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System Software


System Software BIOS Basic Input Output System A kind of ROM Execute routines Checking RAM, detecting hard disk, floppy disk, CDROM, etc Cold Boot Restart the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: System Software

System Software
  • Basic Input Output System
  • A kind of ROM
  • Execute routines Checking RAM, detecting hard
    disk, floppy disk, CDROM, etc

Cold Boot
  • Restart the system
  • Press the reset button, power on the system
  • Run the routines in BIOS
  • Load the Operating System (OS) to RAM
  • Pass the control to OS if found
  • An error message Non-system disk will be
    displayed if OS cannot be found in hard disk,
    floppy or CDROM.

Warm Boot
  • Another way to restart the system
  • Press the Ctrl-Alt-Del keys, no need to power on
    or reset the system
  • Do not need to run the BIOS routines
  • Some start up processes have to be reloaded
  • Reset the system resources such as RAM
  • Usually needed when running out of memory, system
    is unstable or after installation of new
    application software

Operating System
  • Act as the interface between Users(Application
    software) and hardware
  • Provide an environment for the user to develop
    and execute program without knowing the details
    of hardware
  • User do not need to control the hardware
    directly, just call the routines in OS
  • Such as displaying text on screen, reading
    characters from keyboard, getting the position of

Functions of OS
  • Execution of program (Process management)
  • Memory management
  • File management (File read/write)
  • Input and Output Devices Control
  • Error handling
  • Scheduling of jobs
  • Allocate the system resources

Examples of OS
  • DOS Disk Operating System
  • Windows family such as XP, 2000, NT, CE
  • Linux
  • Unix
  • Mac OS
  • IBM OS/2

DOS (1)
  • A command line interpreter
  • All the commands recognized are stored in the
    file COMMAND.COM
  • Can execute files with file extension .com, .exe
    and .bat
  • Can access 1MB memory by default

DOS (2) memory management
  • In order to run memory above 1MB, need extended
    memory or expanded memory
  • To use extended memory (XMS), need to install
    HIMEM.SYS in the CONFIG.SYS file
  • To use expanded memory (EMS), need to install
    EMM386.EXE in the CONFIG.SYS file

DOS (3) - Interrupt
  • Interrupt a signal to tell the CPU to stop the
    current process, handle the outside request
    first, resume the process after fulfilling the
    request. E.g. saving a file to disk, printing a
    file, usually I/O request
  • Interrupt Vector Table located in memory, use
    to store the addresses of the Interrupt Handlers.
  • Interrupt Handler programs to handle the

DOS (4) File Management
  • File Allocation Table (FAT)
  • Similar to a content page of a book
  • Store the physical location(addresses) of files
    and directories in disk
  • The disk become useless if FAT is corrupted,
    files stored cannot be retrieved
  • The disk need to format again but all the files
    will be erased

DOS (4) - continue
  • DOS format disk to tracks and sectors
  • Sectors are grouped to a logical unit, clusters
  • The size of cluster varies with the size of hard
  • File names are in 8.3 format. 8 for file name, 3
    for file extension (see p.29).
  • e.g.

DOS (5) adding new hardware
  • Device driver programs are needed whenever a new
    hardware is installed e.g. a printer driver, a
    scanner driver, a VGA driver
  • The OS does not support the installation of new
  • The new hardware have to configure manually

Windows (1)
  • Members include, windows 3.0, 3.1, 3.11, 95, 98,
    NT, Me, 2000, XP
  • Windows 98, Me, XP home edition are for personal
  • Windows NT workstation, Windows 2000
    professional, XP professional are for business
  • Windows NT server, 2000 server and XP server are
    for server purpose

Windows (2)
  • Graphical User Interface (GUI)
  • Multitasking can execute many programs at the
    same time. It divides the CPU time into small
    units called time-slices and allocates to
    different programs.
  • Multi-user - server versions such as NT and 2000
    can support multi-user processing. The time-slice
    technology is used to share the CPU time between
    different users. It is called Time-Sharing
    operating mode.

Windows (3) memory management
  • It use virtual memory concept.
  • Apart from the on-board memory RAM, it can use
    the free space on hard disk as the virtual
    memory, therefore applications that need a lot of
    system memory can be run at the same time.

Windows (4) File system
  • It can use FAT32, FAT16 and NTFS filing system
  • FAT16 is used for backward compatibility with DOS
  • FAT32 is used for windows 95 and 98
  • NTFS is used for windows NT, 2000 and XP, which
    is more secure and efficient than FAT filing

Windows (5) Adding new hardware
  • Support plug-n-play installation
  • When adding new hardware, common devices can be
    detected, drivers are loaded automatically
  • No need to configure the hardware manually

  • Derived from UNIX
  • Command line interface
  • Can install X-windows for GUI interface, two
    common shells are KDE and Gnome
  • Commonly used in Servers, because of built-in
    network support, security, stability and minimal
    hardware requirement

Operation with file system-in windows
  • Using Window Explorer a hierarchical file
  • Creating and moving directories (folders)
  • Copying, moving, renaming and deleting files
  • Allow long filenames up to 255 characters
  • Support file extensions, which can associate the
    corresponding application

File Attributes
  • Read Only file cannot be modified
  • Hidden file name does not display
  • Archive for backup purpose
  • System system file, vital for the system,
    usually hidden
  • To change the file attributes go to Options,
    View menu

Batch file
  • A text file with .bat extension
  • Consists of a sequence of commands or programs to
    be executed one by one when the batch file is
  • Usually run in DOS mode
  • Refer to p.29 and p.58 for details

DOS commands (1)
  • dir listing files in current directory
  • dir/w listing files in wide format
  • dir/p listing files by page
  • md x make directory x
  • rd x remove directory x
  • cd x change to the directory x
  • cd .. change to the parent directory
  • copy f1 f2 copy f1 to f2
  • del f1 delete file f1
  • cls clear the screen

DOS Commands (2)
  • echo lttextgt display the text on screen
  • echo on display the command it executes on
  • echo off do not display the commands it
  • _at_echo off suppress the display of first command
    echo off

DOS commands (3)
  • chkdsk C - check error for drive C
  • format A - format the disk in drive A
  • xcopy s d copy all files in source directory to
    destination directory
  • deltree x remove all contents under the
    directory x

System Utility Programs
  • Backup utility for backup and restore files
  • Notepad for editing text
  • WordPad for editing text with some formatting
  • Calculator
  • Paint for drawing bitmap graphics
  • Disk defragmenter to rearrange the files in
    hard disk, to reduce the access time
  • ScanDisk to scan the hard disk for errors,
    repair for bad sectors

Installation of System Software
  • Check the hardware requirement
  • Create a boot disk with CDROM driver if the
    system software is stored in CD
  • Phases in installation
  • Format the hard disk
  • Copy files from CD-ROM, to speed up the process
  • Decompress the files in correct folders
  • Detection of hardware and installation of drivers
  • Registration of software and connection to
    Internet for more support (e.g. on-line user