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Title: PSY 6430, Unit 7 Survey of tests


1
PSY 6430, Unit 7 Survey of tests
  • Schedule
  • Monday and Wednesday Lecture
  • Monday, 4/13 Exam

2
SO2 The most important source for tests
  • Mental Measurements Yearbook (1938)
  • Now in its 19th edition, updated in 2012
  • You can access it online for free through our
    library, the web site address is in the study
    objectives
  • Szostek Hobson (2011)
  • I included this article so you can get an idea of
    how important this resource is from a legal.
    Courts have acknowledged it as the bible of
    testing and the authoritative source on
    testing
  • I also included it because it uses the
    Myers-Briggs Inventory as an example of an
    extremely popular, yet really bad selection
    instrument

(Just a brief mention of the MMY you should
always check the reviews for any off-the-shelf
test an organization is planning on using not
going over the other study objectives on the
article and yes, its a sad thing the author
spelled It wrong and the editors did not catch
it. I am spelling it correctly)
3
SO4 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  • MBTI
  • Personality inventory that classifies individuals
    into one of 16 types of personalities, using
    major categories of extraversion/ introversion,
    intuition/sensing, feeling/thinking,
    perception/judgment
  • 89 of Fortune 100 companies have used it for
    selection and/or promotion
  • Over 2 million were administered last year
  • Just about every executive in business knows
    his/her MB scores/indicators
  • It has no validity or reliability!!
  • In terms of reliability, if you retake the
    inventory after 5 weeks, theres a 50 chance
    that you will fall into a different personality
    category (and, remember, validity is bounded by
    reliability)
  • And, here is the clincher it is based on
    Jungian psychology. No psychologist worth his/her
    salt takes Jungian psychology seriously any
    more!!

(how many of you have heard of this? Magical
mystery tour)
4
SO4 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  • This a perfect example of companies using
    selection procedures that are bunk, yet are very,
    very popular.
  • Just because something is popular and used by
    Fortune 100 companies doesnt mean it has any
    professional merit whatsoever!

5
SO8 Intro Achievement vs. Aptitude Tests An
Arbitrary Distinction
  • For decades, tests have been classified as either
    achievement tests or aptitude tests
  • Definitions of achievement and aptitude
  • Achievement
  • The act of accomplishing or finishing something
    successfully, especially by means of skill,
    practice, or perseverance
  • Aptitude
  • A natural or acquired talent or ability or
    inclination quickness in learning and
    understanding - intelligence
  • The distinction represents the mind-body dualism
    typical of traditional testing

(in this material, GFB argue that the terms
achievement test and aptitude test are
inappropriate and should be replaced with the
term ability test - and I agree with them
excellent material)
6
SO8A, NFE Typical distinction between
achievement and aptitude tests
  • Achievement tests (supposedly) measure
  • What a person learned as a result of a specific
    structured educational/training experience/course
  • Scores are interpreted to be a measure of how
    much an individual knows as a result of the
    education or training
  • English grammar, math, science, social studies,
    etc.
  • These are the types of tests used in grade school
    and high school to measure student
    learning/proficiency
  • In Michigan, MEAP tests Michigan Educational
    Assessment Program

7
SO8A, NFE Typical distinction between
achievement and aptitude tests
  • Aptitude tests (supposedly) measure
  • Accumulation of learning from a number of diverse
    and usually informal learning experiences
  • Although not emphasized by GFB, there is a
    genetic implication
  • You have artistic ability or you dont
  • You have mechanical aptitude or you dont
  • Women dont have an aptitude for math
  • Men dont have good spatial aptitude, thus they
    cant find their way around the mall
  • Said to measure potential to learn, or the
    potential to develop new skills and acquire new
    knowledge
  • If you dont have the aptitude you cant be a
    good artist, mechanic, mathematician
  • Intelligence tests, SATs, GREs, Artistic Aptitude
  • These are the tests that you are told you cant
    study for (hog wash - most people dont say that
    any more)

