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Understanding the Criminal Justice System

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Understanding the Criminal Justice System CJUS 101 Chapter 4: Criminal Justice and Procedures An Overview – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding the Criminal Justice System


1
Understanding the Criminal Justice System
  • CJUS 101
  • Chapter 4 Criminal Justice and Procedures An
    Overview

2
Procedures
  • Constitution / Bill of Rights
  • - fundamental to criminal procedures
  • - amendments aimed at specific rights
  • a. Major significance
  • - restricts activities of government
  • (1) Constitution
  • - written in 1787
  • - ratified by states in 1788
  • - put into effect in 1789

3
Procedures
  • (2) Rationale
  • - preamble / 7 articles
  • - Article I congress
  • - Article II executive branch
  • - Article III judicial branch
  • (a) Separation of powers doctrine
  • (b) No one branch could usurp
  • power for itself
  • - 3 separate entities

4
Procedures
  • (3) Doctrines impact on criminal
  • justice
  • - laws / police / courts
  • - protected from arbitrary
  • abuse
  • (4) Controls operations of CJS
  • - Bill of Rights
  • (a) Adopted to protect individual
    liberties

5
Procedures
  • (b) From abuse by national
  • government
  • b. Bill of Rights (1791)
  • (1) First Amendment
  • - freedom of speech (oral / written
  • / symbolic)
  • - freedom of the press
  • - freedom of religion - freedom of
    assembly / petition

6
Procedures
  • (2) Second Amendment
  • - well regulated militia
  • - to keep and to bear arms
  • (3) Third Amendment
  • - quartering of soldiers
  • (4) Fourth Amendment
  • - right of people to be secure in
  • persons / houses / papers

7
Procedures
  • - no warrants issued without
  • probable cause
  • (5) Fifth Amendment
  • - no person held to answer
  • - presentment / indictment of a
  • grand jury
  • - without due process
  • (6) Sixth Amendment
  • - speedy / public trial

8
Procedures
  • - confront witnesses
  • - right to counsel
  • (7) Seventh Amendment
  • - civil lawsuits
  • (8) Eighth Amendment
  • - excessive bail / fines
  • - cruel / unusual punishment
  • (9) Ninth Amendment

9
Procedures
  • - Bill of Rights does not deny other
    rights
  • (10) Tenth Amendment
  • - powers reserved for the states
  • (11) Fourteenth Amendment
  • - nationalized Bill of Rights
  • (a) Continue to add amendments
  • - ratified by states (33)

10
Procedures
  • The process of justice
  • - No person shall be . . . deprived of
  • life, liberty, or property without due
  • process of law.
  • a. Adversarial system
  • - prosecution / defense
  • - innocent until proven guilty
  • (1) Early history
  • - trial by ordeal

11
Procedures
  • - inquisitorial system
  • - inquiry system
  • b. Constitution
  • - interpreted by US Supreme Court
  • - cornerstone of CJS due process
  • - Bill of Rights
  • (1) 1833 federal only
  • - US Supreme Court

12
Procedures
  • (2) 1868 Nationalized
  • - 14th Amendment
  • (3) 1884 Hurtado vs. California
  • - no indictment by grand jury
  • (4) 1925 Gitlow vs. New York
  • - speech not absolute right
  • (5) 1927 Fisk vs. Kansas
  • - freedom of speech

13
Procedures
  • (6) 1931 Near vs. Minnesota
  • - freedom of the press
  • (7) 1931 Powell vs. Alabama
  • - capital offense
  • - right to defense counsel
  • (8) 1937 Palko vs. Connecticut
  • - can be tried twice
  • (9) 1937 Johnson vs. Zerbst

14
Procedures
  • - defense counsel
  • - all federal felonies
  • (10) 1947 separation of church / state
  • (11) 1948 public trials for adults
  • (12) 1961 Mapp vs. Ohio
  • - unreasonable search / seizure
  • - exclusionary rule

15
Procedures
  • (13) 1962 cruel/unusual punishment
  • - 8th Amendment
  • (14) 1963 Gideon vs. Wainwright
  • - any felony right to counsel
  • (15) 1964 right of self-incrimination
  • - not testify against yourself
  • (16) 1965 confront witnesses
  • - must testify in open court

16
Procedures
  • (17) 1967 speedy trial
  • - 60 days in custody
  • - 90 days out of custody
  • - 100 days at federal level
  • (18) 1968 trial by jury in serious
  • offenses
  • (19) 1969 Benton vs. Maryland
  • - double jeopardy

17
Procedures
  • (21) 1973 Roe vs. Wade
  • - abortion rights
  • (22) 1986 Bowers vs. Hardwick
  • - privacy for homosexuals
  • (a) State supreme courts
  • - establish precedent also
  • (b) Impacts that state only
  • - establishes state policy

