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Title: Becoming%20a%20World%20Power


1
Becoming a World Power Unit 23 (1876-1916)
American Nation Textbook Pages 614-639
President Theodore Roosevelt
Powerpoint by Mr. Zindman
The Panama Canal
2
1. A Pacific Empire
The United States increased its role in world
affairs throughout the second half of the
nineteenth century. As the nation became an
industrial and commercial power, American leaders
sought new trade opportunities in Asia, Alaska,
and Hawaii. Many other overseas territories came
under United States control as well.
As a result of the Spanish American War of 1898,
the United States acquired an overseas empire.
The United States created an era of imperialism
in the Caribbean and Pacific. After the war, the
United States played an increasing role in the
affairs of Latin America. As a result, many Latin
Americans began to view the United States with
distrust and anger.
Spanish American War
Latin Americans today
3
Expansionism
Isolationism
Across the Pacific
In his farewell address, as you recall, George
Washington had advised the nation to steer clear
of permanent alliances. He urged Americans to
have as little possible connections with our
foreign nations. This policy was called
isolationism, or having to little to do with the
political affairs of other nations.
Earlier In his career George Washington followed
a policy of expansionism, or extending its
national boundaries. Americans further pressed
further westward to settle.
4
The Purchase of Alaska
In the 1860s the Secretary of the State, William
Seward wanted the United States to dominate trade
in the Pacific in 1867, he persuaded Congress to
annex the Midway Island. In this way the island
became part of the United States. Russia in the
1800s owned Alaska. Seward was playing a card
game with the Czar and he offered to sell and
Alaska for 7.2 million dollars to the United
States. The land cost of 2 per acre. Most
Americans called this purchase Sewards Folly.
They called this land the icebox.
5
Opening Trade with Japan
Japan was a small island nation. Fearing
outsiders, the Japanese had cut themselves off
from the world in the 1600s. American merchants
wanted to open Japan to trade. They also wanted
the Japanese to help shipwrecked sailors who
washed up on their shores. President Millard
Fillmore sent Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan in
the early 1850s. Paris presented Japanese
officials with a letter from President Fillmore.
In it, the President asked Japanese to open
trading relations with the United States. Perry
returned in one year with some warships and a
show of power. The Japanese emperor signed the
Treaty of Kanagawa. The treaty accepted American
demands to help shipwrecks sailors. It also
opened Japanese ports for trade.
Commodore Matthew Perry
6
The Age of Imperialism
The period between 1870 and 1914 has often been
called the Age of Imperialism. Imperialism is the
policy of powerful countries seeking to control
the economic and political affairs of weaker
countries or regions. During this period the
United States and Japan became the imperial
powers. One reason for the growth of imperialism
is because industrial nations of Europe want to
raw materials from Africa and Asia. Imperialism
had other causes. Many Europeans believe they had
a duty to spread their religion and culture to
people to whom they consider to be less civilized.
7
American factories turned out huge amounts of
steel and other goods. The nation was growing
rapidly, and arguments in favor of expansion held
great appeal. Expansionists also argued that the
Americans had a right and a duty to bring western
culture to the uncivilized peoples of the world.
Other expansionists stressed the need to offset
the vanishing frontier by gaining European land.
Click on the pictures to learn more about a
Democracy
8
Captain Alfred Mahan, of the United States Navy,
argued that the United States needed a larger
navy to protect American merchant ships. A bigger
navy would need more bases throughout the world.
Congress had begun to enlarge the modernized the
navy. New steam hulled ships were being built.
The navy ships were called the Great White Fleet
because they were painted white.
9
The United States took part of the island of
Samoa. The people of Samoa had little say in the
matter. The United States demonstrated they have
power in the lands of the Pacific Ocean. Soon
afterwards the Americans took the land called
Hawaii from the King Kalakaua. When he died his
sister, Liliuokalani came to the throne. She
resented the Americans that settled in Hawaii.
Faced with American guns, Liliuokalani give up
her throne. She wrote a protest to the United
States government.
10
By acquiring Hawaii and Samoa, the United States
gained important footholds in the Pacific.
Rivalry among the industrial nations was very
dominant. China had once been the most advanced
empire .in the world, however, years of civil war
weakened the empire. In addition, China failed to
industrialize as other nations have in the 1800s.
Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan
carved spheres of influence in China.
A sphere of influence is an area, usually near
seaport and run by a nation. The sphere had
special trading privileges.
11
2. War With Spain
In 1868, the Cuban people rebelled against
Spanish rule. The revolution was crushed. Lola
Rodriguez de Tio wrote patriotic poetry in
support of Cuban independence movement. The
rebels fought against Spanish rule with a growing
concern. Americans invested more than 50 million
in the island of Cuba. American trade with Cuba
was worth about 100,000,000.00 a year.
Opinion split over whether the United States
should intervene in Cuba. Hearst used yellow
journalism, or sensational stories that were
often biased or untrue. Hearst said, you supply
the pictures we will supply the war.