(Olympic athletes and musicians have natural
ability then we learn the parent was an Olympic
athlete or musician both parents were
musicians)
8
SO8BC, FE Why is the distinction arbitrary?
  • All tests measure what a person has learned up to
    the time he or she takes the test and that is the
    only thing a test can measure
  • They cannot and do not measure innate or
    unlearned potential (even if that existed)
  • Thus, the distinction between achievement tests
    and aptitude tests is arbitrary and
  • We should use the term ability tests for both
    types of tests
  • Ability in the sense of competence or
    proficiency, regardless of how you have acquired
    the ability/skill

9
SO8D Tests can still be used to predict how well
someone will perform. Why?
  • Tests can and do measure the prerequisites that
    are necessary for further learning in an
    specified area, and thus can predict future
    learning/performance
  • If students do not do well in PSY 3600, Concepts
    and Principles of Behavior Analysis, they cannot
    do well in PSY 4600, Survey of Behavior Analysis
    Research, thus a students grade in PSY 3600 can
    predict his or her performance in PSY 4600
  • You cant balance an equation in chemistry unless
    you know algebra, thus a test of algebra can
    predict performance in a chemistry class

(not in text, but important to understand)
10
SO9 Intro, Mental Ability and Cognitive Ability
Tests Intelligence Tests
  • Mental ability tests were at the center of early
    critical Supreme Court decisions regarding unfair
    discrimination
  • Thus, many companies stopped using them
  • However, there is a lot of research in selection
    that indicates that mental ability tests are
    related to almost all jobs
  • Validity correlations are often quite high, and
    higher than other tests
  • Many companies are now using them again
  • Remember, however, if you use one of these, you
    must conduct an empirical validity study (or use
    validity generalization - risky)

(as a behavior analyst, I still have trouble with
the term mental ability since it still implies
mind-body dualism Im more comfortable, but not
completely with cognitive ability but havent
been able to come up with anything different that
and certainly like those terms better than
intelligence tests)
11
SO9 Why is it that all mental ability tests are
not interchangeable?
  • A rose is not a rose is not a rose
  • A mental ability test is not a mental ability
    test is not a mental ability test
  • Mental ability tests measure a collection of
    abilities - a learned repertoire that typically
    includes
  • Verbal, math, memory, and reasoning abilities
  • 14 different abilities are often measured in some
    combination by mental ability tests (next slide)
  • Different mental ability tests often measure a
    different set of these abilities
  • Thus a person may score differently on different
    tests of mental ability

12
(NFE) Abilities Measured by Various Mental
Ability Tests
  • Memory span
  • Numerical fluency
  • Verbal comprehension
  • Conceptual classification
  • Semantic relations
  • General reasoning
  • Conceptual foresight
  • Figure classification
  • Spatial orientation
  • Visualization
  • Intuitive Reasoning
  • Ordering
  • Figure identification
  • Logical evaluation and
  • deduction

(that is why if you use the PAQ you must take
great care in selecting tests that are similar to
the GATB tests that are recommended)
13
SO11, NFE Why should these tests be called
mental ability rather than intelligence or
I.Q. tests?
  • The term mental ability makes it explicit that
    these tests measure various cognitive abilities
    of the applicant (and not some innate, unlearned,
    hypothetical construct called intelligence)
  • These cognitive abilities are most directly
    identified by the what is measured (some
    combination of the 14 abilities listed earlier)
    and from the content of the items themselves
  • They should be thought of the same way the other
    abilities discussed in the book are thought of
  • e.g., mechanical ability, clerical ability
  • In other words, the authors are resisting the
    traditional view that there is something called
    intelligence

14
(NFE) Popular mental ability tests
  • The authors describe the Wonderlic Personnel Test
    which is probably the most popular
  • Given to all players at the NFL Scouting Combine
    and scores are reported to NFL teams before the
    annual draft
  • For a moment, look at items in the text that are
    similar to the ones on the Wonderlic Personnel
    Test