18
Procedures
  • c. Due process
  • - substantive / procedural
  • (1) Substantive due process
  • - content or subject matter
  • - the law must be understood
  • (a) Void for vagueness rule
  • (b) Adequate defense counsel

19
Procedures
  • (2) Procedural due process
  • - notice / hearings / procedures
  • (a) Followed by police
  • - advice to rights / etc.
  • (b) Followed by prosecutor
  • - arraignment w/in 24 hours
  • (c) Followed by court
  • - jury selection

20
Procedures
  • Criminal justice process
  • - from crime to punishment
  • a. Crime committed
  • - reported / observed
  • (1) Police investigation
  • - patrol / detectives
  • - develop suspect
  • - reasonable suspicion
  • - detain / pat-down / question

21
Procedures
  • (2) Arrest
  • - case pending
  • (a) Probable cause
  • - take into custody
  • - search / seize
  • (b) Warrant
  • - issued by court
  • - probable cause
  • - reasonable belief

22
Procedures
  • (c) Citation
  • - minor offenses
  • (d) Felony
  • - committed in presence
  • - reasonable cause
  • (e) Gross misdemeanor
  • - committed in presence
  • - reasonable cause
  • - DUI / theft / marijuana /etc.

23
Procedures
  • (f) Misdemeanor
  • - committed in presence
  • - report to prosecutor
  • (4) Booking
  • - information / mug shot / prints
  • - PR release / bail / held for court
  • b. Court process
  • - next court day
  • - review by judge within 24 hours

24
Procedures
  • (1) Initial appearance
  • - not guilty plea
  • - attorney assigned
  • (a) Appear with attorney
  • - enters plea
  • - set trial date
  • (b) Court sets bail
  • - if still in custody
  • - hold without bail

25
Procedures
  • (2) Preliminary hearing
  • - lower court
  • - prosecution presents evidence
  • - crime probable committed
  • - bound over for trial
  • (a) Washington state
  • - prosecutor passes prelim
  • - files directly in superior ct.
  • (b) Files the information

26
Procedures
  • (3) Pre-trial motions (3.9 hearing)
  • - motions made by attorneys
  • - suppress evidence / discovery /
  • change of venue / etc.
  • (a) Ruled on at this time
  • - cannot be brought up
  • (b) Decisions by judge can be
  • appealed
  • - state appellate court

27
Procedures
  • (4) Trial
  • - before judge (bench trial)
  • - before jury (jury trial)
  • (a) Jury selection
  • - peremptory challenge
  • - challenge for cause
  • (b) Opening statements
  • - prosecution
  • - defense

28
Procedures
  • (c) Case presentation
  • - prosecution
  • - defense
  • (d) Closing arguments
  • - prosecution
  • - defense
  • - prosecution
  • (e) Deliberation

29
Procedures
  • - jury instructions
  • - verdict
  • (f) Sentencing
  • - prosecution
  • - defense
  • - community corrections
  • (g) Appeals
  • - to higher court
  • - may be released during

30
Procedures
  • c. Corrections
  • - state prison
  • - city / county jail
  • (1) Reception center
  • - testing
  • - assignment
  • (2) Permanent facility
  • - maximum / medium / minor
  • - release on parole

31
Procedures
  • Defendants constitutional rights
  • - Sixth Amendment
  • - In all prosecutions, the accused shall
  • enjoy the right to a speedy and public
  • trial, by an impartial jury of the state
  • and district wherein the crime shall
  • have been committed, which district
  • shall have been previously ascertained
  • by law, and to be informed of the
  • nature and cause of the accusation to
  • be confronted with the witnesses

32
Procedures
  • against him to have compulsory
  • process for obtaining witnesses in his
  • favor, and to have the Assistance of
  • Counsel for his defence.
  • a. Speedy / public trial
  • - continuance
  • - defendant / prosecutor request
  • b. Impartial jury
  • - change of venue

33
Procedures
  • - 12 person jury not required
  • - minimum size is 6
  • c. Assistance of counsel
  • - right to represent self (in propria
  • persona)
  • Special trials
  • a. Competency to stand trial
  • - two criteria

34
Procedures
  • (1) Understand nature of proceedings
  • - court procedures
  • - punishment
  • (2) Able to assist with defense
  • - communicate with attorney
  • - no understanding of the law
  • (a) Procedure to determine competency
  • - criminal trial stops

35
Procedures
  • - civil proceedings
  • (b) Mental health hearing held
  • - competent trial resumes
  • - incompetent mental hospital
  • (c) Double jeopardy
  • - does not apply
  • (d) Proof required

