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Chapter 3 Mastering Editors

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Chapter 3 Mastering Editors Guide To UNIX Using Linux Fourth Edition Chapter 3 (40 s) * CTEC 110 One way to search in Emacs is to: Press Ctrl+s Entering string ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3 Mastering Editors


1
Chapter 3 Mastering Editors
Guide To UNIX Using Linux Fourth Edition
2
Objectives
  • Explain the basics of UNIX/Linux files, including
    ASCII, binary, and executable files
  • Understand the types of editors
  • Create and edit files using the vi editor
  • Create and edit files using the Emacs editor

3
Understanding UNIX/Linux Files
  • Almost everything you create in UNIX/Linux is
    stored in a file
  • Bit binary digit
  • In one of two states 0 or 1
  • Machine language exclusive use of 0s and 1s as a
    way to communicate with computer
  • Used by earliest programmers

4
ASCII Text Files
  • Byte (binary term) string of eight bits
  • A byte can be configured into fixed patterns of
    bits
  • ASCII American Standard Code for Information
    Interchange
  • 256 different characters
  • Unicode
  • Supports up to 65,536 characters
  • Text files contain nothing but printable
    characters
  • Binary files contain nonprintable characters
  • Example machine instructions

5
Look at Page 113
6
Binary Files
  • Some things cannot be represented with ASCII
    codes
  • Binary files are used instead
  • Example graphic files include bit patterns
  • Bitmap made of rows and columns of dots

7
Executable Program Files
  • Text files containing program code are compiled
    into machine-readable language
  • Scripts are files containing commands
  • Typically interpreted, not compiled
  • Executables compiled and interpreted files that
    can be run

8
Using Editors
  • Editor program for creating and modifying files
    containing source code, text, data, memos, etc.
  • Text editor a simplified word-processing program
  • Used to create and edit documents
  • Two text editors normally included in UNIX/Linux
    are screen editors
  • vi
  • Emacs
  • Line editor works with one line (or group of
    lines) at a time

9
Using the vi Editor
  • vi is a visual editor
  • vi is also a modal editor
  • Supports three modes
  • Insert mode
  • Accessed by typing i
  • Command mode
  • Accessed by typing Esc
  • Extended (ex) command set mode
  • Accessed by typing in command mode
  • Download the vi editor document on Canvas for
    reference

10
Creating a New File in the vi Editor
11
Inserting Text
  • When you start vi, you are in command mode
  • To insert text in your file, switch to insert
    mode
  • Use i (insert) command
  • To return to command mode, press Esc

12
Repeating a Change
  • Use a period (.) to repeat the most recent change
    you made
  • Repeat command
  • Works in command mode

13
Moving the Cursor
  • To move cursor use arrow keys (command/insert
    mode) or (in command mode) use

14
Deleting Text
  • Deletion commands available (command mode)
  • dd is used for cutting text
  • Use yank (yy) command for copying text

15
Undoing a Command
  • Type u to use the undo command
  • Example
  • If you delete a few lines from a file by mistake,
    type u to restore the text

16
Searching for a Pattern
  • To search forward for a pattern of characters
  • Type a forward slash (/)
  • Type the pattern you are seeking
  • Press Enter
  • Examples /\lttop, /s..n, /passt, /!

17
Searching and Replacing
  • Screen-oriented commands execute at the location
    of the cursor
  • Line-oriented commands require you to specify an
    exact location (an address) for the operation
  • Preceded by a colon ()
  • Operate in ex mode
  • Used for commands that perform more than one
    action
  • Example searching and replacing
  • 1,s/insure/ensure/g

18
Saving a File and Exiting vi
  • To save file without exiting, use w
  • To save and exit, use wq, x, ZZ
  • (Do this in command mode)

19
Adding Text from Another File
  • To copy entire contents of one file into another
    file
  • Use vi to edit the file you would like to copy
    into
  • Use the command r filename
  • filename is the name of the file that contains
    the information you want to copy

