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A2 GCE Geography Unit 3

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A2 GCE Geography Unit 3 Geographical Superpowers Territory size shows proportion of worldwide GDP to be produced there in 2015 ECONOMIC INDICATORS Why is economic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A2 GCE Geography Unit 3


1
A2 GCE Geography Unit 3
  • Geographical Superpowers

2
Superpower Geographies 1. Superpower
Geographies a) defining superpowers b)
influencing power b) changing patterns of
power c) theories explaining the growth of
superpowers
  • Learning Objectives
  • To know what a superpower is
  • To know the changing order of superpowers since
    1945
  • To be able to suggest and justify criteria for
    becoming a superpower
  • To know how to use ICT for investigating
    geographical statistics

3
Background
  • Power both economic and political is not
    evenly distributed
  • Some nations and people have a disproportionate
    influence over decision making (may be regional
    or global)
  • Other nations and people have very limited
    influence
  • Some nations gain power over time, whilst others
    lose it
  • By consequence, the geography of power has
    changed over time and continues to change

4
What is a superpower?
superpower

A super power is a nation which is able to
project its power and influence anywhere in the
world. It is a dominant global force.
Copy this!
Short Task In pairs, use the cards you have
been given to decide which countries are
superpowers.
5
The word superpower was first used after the
second world war to refer to the USA, the British
Empire and the USSR.
Alice Lyman Miller (Professor of National
Security Affairs at the Naval Postgraduate
School), defines a superpower as "a country that
has the capacity to project dominating power and
influence anywhere in the world, and sometimes,
in more than one region of the globe at a time,
and so may plausibly attain the status of global
hegemon."
Hegemony leadership or dominance, especially by
one state or social group over others
6
superpower
True superpowers are rare because they demand
such huge resources. However, as you may have
guessed the global superpowers have changed over
time.
former superpower
emerging superpower
Task 1 Sort your chosen superpowers into three
groups.
  • Task 2 Timeline of Superpowers Write down the
    key dates in the timeline of global superpowers,
    you must include the names of the superpowers
    during each period.
  • 1850 1945 _________________________
  • 1945 1990 _________________________
  • 1990 Present _______________________
  • Emerging 21st Century Superpowers
    _________________________________

7
  • Rising superpowers The economic rise of the BRICs
    (Brazil, Russia, India and China) brings economic
    benefits to many, but also potential economic
    costs to the older superpowers (the USA and the
    EU), as well as having environmental and
    resource implications. In an increasingly
    globalised and inter-dependent world, it is
    possible that tensions will emerge as power
    continues to shift.

8
We now need to know what the criteria are for
becoming a superpower and be able to explain
these.
Criteria for being a successful student. 1)
Attendance 2) Punctuality 3) Attitude 4) Homework
How would you explain each of these criteria?
Superpowers are so interesting! I cant put this
book down!
9
Criteria for being a successful 80s pop
star. 1) 2)
What criteria would define a successful 80s pop
star? How would you explain this criteria?
10
So what does a country need in order to become a
global superpower?
How does a country become a superpower?
Your ideas in two minutes
Compare ideas with person next to you
Compare ideas with rest of class
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In the opinion of Kim Richard Nossal of Queen's
University, "generally this term was used to
signify a political community that occupied a
continental-sized landmass, had a sizable
population (relative at least to other major
powers) a superordinate economic capacity,
including ample indigenous supplies of food and
natural resources enjoyed a high degree of
non-dependence on international intercourse and,
most importantly, had a well-developed nuclear
capacity (eventually normally defined as
second-strike capability)."
22
What criteria defines a superpower?
population
resources
size
Criteria for defining a superpower
military strength
Economic strength
TASK In pairs choose one of the criteria and
discuss your ideas as to how it could define a
superpower. Can you think of any examples that
you already know?
23
Who are the superpowers?
  • Superpowers are countries, or grouping of
    countries, with global influence and power
  • They have economic, cultural, military and
    geo-political influence
  • Economic wealth (see graph) is only one aspect of
    superpower status
  • One way to group the world's most powerful is

24
  • Task using p 138-143 OXFORD and the slides coming
    up.
  • Investigate the following criteria which could
    create superpowers Physical size and geographic
    position, resources, Population size, Economic
    power and influence, military force and dominant
    belief systems. Create a table to show

Criteria Explanation of Benefits Drawbacks? Examples

25
SIZE
How might size be included in the criteria for a
superpower?
Each territorys size on the map is drawn
according to its land area
26
Size
  • Countries with a large land area are important
    because they
  • Tend to have greater natural resources
  • Extend influence over a larger number of
    neighbours
  • Russia has a very large land area with enormous
    volumes of natural resources. Further, it has 14
    neighbours over whom it is able to extend varying
    degrees of influence