36
Procedures
  • - preponderance of evidence
  • b. Sanity trial
  • - not guilty by reason of insanity
  • - defendant makes decision
  • (1) Legal standard
  • - MNaghten Rule
  • (a) Did not know nature/quality
  • of the act

37
Procedures
  • (b) Did not know it was wrong
  • (2) Guilty but mentally ill
  • - mental hospital
  • - prison after recovery
  • c. Death penalty trial
  • - special circumstances
  • (1) Aggravated 1st Degree Murder
  • - Washington state

38
Procedures
  • - multiple murders / for hire /
  • killing police officer / etc.
  • (2) Required to consider
  • - aggravating circumstances
  • - mitigating circumstances
  • (a) Exceptional circumstances
  • - Washington state
  • (b) Verdicts

39
Procedures
  • - death
  • - life without parole
  • d. Juvenile court
  • - 1960s due process / 6th Amendment
  • (1) Eligibility
  • - chronological age
  • - date crime committed
  • (2) Maximum age

40
Procedures
  • - state law
  • - 18 years Washington state
  • - 16 serious crimes
  • (3) Functions
  • - criminal acts
  • - status offenses
  • - dependent children
  • - family matters
  • (4) Transfer to adult court

41
Procedures
  • - prosecutor files
  • - fitness hearing
  • - held in juvenile court
  • (a) Reasons for transfer
  • - age
  • - current offense
  • - criminal history
  • - family status
  • - mental capacity
  • - educational level

42
Procedures
  • (b) Arguments
  • - mitigating circumstances
  • (defense)
  • - aggravating circumstances
  • (prosecution)
  • (4) Once transferred
  • - all rights afforded adults
  • - incarcerate in youth facility
  • - transfer when reaching 18 years

43
Procedures
  • (5) Dependency court
  • - civil proceedings
  • - dependent children
  • - Child Protective Services files
  • Sentencing laws
  • a. Indeterminate sentencing
  • - maximum and minimum
  • - release performance in custody

44
Procedures
  • b. Determinate sentence
  • - specific sentence
  • - shorter due to good time
  • c. Definite sentence
  • - fixed period
  • - no parole
  • d. Mandatory sentence
  • - specific sentence
  • - specific crime

45
Procedures
  • Sentencing options
  • - used by the court
  • a. Probation
  • - no state time
  • b. Work furlough
  • - released to go to work
  • - other time spent in jail
  • c. Intermittent sentence

46
Procedures
  • d. Fine
  • - set by law
  • e. Restitution
  • - pays victim
  • f. Community service order
  • - volunteer work in community
  • g. Court costs
  • - pay court fees

47
Procedures
  • Sentencing process
  • - concurrent vs. consecutive
  • a. Concurrent
  • - two or more sentences served at
  • same time
  • - one year served counts as one year
  • for all crimes convicted of
  • b. Consecutive
  • - serve sentence for one crime

48
Procedures
  • - before starting sentence for others
  • c. Probation / sentencing report
  • - Community Corrections
  • - Washington state
  • (1) File report prior to sentencing
  • - judge / prosecutor / defense
  • (2) Report includes
  • - social history

49
Procedures
  • - criminal history
  • - prior probation history
  • - current crime
  • Pleas in court
  • - different pleas can be made
  • a. Not guilty
  • - most common plea
  • - allows plea bargaining
  • - reduced sentence recommendation

50
Procedures
  • b. Guilty
  • - admits guilt
  • - accepts responsibility
  • c. Nolo contendere
  • - guilty
  • - cannot be used in civil trial
  • d. Standing mute
  • - will not enter plea
  • - court enters not guilty

51
Procedures
  • e. Insanity
  • - not guilty by reason of . . . .
  • - mental hearing
  • f. Statutory limitations
  • - statute of limitations expired
  • - set period of time for each crime
  • g. Alford Plea (Washington state)
  • - saying not guilty
  • - evidence will show otherwise

52
Procedures
  • Presenting evidence at trial
  • - foundation must be established
  • a. Testimony
  • - to show evidence is part of case
  • - witness will testify
  • - prosecution requests admittance
  • b. Three criteria
  • - relevant / material / competent
  • - judge decides

53
Procedures
  • (1) Relevant
  • - it is applicable to the issue in
  • question
  • - applies to the case
  • (2) Material
  • - it has a legitimate bearing on
  • the case
  • (3) Competent
  • - legally fit for presentation in court

54
Procedures
  • d. Rules of evidence
  • (1) Real evidence
  • - physical objects
  • (2) Testimonial evidence
  • - sworn statements in court
  • (3) Direct evidence
  • - eyewitness / DNA / fingerprints

55
Procedures
  • (4) Circumstantial evidence
  • - fact reasonably inferred
  • (5) Hearsay evidence
  • - that which is told to another
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