15
Examples of items similar to those on the
Wonderlic
  • 1. Which of the following months has 30 days?
  • (a) February (b) June (c) August (d)
    December
  • 2. Alone is the opposite of
  • (a) happy (b) together (c) single (d)
    joyful
  • 3. Which is the next number in this series
  • 1, 4, 16, 4, 16, 64, 16, 64, 256,
  • (a) 4 (b) 16 (c) 64 (d) 1024

(Two slides - Note all six items are different
types of items general knowledge, opposites -
verbal comprehension and vocabulary, numerical
reasoning and ordering)
16
Example items similar to those on the Wonderlic
  • 4. Twilight is to dawn as autumn is to
  • (a) winter (b) spring (c) hot (d) cold
  • 5. If Bob can outrun Junior by 2 feet in every 5
    yards of a race, how much ahead will Bob be at 45
    yards?
  • (a) 5 yards (b) 6 yards (c) 10 feet (d)
    90 feet
  • 6. The two words relevant and immaterial mean
  • (a) the same (b) the opposite (c) neither
    same nor opposite

(again, notice the type of questions semantic or
verbal reasoning, numerical fluency/reasoning,
verbal comprehension - opposites)
17
SO12 Validity of mental ability tests
  • What have the validity studies uniformly
    concluded?
  • Mental ability tests are among the most valid of
    all selection instruments

(work samples are the only tests that seem to be
as valid, recent data suggest they have just as
much adverse impact next slide on validity of
mental ability tests as well)
18
SO13 Back to validity generalization
  • The validity correlations for both mental ability
    tests and other types of tests are highly stable
    across organizations

(and, next slide)
19
SO14 Validity of mental ability tests
  • Differences in the actual tasks that a person
    performs as part of a job have very little effect
    on the magnitude of the validity coefficients for
    mental ability tests
  • In other words, mental ability tests are valid
    predictors of performance for a wide variety of
    jobs

20
SO15 Uniform Guidelines vs. validity
generalization data
  • The data from the more recent meta-analyses
    conflict with the Uniform Guidelines
  • The Uniform Guidelines are based on situational
    specificity of validity that is, that local
    validity studies are required
  • The meta-analysis studies indicate that is not
    correct, supporting validity generalization
  • Following from that, the requirement for local
    validity studies is not appropriate
  • However, courts follow the Uniform Guidelines and
    past court decisions, thus
  • It is still legally risky to use validity
    generalization, particularly given the language
    in CRA of 1991
  • Uniform Guidelines need to be updated

(a very important point major collision of legal
vs. professional)
21
A problem with mental ability tests
  • Mental ability tests have repeatedly been shown
    to have adverse impact on protected classes,
    particularly blacks and Hispanics
  • This led to the notion that these types of test
    might have differential validity - next

22
SO16 Differential Validity
  • 16A What is meant by differential validity?
  • Notion/hypothesis that tests are less valid for
    minority groups than for non-minorities
  • That is, a test may be significantly more valid
    for whites than for blacks
  • Term is related to test bias regarding ability
    tests, particularly mental ability tests
  • This claim is made over and over again with
    respect to SATs and GREs - that those tests are
    more predictive of the performance of white
    students than they are of the performance of
    minority students

(extremely important and mentioned often in
selection as well as admissions to colleges and
universities,- and is still very controversial)
23
SO16B Differential Validity, the argument
  • The argument is that the content of ability tests
    is based on content/items related to the white
    middle-class (e.g., vocabulary and grammar), and
    thus the scores of the minorities are lower than
    what they should be

24
SO16C Differential Validity
  • The data are very clear about this issue

Differential validity does not exist
  • That is, tests are equally valid for whites and
    other ethnic/racial groups
  • It makes sense
  • Verbal comprehension skills are verbal
    comprehension skills
  • Verbal reasoning skills are verbal reasoning
    skills
  • Math skills are math skills, etc.
  • Thus if any of these skills are required by the
    job, they should be equally required by whites
    and members of other ethnic/racial groups

