interface issues
  • Expose information
  • Support browsing and discovery
  • Quickly become complex
  • Best practices or standards needed

29
Future
  • Change over time (sample sites)
  • Usability
  • OPACs
  • Principles for practice
  • Theory
  • Definition, universality, mutual exclusivity
  • Practice
  • Implementation, unstructured data, guidelines

30
Project site
  • http//leep.lis.uiuc.edu/publish/klabarre/overview
    .html

31
Supporting documents
32
What is a facet?
  • User-driven and should reflect user needs 14
  • A dimension, attribute, characteristic, category
    or property n13
  • Integral to construction of
  • controlled vocabularies
  • taxonomies n11
  • metadata
  • Assist in browsing 10
  • May 9 or may not 9 be
  • orthogonal or mutually exclusive.
  • Represent points of view 8
  • Capture all meanings of a concept 5
  • Allow for groupings of values 4

33
What constitutes a Faceted Classification?
  • facets are part of search or navigation 9
  • facets visible to users at all times
  • search results are displayed using facets
  • a null or empty set is never returned as a result
    display
  • Few 3 noted independence of FA/ FC from
    interface/ presentation / display
  • One of the things we are still trying to
    understand here is how to move rapidly to take
    faceted interfaces and begin to use them not just
    for retrieval purposes, but for managing an
    entire class of information
  • FC set of rules to govern
  • decisions about how a site is designed
  • which terms should be chosen for the controlled
    vocabulary
  • how the search functionality works
  • I think we use faceted classification, and
    everybody understands it more or less, but nobody
    has really formulated it for us in a way we can
    understand. The practice we have needs to be
    theorized a bit and formalized

34
User focus
  • User focus inherent in facets//facet analysis
    14.
  • Do a lot of user research to determine what
    kinds of content people are looking for and the
    ways in which they search.
  • Facets can be drawn from user tasks, queries
    (transaction logs) from domain knowledge such
    as may be found in publications, list posts or
    blogs 11. Similar to Vickerys (1960-1966)
    recommendations
  • Facets and their display are completely
    dependent on the target population, their needs
    and interests,

35
Interface design (usability
testing needed)
  • Facets expose information
  • Faceted search provides some knowledge that is
    hidden behind the search resultsit gives insight
    into the data.
  • Facets or FC blur distinctions between
    structured, unstructured and semi-structured
    information by allowing a multidimensional view
    or a multidimensional way to navigate through
    heterogeneous data.
  • Weve got to figure out conventions to prevent
    FC from dominating the user interface
    (Interviewee 16, 2006).
  • FC provides the ability to support browsing,
    exploration, and discovery. Helps users ask
    questions. Gives choices without requiring expert
    knowledge of interface or information them to
    know a lot about the interface or the information
  • With FC you have this big front door where you
    can go through and do everything there are a
    million side doors. It lets you slice and dice
    things any way you want

36
Disputes/concerns
  • NEED a set of best practices or standards for
    faceted interface implementation. I have the
    feeling that there is something I dont yet know
    that can make this FC work better
  • HOW
  • to choose facets?
  • to set up a faceted classification?
  • Is FC notational structure still useful?
  • What if data is unstructured?

37
Theoretical issues
  • Canon of mutual exclusivity
  • Necessary? 9 or Unnecessary? 9
  • Fundamental categories/ universal categories
  • I cant imagine the classical facets being
    useful in identifying your own facets and then
    applying them to your own system. Thats just not
    the way things are.
  • I think it is just silly to have a universal way
    of organizing the world.
  • CONFIRMATION(?)
  • Noted synchronous occurrence of fundamental
    categories in other applications and
    implementations whether automatically extracted
    from data in some way or created by human
    indexers

38
Definition

39
Faceted theory analytico-synthetic theory
  • Most inclusive terminology (Broughton/CRG
    tradition)
  • / indicates the existence of guiding principles
  • / incorporates
  • Facet Analysis technique
  • Entity analyzed into facets
  • (characteristics-things, concepts-ideas)
  • Faceted Classification structure
  • Consists of schedules for basic classes with
    pre-determined facets for all entities.
  • Analytico-Synthetic Classification
  • Five step process from facet analysis to
    notation.