27
POPULATION
Why might population be included in the criteria
for a superpower?
A map showing the proportion of worldwide
population relative to territory size
28
Population
  • Countries with a large population are seen as
    important because
  • Economic growth cannot be sustained without
    sufficient number of workers
  • e.g. UK
  • Cheap workers can help to promote economic growth
  • e.g. China and India
  • Larger populations encourage economic growth
    through markets
  • e.g. EU
  • However, some countries have managed to promote
    significant economic growth without a large
    population
  • e.g. Singapore

29
RESOURCES
Why is access to resources a criteria for
superpower?
A map showing the proportion of worldwide fuel
imports relative to territory size
30
Resources
  • Countries with resources necessary for economic
    development should hold significant power
  • e.g. Russia gas Middle East oil
  • However, countries with significant resources are
    not necessarily powerful because
  • Exporting raw materials adds little value
  • e.g. Australia iron ore
  • TNCs control large volumes of resources
  • e.g. BP - Nigeria

31
MILITARY INDICATORS
Why is military strength a criteria for
superpower?
A map showing the proportion of armed forces
personnel relative to territory size
32
Military Indicators
  • Countries with a large military may be viewed to
    be more powerful
  • e.g. India
  • However, the type of weapons owned is also
    representative of power
  • i.e. Countries in possession of nuclear
    weapons USA, Russia, UK, France, China, India,
    Pakistan, North Korea, (Israel)

33
The geography of power
  • In terms of superpower status, size is not
    everything
  • Some demographic superpowers have relatively
    little economic power
  • Military spending (see table) is one form of
    power, as it allows superpowers such as the USA
    to have global military reach
  • The USA is a highly influential power in
    economic, military, geopolitical and cultural
    terms
  • Only the EU comes close to the influence of the
    USA, but the EU is a federation of 27 nation
    states who do not always agree

2008/09 data Total Population (millions) Total military spending ( billions)
China 1,334 84
India 1,174 30
EU 500 280
USA 308 607
Indonesia 231 4
Brazil 192 15
Pakistan 168 4
Bangladesh 162 1
Nigeria 154 1
Russia 141 59
Japan 127 46
Mexico 107 4
Gulf States 40 40
34
ECONOMIC INDICATORS
Why is economic strength a criteria for
superpower?
Territory size shows proportion of worldwide GDP
to be produced there in 2015
35
Economic Indicators
  • Countries with the largest economies have a
    significant influence over global economies
  • In 2010, the worlds 10 largest economies were
  • 1USA 2China 3Japan 4India
  • 5Germany 6Russia 7Brazil 8UK
  • 9France 10Italy (based on GDP ppp)
  • Between these countries they
  • Earn around 2/3 of world GDP
  • Control investment
  • Use the worlds most powerful currencies (,
    and )
  • Determine economic policies which affect the
    globe
  • In addition, the G20 group (countries with the 19
    largest economies plus the EU) influence the
    global economy and control aid to LEDCs

36
Religion
37
Religion
  • Religion varies in influence across the world
  • The influence of European (predominantly
    Christian) colonisation can be seen in North and
    South America, southern Africa and Australasia
  • Islam is the main religion in northern Africa,
    the Middle East and parts of Asia
  • Religious leaders can influence politics through
    their beliefs (e.g. contraception, abortion)

38
Belief Systems
  • Religion is not the only form of belief system
  • Capitalism has a huge, and ever growing,
    influence on the world (particularly since the
    collapse of the USSR in 1991)
  • Capitalism is the system by which land, labour
    and capital are owned privately and are used to
    generate profit
  • Whilst not everyone agrees with capitalism, its
    influence reaches most of the world, aided by
    globalisation

39
Global Influence
  • All of the factors considered above are variable.
    By consequence, the influence countries have on
    surrounding nations and, more broadly, the world,
    can change.
  • Therefore, countries which may once have been
    considered Superpowers may no longer have such
    influence, whilst other countries are gaining in
    power

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Task 1 Rank this criteria used to define
superpowers in order of importance
RELIGION
R
S
SIZE
Task 2 Justify your choice.
P
POPULATION
R
RESOURCES
M
MILITARY STRENGTH
E
ECONOMIC STRENGTH
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http//www.youtube.com/watch?vnv9NwKAjmt0
  • Obama victory speech from 16.55

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