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GCSE Revision

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GCSE Revision URBAN Challenge yourself mailto:http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/urban_environments/urbanisation_medcs_rev1.shtml – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GCSE Revision


1
GCSE Revision
  • URBAN
  • Challenge yourself
  • mailtohttp//www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/g
    eography/urban_environments/urbanisation_medcs_rev
    1.shtml

2
Urbanisationdefine and describe where it is
happening..
  • What is it and where is it happening?
  • THE INCREASE in the proportion of people living
    in an urban area town and city.
  • Over half the worlds pop lives in towns and
    cities.
  • It increased first in MEDC now most rapidly in
    LEDCs.
  • Over 80 in Uk live in urban area.
  • Compared with 25 in Bangladesh.
  • MOST urbanisation today is in LEDCs a fast pace.

3
Why urban areas are growing so rapidly. 2
reasons
  • Natural Increase young people move .to find
    workhave children in the cities.Better health
    care people live longer.
  • Rural urban migration people move from
    countryside for PUSH and PUL reasons..
  • GIVE ME 4 of each..

4
PUSH or PULL????
  • PUSH
  • Shortage of services e.g. schools,access to water
    and power.
  • Hazards earthquakes and volc risk.
  • Access to better health care
  • PULL
  • Believe there will be a better standard of living
    in the city.
  • More jobs
  • Industry
  • Lack of food famine
  • War
  • DONT forget reasons were different in MEDCs
    such as.

5
Parts of a city in each zone write down 3
things you would see on a photo or OS map.
CBD INNER CITY
SUBURBS RURAL _ URBAN FRINGE
6
Parts of a city in each zone write down 3
things you would see on a photo or OS map.
CBD Major shopping outlets Offices Bus / train station Tall high rise Transport routes meet INNER CITY Surrounds CBD Poor quality terraced housing Older industry Run down/ deprived Newer housing and ind some redevelopment
SUBURBS Housing semi det and detatched Land cheaper garage spaces Gardens Nice environment pollution free RURAL URBANFRINGE Edge of city Where city meets fields Fewer larger houses Golf courses Parks
7
New housing BROWN or GREENFIELD??
BROWN FIELD ADV GREENFIELD ADV
DISADV DISADV
8
Urban issues..
  • SHORTAGE of housing
  • RUN down CBDs threat from out of town M Hall
  • TRAFFIC pollution and congestion
  • ETHNIC segregation
  • Explain each to your partner .before sharing.

9
SOLVING HOUSING CRISIS
  1. Urban renewal schemes 1990s invest new
    housing Patio est Swinton Fitzwilliam Est - new
    Inner City dev London Docklands and Lower Don
    Meadowhall Sheff.
  2. NEW Towns for overspill Milton Keynes 1970s
    Londoners.
  3. RELOCATION incentives Bedroom tax down size
    fewer bedrooms.

10
SOLVING CBDs Rotherham and Sheffield
  • Pedestrianised All Saints Sq safer nicer
    seats fountains.
  • Better transport links and parking Rotherham
    New Rail and Bus Station
  • Converting old buildings into shops restaurants
    and museums Old Town Hall
  • Improve public areas parks and squares Clifton
    and All Saints
  • Special markets at Christmas
  • Pedestrianised The Moor
  • Better transport links and parking Sheffield
    New Rail and Bus Station
  • Converting old buildings into shops restaurants
    and museums The Lyceum theatre area
  • Improve public areas parks and squares Fargate
    and The Moor
  • Special markets at Christmas

11
Transport transport transport .
  • PROBLEMS
  • More cars
  • More air pollution
  • Affects health asthma
  • More road accidents Damage to buildings from air
    pollution
  • Traffic jams congestion time wasted esp for
    lorries
  • SOLUTIONS
  • Improve public transport so people will leave
    car at home
  • Inc car parking charges people leave cars at
    home
  • Bus lanes priority
  • Pedestrianise exclude car physically improve
    air more attractive for shoppers.