25
SO17 Cognitive ability tests -Differences among
demographic groups
  • Meta-analyses have been consistent there are
    significant differences in mean test scores among
    racial/ethnic groups
  • Ranking
  • Asians
  • whites
  • Hispanics
  • blacks

26
(NFE) Cognitive ability tests -Differences among
demographic groups
  • Cognitive ability tests have a high correlation
    with job performance and academic performance
  • They have a disproportionate impact on Hispanics
    and blacks
  • Often result in adverse impact as legally defined
    when used for selection

(important, difficult issue arises)
27
SO18 Adverse impact and cognitive ability tests
  • Remember, adverse impact, however, does not mean
    that unfair discrimination has occurred if the
    tests are job related then fair discrimination
    has occurred
  • SO18 Three things that make a defense against
    adverse impact likely
  • Their overall validity they are among the most
    valid and least expensive tests
  • Differential validity does not exist
  • Adverse impact cannot be overcome by using any
    other measure

28
SO18, NFE Inappropriate conclusions from mean
differences on test scores
  • It is not appropriate to conclude from these
    studies that differences are due to genetic
    differences
  • Studies do not address the reasons

(the authors want to caution any one making any
general conclusions as to why differences exist
particular concern about race-based genetic
arguments as advanced in the Bell Curve,
published a number of years ago that re-opened
the debate about race-based genetic
intelligence.)
29
SO21 Two factors that should be taken into
account when deciding whether to use cognitive
ability tests
  • Cognitive ability tests are among the most valid
    tests for a large number of jobs (and some
    selection specialists would say for all jobs)
  • Evidence also indicates that adverse impact is
    highly likely with these tests

(skipping to SO21 cont. on next slide)
30
NFE Cognitive Ability Tests
  • Because they are so valid, some selection
    specialists believe cognitive ability tests
    should be used extensively in selection
  • Some, however, have expressed deep reservation
    about using them because of the social
    implications of the disqualification of larger
    proportions of minorities

(very nice discussion of this in text directly
quoting GFB here cont. on next slide)
31
NFE Cognitive Ability Tests
  • The decision should reflect the values/goals of
    the organization
  • If the goal is to maximize individual performance
    with minimal cost, cognitive ability tests will
    do this
  • If the organization has multiple goals of
    sustaining high performance while maintaining a
    broad representation of minorities, then it
    would be better to limit the use of cognitive
    ability tests and use other, generally more
    expensive and almost equally valid instruments
  • biodata inventories (I dont like these as you
    will see next unit)
  • structured interviews
  • assessment centers

The authors include work samples in their list
but in later in this chapter present recent data
that indicates work samples appear to have as
much adverse impact as cognitive ability tests.
(thats the rub - the expense of those other
instruments)
32
SO19 Diversity and use of cognitive ability tests
  • If an organization has diversity as a selection
    goal and wants to use cognitive ability tests
    because of their validity and the fact that other
    options are much more expensive, what is the
    main/best option?
  • Vigorous recruitment of minority applicants

(now back to SO19 remember race norming is not
legal often a problem because selection
specialists are typically not the ones who are
responsible for recruitment selection
specialists really need to work with the HR staff)
33
SO22 (NFE) Popular mechanical ability, clerical,
and physical ability tests
  • The authors describe several very popular tests
  • Refer to this material if you are ever looking
    for tests in these categories
  • I am not going to have you learn anything
    specific about these tests

34
SO23 Height Weight Requirements
  • Height and weight requirements have often been
    challenged in court
  • Adverse impact on females and Asians
  • The courts have rarely let them stand
  • The rationale for using these measures is that
    they are substitute measures for strength
  • But courts have consistently held that if
    strength is the job requirement, then it should
    be measured directly (physical ability test)