40
High level categories
Ranganathan Shera/Egan Prieto-Diaz Aitchison Aristotle
gtPersonality gtMatter gtEnergy gtSpace gtTime gtProduct gtAgent gtTools gtAct gtObject of action gtSpace gtTime gtFunction gtObjects gtMedium gtSystem-type gtFunctional area gtSetting gtEntities, things, objects gtKinds or types/ systems and assemblies gtActions and activities gtApplications and purposes gtSpace, place, location and environment gtTime gtSubstance gtQuality gtQuantity gtRelation gtPlace gtTime gtPosition gtState gtAction gtAffection
41
Facet
  • Facet
  • A generic term used to denote any component of a
    compound subject, ltincludinggt ranked forms, terms
    and numbers (Ranganathan, 1967, p. 88).
  • A general manifestation of a subject
    (Ranganathan, 1962, p. 82).
  • Groups of terms derived by taking each term and
    defining it, per genus et differentiam, with
    respect for its parent class (Vickery, 1960, p.
    12).
  • Facet analytical approach Proper and rigorous
    practice of facet analysis by observing the rules
    of logical division. (Broughton, 2001, p. 67
    Mills, 2004, p. 268).
  • one characteristic of division is applied at a
    time conceptual analysis
  • division steps should be logical and proximate
  • division should be exhaustive (Mills, 2004, pp.
    551).

42
Facets continued
  • Supports the notion that information can be
    assigned to multiple dimensions and may have
    individual attributes not intrinsic to the
    information.
  • Small components of larger entities/units.
  • Properties
  • Attributes
  • Characteristics
  • Slots
  • Relations
  • Functions
  • Concepts

43
Buildings
44
Facet analysis
  • Fundamental concepts are analyzed and
    grouped together as facets
  • Hunter, E. (2002) Classification made simple.
    Ashgate
  • Building Facets
  • Location
  • Composition
  • Purpose
  • Date/Period constructed
  • Performance
  • Style
  • Associated persons
  • ETC. . .

45
Primer from Vickery (1960, 1966).
  • Vickery (1960, 1966), outlined seven basic steps
    in the creation of an FC and this process shows
    the interplay of FA and FC
  • (1) Define the subject field This is
    accomplished by first asking, what entities are
    of interest to the user group, what aspects of
    those entities are of interest. (Vickery, 1966,
    p.11) (FA)
  • (2) Formulate facets Vickery recommends
    examination of a representative range of material
    that directly expresses the interests of the user
    group reports, papers, comprehensive texts,
    glossaries, subject heading lists etc. This
    provides a list of candidate terms to use. (FA)
  • Sort these terms into homogeneous groups known as
    facets.
  • Each group is derived by taking each term and
    defining it with respect to the terms that are
    the center of interest in the classification.
    (Vickery, 1966, p.45).
  • (3) Structure each facet Each facet is amplified
    and structured. It is helpful at this stage to
    construct a hierarchical order for the terms
    collected within each facet. Even if no
    well-developed hierarchy results, the procedure
    helps to coalesce synonyms, eliminate terms that
    are collated with the wrong facet, and to
    indicate gaps in the system. (FA/ preliminary
    construction FC)
  • (4) Create scope notes. These notes will define
    terms that are unclear and provide instructions
    to users and indexers as to the meaning and use
    of each facet. (FC)
  • (5) Arrangements of facets decide how the facets
    are to be arranged among themselves. This will
    depend on the use For post-coordinate use (as a
    thesaurus), arrange in categories. For a
    pre-coordinate system like a catalog, more
    thought must be given to the sequence of facets
    in the schedule and placing them in citation
    order. The order chosen should be that which is
    thought to be of must use to the person using the
    system. (FA/FC)
  • (6) Create notation. Vickery devotes ten pages to
    the construction of notation, or call numbers for
    materials in a system classified using FC. This
    topic has been omitted from this primer, as none
    of the individuals or websites examined in the
    present study use any obvious notational devices.
    (FA/FC)
  • (7) Fitting a notation This is the final result
    of FA, in addition to a schedule of terms and one
    of the ways in which the full sequence of
    structured facets may be displayed (by sorting
    according to notation see suggestions for
    thesaurus in step 5 for alternate arrangements).
    This arrangement should display the structure of
    the subject field helpfully. (FA/FC)

46
Guiding Principles
  • Postulates
  • Five fundamental categories PMEST
  • Three planes of work Idea Verbal Notational
  • Canons
  • Parsimony
  • Symmetry
  • 5 laws of LS (Books are for use) (Books are for
    all) (Every book its reader) (Save the time of
    the reader) (A library is a growing organism).
  • Others
  • Consistent sequence
  • Currency
  • Enumeration
  • Context
  • Reticence
  • Relativity
  • Mnemonics
  • Viewpoint
  • Classics
  • Distinctiveness

47
FAST in Cyberspace
  • Epicurious http//www.epicurious.com
  • Wine.com http//www.wine.com
  • Siderean software http//www.siderean.com/
  • Endeca software http//endeca.com/
  • Adiuri systems http//www.adiuri.com/

48
Illustration of faceted and hierarchical website
structures
  • Rosenfeld, L. Morville, P. (2002). Information
    architecture for the World Wide Web. Cambridge,
    MA OReill. P. 205.