20
Leaving vi Temporarily
  • To launch a shell or execute other commands from
    within vi, use !
  • Example
  • !cal
  • To run several command-line commands in a
    different shell without closing vi session
  • Use Ctrlz to display the command line
  • Type fg to go back to vi

21
Leaving vi Temporarily (continued)
22
Changing Your Display While Editing
  • To turn on line numbering
  • set number
  • To delete lines 4 through 6 (ex mode)
  • 4,6d

23
Copying or Cutting and Pasting
  • The command yy copies (yanks) a specified number
    of lines
  • To cut the lines, use dd
  • Lines are placed in clipboard
  • Use p to paste the clipboard contents

24
Printing Text Files
  • To print a file, use the lpr (line print) shell
    command
  • Example
  • !lpr -P lp2 accounts

25
Canceling an Editing Session
  • Canceling an editing session will discard all the
    changes you have made
  • Or, save changes you made since last using w
  • Saves file without exiting vi

26
Getting Help in vi
  • Use the help command
  • help
  • Other alternatives
  • man vi
  • From the command line
  • !man vi
  • From vi (command mode)

27
Using the Emacs Editor
  • Emacs is a popular UNIX/Linux text editor
  • Not modal
  • More complex than vi
  • More consistent than vi
  • Sophisticated macro language
  • Macro set of commands that automates a complex
    task
  • Uses read mail, edit contents of directories,
    etc.
  • Powerful command syntax
  • Extensible

28
Using the Emacs Editor (continued)
29
Using the Emacs Editor (continued)
30
Creating a New File in Emacs
31
Navigating in Emacs
  • To create a new file emacs filename
  • To navigate in the file, use the cursor movement
    keys or Ctrl/Alt key combinations
  • Example Altf
  • To save your work
  • Use File menu
  • Use the save icon
  • Press Ctrlx, Ctrls
  • To exit use menu, icon, or Ctrlx, Ctrlc

32
Deleting Information
  • Del or Backspace keys delete individual
    characters
  • Ctrlk deletes to the end of a line
  • To undo a deletion, use Ctrlx, u
  • Repeatedly undoes each deletion

33
Copying, Cutting, and Pasting Text
  • To Copy-Paste or Cut-Paste
  • Mark the text
  • Position cursor at the beginning, and
    CtrlSpacebar
  • Navigate to the end of the text you want to
    include
  • Altw copies the text
  • Ctrlw cuts the text
  • To paste, move to where you want to place the
    text
  • Ctrly (the yank command)

34
Searching in Emacs
  • One way to search in Emacs is to
  • Press Ctrls
  • Entering string to find (on status line)
  • Pressing Ctrls repeatedly to find each
    occurrence
  • Use Ctrlr to search backward
  • Other alternatives
  • Use search forward for a string icon
  • On the menu Edit ? Search ? Search

35
Reformatting a File
  • Altq turns on word wrap feature
  • Lines automatically wrap around from one line to
    the next

36
Getting Help in Emacs
  • Emacs comes with extensive documentation and a
    tutorial
  • Tutorial is useful for getting up to speed
    quickly
  • Click Help menu ? Emacs Tutorial
  • Or (in most versions), type Ctrlh and then type
    t
  • To view general Emacs documentation
  • Ctrlh (press one or two times)
  • Or, man emacs at command line

37
Summary
  • Bytes computer characters (a series of bits)
    stored using numeric codes
  • The vi editor is popular among UNIX/Linux users
  • Three modes insert (i), command (Esc), and ex
    (Esc )
  • With vi, you edit a copy of the file placed in
    memory
  • File is not altered until you save it on disk
  • Emacs is a popular alternative to vi
  • Supports powerful command syntax and is
    extensible
  • Insert text simply by typing
  • Sophisticated macro language

38
Command Summary
39
Command Summary (continued)
40
Chapter 3 Unix Exercises
  • Work through Hands-on Projects at end of
    chapter 3
  • Canvas Review Questions
  • (Do not do questions 22,23,24 and 25)
  • Read chapter 4 before next class session
  • Quiz 3 Unix
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