(a lot of organizations in the past police and
fire)
35
Intro Personality Tests
  • The data and information on personality tests is
    difficult
  • For many years, companies used personality tests
    that were developed by clinical psychologists,
    and some of those tests are still popular and
    being used by organizations
  • One is the California Personality Inventory
  • Have not had good validity historically
  • In prior editions of the book, GFB advised
    against their use
  • They remain cautious in this one, but cautiously
    optimistic

36
Intro Personality Tests
  • There is some good work going on right now,
    however, the field is in a bit of flux right now
  • Intuitively we know that personality influences
    how effective a person is at work, we just
    havent tapped into what the relevant KSAs really
    are, or what the relevant clusters of behaviors
    are
  • Even with the recent work, validity coefficients
    tend to be low, but they do appear to add
    independent predictive power (above and beyond
    cognitive ability tests and other types of
    ability tests)

37
SO25A Personality Tests
  • There is some agreement in the field that
    personality characteristics can be grouped into
    five broad dimensions called the Five-Factor
    Model or Big Five
  • Conscientiousness
  • Being responsible, organized, dependable,
    planful, willing to achieve, and persevering
  • Emotional stability (only one described in
    negative terms)
  • Being emotional, tense, insecure, nervous,
    excitable, apprehensive, and easily upset
  • Agreeableness (relevant for team work)
  • Being courteous, flexible, trusting, good
    natured, cooperative, forgiving, softhearted, and
    tolerant
  • Extroversion
  • Being sociable, gregarious, assertive, talkative,
    and active
  • Openness to experience (also called intellect or
    culture)
  • Being imaginative, cultured, curious,
    intelligent, artistically sensitive, original and
    broad minded

38
SO25B Personality Tests
  • Good news to date there has been little or no
    adverse impact (a) across racial and ethnic
    groups and (b) between males and females

39
SO26 Traits as predictors
  • Two traits have been shown to be universal
    predictors, that is, valid across jobs
  • Conscientiousness
  • Emotional stability
  • The other three were found to be valid for only a
    few jobs or specific criteria
  • Extraversion (managers and training criteria)
  • Agreeableness (team work)
  • Openness to experience (training criteria)

40
SO 27 Personality Tests
  • If you do use a personality test, you must use a
    criterion-related validity study to support it
    because personality traits cannot be directly
    observed
  • Concurrent validity
  • Predictive validity
  • Validity generalization

(in other words you cannot use content validity
also have some legal issues to be aware of)
41
SO28 Two thorny legal issues with personality
tests
  • ADA (dealt with this previously in U3)
  • If a test can and is used to diagnose
    mental/psychiatric disorders, then it will
    probably be considered a medical examination
    under ADA
  • If it deals with other personality traits (the
    Big 5, for example) then it probably will not be
    considered a medical examination although I dont
    know how courts would/will handle emotional
    stability as it relates to ADA
  • Nonetheless, my strong advice to you is to treat
    every personality test as a medical examination
    until things are clarified more by the courts
  • Which means you should only administer
    personality tests post-offer and keep the results
    in a file that is separate from the personnel file

42
SO28 This slide, NFE Two thorny legal issues
with personality tests
  • Clarifying court case, 2005, Seventh Circuit
    Court
  • MMPI is a medical examination and thus illegal
    for pre-employment use (certainly that was
    expected)
  • Psychological tests that measure personal traits
    such as honesty, integrity, preferences and
    habits do not constitute medical examinations

43
SO28 Two thorny legal issues with personality
tests
  • Right to privacy (be able to explain this as
    well)
  • Although a right to privacy is not explicitly
    guaranteed under the U.S. Constitution,
    individuals are protected from unreasonable
    intrusions and surveillance
  • Personality tests, by their nature, reveal an
    individuals thoughts and feelings
  • Several states have laws that explicitly
    guarantee a right to privacy
  • To date, litigation has occurred about questions
    relating to sexual inclinations and orientation
    and religious views