49
Peter Van Dijcks Guide to Ease (blog) Comments
on the Bliss Classification Association
Bibliographic Classification Guide. 10
October, 2002. http//www.poorbuthappy.com/ease/ar
chives/001603.html
  • The standard categories recognized in
    classical facet analysis are Thing kind
    part property material process operation
    patient product by product agent space
    time. ltBCA websitegt
  • Why do these people try to specify what facets
    are useful? Surely if I want to classify my
    content using a facet called How impressed I was
    with this content when I first saw it then that
    is a perfectly valid facet? This underlying
    assumption that there are generic or correct
    ways of categorizing the world is just, well,
    wrong. The world doesnt have an inherent
    classification that we just have to discover. All
    classification gets its meaning from the people
    using it, not from the objects being classified.

50
Travis Wilson (creator of FacetMap) Thread
Special vs. General Schemes Date Wed, 12 Mar
2003 091411 0000 http//article.gmane.org/gmane
.comp.infodesign.facetedclassification/170/matchf
acet
  • At the other extreme, the universal qualities
    espoused by Ranganathan and others just don't
    apply to many resources that deserve
    classification. The "space" facet only works in
    the context of resources that have physical
    incarnations in a spatial location perhaps this
    is obvious, but it confirms that there is indeed
    a context -- one that many data-based resources
    don't share.
  • In the end, the whole idea of a set of general
    facets as a "framework for facets typical of each
    discipline" simply limits the number of
    disciplines that can use FC (to those that fit
    within the framework). Ranganathan was really not
    concerned with disciplines outside of biology. I
    don't think that kind of limitation is
    appropriate for faceted classification in
    general, and I hope we don't impose it.

51
Planes of work
  • Idea The work of FA takes place in the Idea
    plane, where an entity is analyzed into component
    parts
  • Verbal FA continues here as further sorting and
    transformation of the selected categories/facets
    or terms occur.
  • Notational work of FC -- translating selected
    terms into notation.

52
((SHOP152 x.1 http//www.camerahouse.com.au/ ))
53
((BA / ADV))
((SHOP152 x.1 http//www.camerahouse.com.au/ ))
  • WHATS HOT
  • PRODUCTS
  • NEAREST STORE
  • IMAGE SOLUTIONS
  • HINTS TIPS
  • GLOSSARY
  • LATEST NEWS
  • LINKS
  • CONTACT US
  • PRINT ONLINE
  • PERISHER BLUE
  • ((navigation))

Search Advanced search
Choose a category
2, 3
cameras
  • Browse
  • gtSelect a Brand
  • gtSelect a Category
  • gtEnter a Model Number

((BR))
telescopes
binoculars
printers
facets
scanners
((text))
1
54
Product search (label is basic on some pages)
((BA))
((SHOP152 x.2a http//www.camerahouse.com.au/produ
cts/ProductSearch.aspx))
3
facets
Search Advanced search
  • Type in a product name
  • Select a product category
  • Select a product brand

Accessories Batteries Battery Chargers /
Adapters Burners Camera Bags / Cases
Camera Film Entertainment Accessories
Flashguns General Accessories Lenses
Memory Cards ... Binoculars Compact Binoculars
Compact Porro Prism Compact Zoom Standard
and Water Proof Prism Standard Porro Prism
Zoom Binoculars Zoom Porro Prism ... Cameras
APS Compacts Digital Digital SLR's SLR
Video ... Entertainment Mobile Phones
Printers BubbleJet / InkJet Laser
Multifunction Photo ... Scanners Film
Flatbed ... Telescopes Astronomical/Computer
Controlled Spotting Scopes Telescopes
Standard ...
((I))
Selection of category populates brand choices

((EMB))
((EMB))
2
55
Product advanced search ((ADV))
SHOP 152 x.3 http//www.camerahouse.com.au/product
s/ProductAdvancedSearch.aspx
facets
Search Advanced search
  • Type in a product name
  • Specification
  • Specification value