12
MULTI CULTURAL issues
  • WHY SEGREGATED?
  • Prefer to live near others of same race safety
    in numbers
  • Speak same language same food supermarkets
    same religion mosque
  • All they can afford
  • STRATEGIES to help..
  • Give access to all print info leaflets
    different languages
  • Improve involvement get community leaders into
    decision making groups
  • Provide inerpreters in hosp and police stations
  • Suitable services same sex doctors single sex
    swimming etc

13
LECDS SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS .. Issues
  1. Built illegally out of waste materials
  2. Dont own land can be bulldozed
  3. Lack of basic services water sewerage and
    electricity.
  4. Lack of medical help
  5. Poverty crime
  6. Lack of formal work informal sector
  7. Long hours little pay
  8. Lower life expectancy
  9. Strong community spirit Rocinha Rio de Janeiro
    Brazil

14
Ways to improve .
  • SELF HELP Gov and locals work together to
    improve conditions.Gov supplies materials and
    locals build their own homes develops skills
    saves money includes water , elec and sewers.
  • 2. SITE and SERVICE People pay small rent
    borrow money, build or improve housing on their
    plot. Rent provides money for basic services
    .Dandora Nairobi.
  • 3. LOCAL AUTHORITY housing schemes Funded by
    L A. Improve temporary accommodation built by
    squatters Rio Brazil Favela Bairro project
    improve life of residents .

15
CASE STUDY Favela Bairro Rio de Janeiro Brazil.
  • FAVELA BAIRRO PROJECT Rio de janeiro Brazil.
  • Located in SE Brazil
  • 600 squatter settlements over 1 mill people.
  • Started in 1995 successful
  • 253, 000 people in 73 favelas helped
  • 40 of money from Local authority.
  • Rest fm Inter American Development Bank
  • SOCIAL, ECONOMIC and ENVIRONMENTAL improvements.
  • SOCIAL
  • Day care centres
  • After school clubs so parents can work
  • Adult classes improve literacy job prospects
  • Services to help drug and alcohol addicts
  • ECONOMIC
  • Residents can apply to LEGALLY own home
  • TRAINING scheme for new skills improve job
    prospects
  • ENVIRONMENTAL
  • Replace wooden buildings with brick
  • Remove homes on dangerous steep slopes

16
Urbanisation Environmental issues
  • INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION
  • Cities create waste
  • Damage health and environment
  • Toxic?
  • Air pollution from cars exhaust and factories.
  • Water pollution pollutants and sewage gets into
    rivers - health problems and wildlife.
  • WASTE DISPOSAL
  • Occurs in LEDCs and MEDCs .
  • In poor countries lack of money to waste dumped
    including toxic waste.
  • Dont have technology and infrastructure.- poor
    roads and lorries.
  • Problem is huge.
  • In MEDCs land fill sites getting full
    incinerators ??
  • AIR and WATER POLLUTION - EFFECTS
  • AIR
    WATER
  • Acid rain Kills fish
  • Damages buildings Disrupts food
    chains
  • HEALTH problems Harmful chemicals
  • Head aches and bronchitis
    Contaminated
  • Destroy ozone sewage spreads
    diseases e.g typhoid

17
Sustainable Cities
  • Sustainable means maintaining standard of
    living without harming the environment for future
    generations. Will not use up the resources.
  • WHY Do we need to become more sustainable ?
  • Maintain standard of living
  • Conserve resources for future
  • Reduce effect on climate change- environmental
    damage
  • Difficult with large numbers in cities
  • SCHEMES to reduce waste.
  • Recycle
  • Less waste
  • Reduce landfill
  • Safe disposal of toxic waste prevent air and
    water pollution
  • CONSERVE ENVIRONMENT and buildings
  • Restore historic buildings
  • Conserve cobble stones e.g. Shambles York
  • Protect or leave alone
  • BUILD on BROWNFIELD sites
  • Derelict areas
  • Saves virgin Greenfield sites
  • Looks nicer than derelict land

18
Case Study - Curitaba Brazil
  • SUSTAINABLE CITY case study Curitaba Brazil
  • Located in S Brazil 1.8 mill people
  • Improve environment reduce waste
  • 600 mill every year.
  • ways forward
  • A - REDUCING CAR USE
  • Good bus system 1.4 mill passengers per day
  • Express bus system
  • Bus only lanes
  • Cheap fares
  • 200 km cycle routes
  • Bus and bike system
  • B OPEN SPACES and PARKS
  • Inc from 0.5 m per person to m per person in
    1990
  • 1000 parks
  • Areas were prone to flooding
  • 1.5 mill trees planted
  • Builders got tax breaks to put I parks
  • 99 said nicer place to live
  • C- Good recycling
  • 70 rubbish recycled
  • Saves 1200 trees per day
  • Residents given bus tickets for waste recycling
  • GREAT success??
  • Reduced use of cars
  • Less pollution
  • Fewer accidents
  • Open spaces
  • Reduced landfill
  • 99 said nicer place to live
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