(second thorny issue)
44
SO28 Right to privacy (this slide, NFE)
  • Soroka v. Dayton Hudson (1991)
  • California Court of Appeals stopped Dayton
    Hudsons Target stores from requiring applicants
    for store security positions to take a
    personality test that contained questions about
    sexual practices and religious beliefs
  • The court also stated that employers must
    restrict psychological testing to job-related
    questions
  • The ruling was later dismissed because the
    parties reached a court-approved settlement
  • Dayton-Hudson agreed to stop using the
    personality test
  • Divided 1.3 million dollars among the estimated
    2,500 members of the plaintiff class who had
    taken the test

45
Intro, Performance or work sample tests
  • Performance or work sample tests are excellent
    and I highly recommend their use when you can do
    them
  • Typing test
  • Having candidates write a computer program to
    solve a specific problem
  • Role playing a sales situation with an applicant
    for a sales position
  • Having mechanics trouble shoot a problem with an
    engine
  • You are getting an actual sample of behavior
    under controlled testing conditions (which
    permits you to easily compare performance across
    applicants)

(this slide NFE)
46
Performance or work sample tests
  • From a technical perspective, they have high
    validity
  • They reduce two limitations of other selection
    procedures, and both are related to verbal
    behavior
  • Most selection procedures rely heavily on verbal
    behavior
  • Written answers to questions (ability tests)
  • Oral descriptions of abilities/skills
    (interviews, training and evaluation assessments)

(This slide NFE)
47
SO30(NFE) The two limitations that are reduced
  • Willful distortion and faking (people want to
    look good)
  • This varies dependent upon the selection
    procedure
  • Reports about past experiences (interviews, TEs)
    where the information is difficult to confirm -
    most susceptible
  • Personality and honesty inventories, next
    susceptible
  • Ability tests, least susceptible

48
SO30 (NFE) The two limitations that are reduced
  • Relationship between verbal behavior and actual
    behavior is not perfect (as we behavior analysts
    well know)
  • Much of our behavior is contingency-shaped, not
    rule-governed
  • This is particularly a problem for exemplar
    performers who are not verbally fluent
  • Automobile mechanic
  • Plumbers
  • Machine operator
  • It can also be a problem for employees who are
    exemplar performers but cant describe what makes
    them exemplary performers sales representatives

49
SO31 Three limitations of work samples
  • Difficulty of accurately simulating job tasks
    that are representative of the job
  • Applicants must already have the KSAs being
    tested they cannot cover specialized things
    that must be learned on the job
  • General sales skills OK, but questions that deal
    with specific company-related products and
    pricing will not be
  • Very costly to develop and and often to
    administer (many must be done one-on-one)

50
SO31 NFE Example of a bad, yet common, work
sampling test Stress interviews
  • Many consulting firms use stress interviews
  • Stress interviews
  • Interviewer creates a stressful situation, often
    by asking many questions rapidly, not allowing
    much time for the applicant to respond,
    interrupting the applicant frequently, acting in
    a semi-hostile manner, or in a cool aloof manner
  • Why bad?
  • Even if the job is one of high work demands that
    produce stress, rarely is the situation staged in
    the interview representative of the actual work
    demands that produce the stress
  • In very few jobs, is the stress related to a
    semi-hostile or cool/aloof stranger rapidly
    firing questions
  • The behavior of the applicant doesnt readily
    generalize to the job and thus should not be used
    as a predictor

(maybe OK for a press secretary for a politician)
51
SO32 Performance tests vs. cognitive ability
tests, validity, adverse impact, and cost
  • Validity
  • They both have high validity they are two of the
    most valid types of selection instruments
  • Adverse impact
  • Equal adverse impact
  • Cost
  • Performance tests cost much more to develop and
    administer

52
Just a Word About Assessment Centers
  • Assessment centers or even the use of some of the
    exercises often included in assessment centers
    have been highly successful
  • In-basket tests
  • Leaderless group interaction tests
  • Case analyses
  • Main problem is their time and expense to both
    develop and administer
  • You are unlikely to become involved in designing
    an assessment center, thus I am skipping them for
    the sake of time