Accessories Batteries Battery Chargers /
Adapters Burners Camera Bags / Cases
Camera Film Entertainment Accessories
Flashguns General Accessories Lenses
Memory Cards ... Binoculars Compact Binoculars
Compact Porro Prism Compact Zoom Standard
and Water Proof Prism Standard Porro Prism
Zoom Binoculars Zoom Porro Prism ... Cameras
APS Compacts Digital Digital SLR's SLR
Video ... Entertainment Mobile Phones
Printers BubbleJet / InkJet Laser
Multifunction Photo ... Scanners Film
Flatbed ... Telescopes Astronomical/Computer
Controlled Spotting Scopes Telescopes
Standard ...
((I))
Selection of specification populates value
choices
((EMB))
((EMB))
3
56
((BUS169 x.1 http//www.bettycrocker.com ))
57
((BUS169 x.1 http//www.bettycrocker.com ))
3
((BR))
Catalog Cookbooks News Coupons
Meal ideas Baking Products Browse recipes
Search recipes ((BA))
2
((EMB))

Login My acct Recipe box Grocery list


1

  • ((Text))
  • ((Text))

((nav bar))
((nav bar))
  • ((Text))

58
((BUS169 x.2 http//www.bettycrocker.com/recipes/b
rowse/Browse_Recipes_by_Category))
3
Catalog Cookbooks News Coupons
Meal ideas Baking Products Browse recipes
Search recipes ((BA))
Login My acct Recipe box Grocery list
((EMB))
  • Browse online recipes by category
  • Betty Crocker Products Appetizers Snacks
    Main Dish Main Dish (Lunch) Main Dish
    (Breakfast/Brunch) Side Dish Breads
    Accompaniments Desserts Beverages Crafts
    Decorations

((Text)) Whats happening ((nav links))
((Text))
((BR2))
facets
((nav links)) popular recipe searches
2
59
((BUS169 x.3 http//www.bettycrocker.com/recipes/s
earch/search_results.asp ))
Catalog Cookbooks News Coupons
Meal ideas Baking Products Browse recipes
Search recipes ((BA))
((EMB))

Login My acct Recipe box Grocery list
  • ((Text))
  • Refine your search results
  • 30 Min Low Fat One
    Dish Slow
  • or less
    Cooker
  • facets GOgt
  • ((Text-and links results))

3
60
Search (SHOP77)
(a) Basic (BA) see search link and box below.
(b) Advanced (ADV) search boxes
61
Navigation (REF107)
62
Embedded (REF41)
63
Browse (BUS169)
64
Sitemap (SHOP40)
65
Integrated (SOC24)
66
Background Traditional FAST
Application Example Purpose
Special subject schemes (CRG) English Electric Scheme (1958) British Catalogue of Music (1960) Classification of Enterprise Activities (1966) From practice to theory (Richmond, 1988)
Cranfield Tests Faceted Scheme for Aeronautics (Cleverdon, 1962) American Meteorological Society (Freeman and Atherton, 1969) FAST in early IR system testing
Audacious Test of UDC as mechanized searching language (Atherton and Freeman, 1967, 1968) FAST in computerized indexing and retrieval
Thesaurofacet Classification and controlled vocabulary for sci/tech (Aitchison, Gomersall and Ireland, 1969)
PRECIS POPSI PREserved Content Index System (Austin, 1974) Postulate-based Permuted Term Indexing (Bhattacharyya, 1979) Generation of subject indexing terms and semantic relations
67
Resources cited Resources cited
7 6 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 FC discussion list (2002) http//www.poorbuthappy.com/fcd/ Hearsts publications, various,http//www.sims.berkeley.edu/hearst/ Ranganathan, Prolegomena (1967) (2002) Information Architecture for the World Wide Web (2002) ASIST SIG/IA (2000) list, http//www.info-arch.org/lists/sigia-l/index.php Steve Pollitt View-Based Systems, publications, various http//www.view-based-systems.com/background.asp Svenonius (2000). Intellectual Foundation of Information Organization. AIFIA.org (2002). (now IAI) http//iainstitute.org/ Facetmap.com (2002) http//facetmap.com/Google Ranganathan, Colon Classification (6th and 7th ed.) Classification Research Group (various publications in 1960s, England)
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Endeca implementation of FACETS
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Sample in comparative tables
Sites per Category (A) Sites per Category (A) Integrated sites within category (B) Integrated sites within category (B) I sites with facets (F) within category (C) I sites with facets (F) within category (C)

REF 28 14 8/28 28.6 2/8 25
SOC 50 25 10/50 20 6/10 60
SHOP 57 28.5 24/57 42 10/24 41.6
BUS 65 32.5 23/65 35 6/23 26.1
Totals n200 n200 n65/200 32.5 n65/200 32.5 n24/65 36.9 /200 12 n24/65 36.9 /200 12
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