12
In 1898, fighting broke out in Havana, the Cuban
capital. President McKinley sent the battleship
Maine to Havana to protect the American citizens
there. On February 15, a huge explosion ripped
through the ship. The explosion killed at least
260 of the 350 sailors and officers on
board. Yellow journalists used the explosion to
push the Americans into the war in Cuba. The real
cause of the explosion remains a mystery today.
The battleship Maine sinking
The battleship Maine
13
On April 25, 1898 President McKinley declared war
on Spain. This war was called the
Spanish-American War. The Spanish-American war
lasted only four months. The navy Secretary,
Theodore Roosevelt, felt it was important to
attack the Spanish in the Philippines as soon as
the war began. George Dewey, commander of the
Pacific fleet followed Roosevelts instructions
immediately after war was declared.
Theodore Roosevelt
George Dewey
14
Theodore Roosevelt
Meanwhile, American troops had landed in Cuba.
None were more eager than Theodore Roosevelt.
Roosevelt organized The First Volunteer Cavalry
Regiment, later called the Rough Riders. During
the battle for the city of Santiago, Roosevelt
led the roughriders in charge of the San Juan
Hill. This battle was called The Battle of San
Juan Hill. American troops were successful in
taking the hill.
15
Two days later, the Americans destroyed the
Spanish fleet in Santiago Bay. The Spanish army
in Cuba surrendered. American troops then landed
on Puerto Rico and claimed the island. Spain then
agreed to sign an armistice, thus ending the
fighting. In a peace treaty signed in Paris in
December of 1898, Spain agreed to grant Cuba its
freedom. After the war, American soldiers
remained in Cuba while the nation debated who
would rule. In the end, the United States let the
Cuban people write their own constitution.
However, Cuba had to accept the Platt Amendment.
The amendment allowed the United States to
intervene in Cuba and gave the United States
control of the naval base in Guantá Namo Bay. In
effect, the amendment made Cuba an American
protectorate, a nation whose independence is
limited by the control of a more powerful country.
16
Each nation made their own laws and privileges.
They encouraged an open door policy in China.
Under the policy, all nations could trade with
one another in China Many Chinese opposed foreign
influences in the country. These people will call
the boxers.
In 1900, the boxers rebelled. They attacked
farmers in China. They killed more than 200
people. Americans armed with modern weapons
stopped the boxer rebellion and freed all the
captives that the boxers held. This is called a
Boxer Rebellion.
17
3. The United States in Latin America
When Theodore Roosevelt became President in 1901,
he was determined to build a canal through the
Isthmus of Panama. An Isthmus in a narrow strip
of land connecting larger bodies of land. Panama
was the perfect place for canal because of its
location. Roosevelt knew that a canal would
greatly benefit the American commerce and
military capability. It would also reduce the
cost and shipping goods. A revolution between
Columbia and Panama began. The people of Panama
revolted against the Columbians this made it
very hard for Roosevelt to build the isthmus.
Soon, Panama won their independence from
Columbia. The United States recognized the new
nation. Panama and then agreed to let the United
States build a canal.
18
Colonel George Geothals
In building the Canal, tropical heat at
mosquitoes made it very difficult. Two tropical
diseases were very common Yellow Fever and
Malaria. Under the supervision of army engineer
Colonel George Geothals, more than 40,000 workers
struggled to dig the canal. Finally in 1914, the
first coach and steamship traveled through the
Panama Canal. In 1904, Roosevelt announced an
important addition to the Monroe Doctrine. In the
Roosevelt Corollary, he claimed the right of the
United States to intervene in Latin America to
preserve law and order. Over the next twenty
years, sell the Presidents including Roosevelt,
used this police power.
19
Roosevelt successor, William Howard Taft, also
favored a strong American role in Latin America.
He urged American bankers to invest in Latin
America. This policy of building strong economic
ties to Latin America became known as the dollar
diplomacy.
American investors responded eagerly. They helped
build roads, railroads, and harbors in Latin
America. The United States use built a force to
keep order in Latin America. Woodrow Wilson,
elected President in 1912, disliked the heavy
handed foreign policies of his past predecessors.
He proposed instead a policy of moral diplomacy.
Wilsons goals were to condemn imperialism,
spread democracy, and promote peace.
Nevertheless, Wilson ordered military
intervention in lead America more than any other
President.
20
Relations with Mexico
Mexican President Diaz was the Mexican President
from 1884 to 1911 welcomed American investments.
Meanwhile, most Mexicans remain poor. These harsh
conditions led to widespread discontent. In 1910,
Mexicans rebelled against Diaz. Francisco
Pancho Villa led the resistance in a Civil War
in Mexico. To capture Villa, President Wilson
sent General John J. Pershing with an army of
several thousand soldiers. In 1917, after failing
to capture Villa, Wilson ordered Pershings army
to withdraw.
21
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