53
Just a Word About Assessment Centers
  • Refer you to the Minnich Komaki article in U7
    in the course pack from the OBM Network News
  • The article describes the use of a validated
    in-basket test to assess the effectiveness of
    managers based on Komakis Operant Supervisory
    Taxonomy and Index
  • This is one of the best examples I have ever
    seen of the intersection of behavior analysis and
    traditional I/O Psychology
  • Operant supervisory taxonomy and index
  • Assessed the difference between high performing
    and low performing managers
  • Found that work sampling and type of consequence
    following performance distinguished between high
    and low performing managers

(Gives a detailed description of the instrument,
some of the actual items, and responses, along
with analysis of responses Unfortunately, it is
not commercially available done as Minnichs
dissertation)
54
SO34 Graphology Some companies are using it!
  • During the introduction to the course, I provided
    some information about graphology
  • Used as a selection tool in/by (very popular in
    Europe)
  • 5,000 US companies
  • 68 of Swiss companies
  • 75 of French companies
  • 80 of Western European countries
  • I am appalled, as are the authors, that a section
    on graphology has to be included in a legitimate
    text on personnel selection and placement
  • but the good news is that its use appears to be
    declining, at least in this country

(couldnt resist including this this slide NFE)
55
SO34 Validity of Graphology
  • Graphology has no validity whatsoever as a
    selection tool or
  • as GFB state, it flat out doesnt work.
  • For validity studies, see 593-594,0

56
Graphology
  • (NFE) Just for fun, look at Table 14.4
  • Gatewood sent a handwriting sample to a
    graphologist who graduated from the program
    conducted by the International Graphoanalysis
    Society
  • Four times (for each edition of the book), they
    calculated reliability (same graphologist) and
    reported the results with commentary by GBF
  • Read pages 594-596

(love the way the authors handle this - humor and
irony Ok moving on..)
57
SO35A Polygraph Testing, is it legal?
  • For all practical purposes, it is illegal
  • Federal law, Employee Polygraph Protection Act of
    1988
  • It can be used in some specific employment
    situations for selection (there are other
    requirements for use with current employees)
  • Private employers whose primary business purpose
    is to provide security services (e.g., protection
    of nuclear power facilities, public water supply
    facilities, shipments or storage of radioactive
    or other toxic waste materials, public
    transportation)
  • Employers involved in the manufacture,
    distribution, or dispensing of controlled
    substances
  • Federal, state and local government employers
    also private consultants or experts under
    contract to governmental depts. and agencies
    (e.g., Defense Dept., Energy Dept., National
    Security Agency, CIA, FBI)

(spies and spooks)
58
SO35B Polygraph Testing, the major drawback
  • Frequency of false positives that is, there is a
    high degree of error with respect to finding that
    an individual is lying when in fact, the
    individual is not (details below, NFE)
  • Assume 90 percent accuracy (high end estimate)
  • Assume rate of stealing is 5 of the working
    population
  • If 1,000 polygraphs were given, we would expect
    50 individuals would be lying, and given 90
    accuracy, 45 of those would be detected
  • However, the problem lies with the other 950
    individuals
  • 95 (950 X .10) would be identified as lying when
    they had not
  • Thus, 140 individuals would be identified as
    having lied, with 68 of them being false
    positives
  • Not good

(text actually gives 3, I am asking you to learn
the major one (a) other reactions than guilt can
trigger an emotional response (b) there are
countermeasures that can be used to avoid
detection - I am sure you can find them on the
web)
59
SO36 Paper and Pencil Integrity Tests
  • There are two basic types of paper and pencil
    integrity tests
  • Overt integrity tests
  • Self-report inventories that measure a job
    applicants attitudes and cognitions toward
    theft that might predispose him/her to steal at
    work
  • Personality-based measures
  • Self-report inventories that measure integrity as
    part of a larger syndrome of antisocial behavior
    or organizational delinquency and thus not only
    measure theft but things like drug and alcohol
    abuse, vandalism, sabotage, assaultive actions,
    insubordination, absenteeism, excessive
    grievances, bogus worker compensation claims and
    violence

(this slide NFE)
60
SO36A, NFE Paper and Pencil Integrity Tests
  • Pencil and paper integrity tests were developed
    to replace polygraph testing after the Employee
    Polygraph Protection Act was passed in 1988
  • A few states have passed laws against the use of
    these tests as well, so be careful and check the
    state laws
  • Once again the reason for concern is the high
    number of false positives that occur
  • Because of the concern about theft by employers,
    the use of integrity tests is on the rise and
    thus more validity studies have been conducted
    recently

(this slide NFE)
61
SO36B Paper and Pencil Integrity Tests
  • These tests indicate that these measures do
    correlate with measures of theft, general
    counterproductive behaviors (grievances filed,
    absenteeism, disciplinary actions, etc.), and
    various types of job performance
  • They appear to be OK to use in a selection
    program, however, at the current time, many still
    oppose their use
  • False positives and the social implications of
    that how would you like to be identified as a
    liar and cheater when you were not?
  • Frequency of false positives is unknown

62
SO37B Drug Testing
  • Use of drugs and alcohol have been a major
    concern since the 1960s (casting dispersions on
    my generation, the hippie generation)
  • NFE, but paper and pencil drug tests - see items
  • Do you think that it is OK for workers to use
    soft drugs at work if this does not cause poor
    performance?
  • In the past six months, how often have you used
    marijuana at work?
  • In the past six months, have you brought cocaine
    to work even though you did not use it at work?
  • No public studies that have evaluated either the
    reliability of validity of these tests
  • FE, In one court case, the court ruled that these
    were illegal based on the Fifth Amendments
    prohibition against involuntary self-incrimination

(I find it hard to believe anyone would answer
these types of questions honestly!)
63
SO37C Drug Testing
  • The legal status of drug testing is unclear
  • Organizations face less risk using drug testing
    for pre-employment selection (testing individuals
    who are applying for a job)
  • They face considerably more risk if they test
    existing workers for promotions (or transfers) or
    testing workers to detect drug users for
    disciplinary or counseling purposes
  • NFE, but why? Applicants cannot take advantage
    of collective bargaining or challenge employment
    at-will principles, as can employees who feel
    they have been wrongly treated
  • NFE, Consult a good lawyer in employment law
    before implementing drug testing for selection
    purposes!

(last slide distribute EAS tests)
64
The END
  • Questions???

65
From U3 Drug testing
  • Drug testing is not considered a medical test
    under ADA
  • You can administer a drug test before an offer is
    made
  • Why?
  • Those using illegal drugs are excluded from
    coverage under ADA. Thus, while many would
    consider drug testing a medical test, it is not
    considered a medical test under ADA

66
From U3 NFE, medical marijuana and drug testing
  • 15 states and the DC have passed medical
    marijuana laws
  • If a person has a disability and uses medical
    marijuana, what about drug testing?
  • Many laws protect employers with clauses like
    employers are not required to accommodate the
    medical use of marijuana in any workplace.
  • However, laws are varied and there have not yet
    been many cases

67
From U3 NFE, medical marijuana and drug testing
  • California Supreme Court, 2008
  • OK to fire a worker after drug test
  • Employers are under no obligation to accommodate
    medical marijuana on or off the job
  • The law protects the individual from criminal
    prosecution but provides no protection on the job
  • Why? Marijuana remains classified as an illegal
    substance under federal law

(I dealt with this previously, but want you to
learn this point now so drug test away)
68
Washington State Supreme Court
  • Agreed to review a case in which a customer
    service consultant was fired (not hired) for
    her legal, at-home use of marijuana
  • Applicant disclosed her use during the hiring
    process
  • Gave the company a copy of her physicians
    authorization
  • Was not hired after a pre-employment drug screen
    when she tested positive for THC.

69
Is medical marijuana a reasonable accommodation?
  • Dont think so, but who knows?

(no one knows where this is going)
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