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Title: The%20Federalist%20Era:

The Federalist Era
  • An explosive era in American historyone that is
    vital to our development as a nation.

Washington assumes control
  • 4/30/1789
  • An exercise in simplicity
  • Ocean of difficulties
  • Washington is about the safest maybe not the
    best (although you could make a case for that)
    president we have ever had.
  • We knew exactly what we were getting

Tasks facing Washington
  • Create Bureaucracy the misunderstood branch of
    Governmentis it a branch, lacks a check/balance
  • Judiciary
  • Raise
  • Bill of Rights issue
  • Start governance for this nation
  • Steady foreign relations

Washington Heads the New Government
The New Government Takes Shape
Judiciary Act of 1789 Judiciary Act of 1789
creates Supreme, 3 circuit, 13 district
courts State court decisions may be appealed to
federal courts
Washington Shapes the Executive
Branch Washington elected first president of
U.S. in 1789 - executive branch is president,
vice president Congress creates State, War,
Treasury Departments Alexander Hamilton becomes
secretary of treasury Washington adds attorney
general these Department heads are Cabinet
Hamilton and Jefferson Debate
  • Hamilton and Jefferson in Conflict
  • Hamilton strong central government led by
    wealthy, educated
  • Jefferson strong state, local government
    peoples participation
  • Hamilton has Northern support Jefferson has
    Southern, Western
  • Hamiltons Economic Plan
  • U.S. owes millions to foreign countries, private
  • Planpay foreign debt, issue new bonds, assume
    states debt
  • Some Southern states have paid debts, against
    taxes to pay for North

Continued . . .
Cabinet Government
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Problem of National Debt
  • Hopefully we learned from the problems caused by
    Shays Rebellion?
  • 1790 estimates
  • Paying soldiersrevolution possible
  • the price of liberty
  • Hamilton the Economic whiz kidan important
    maligned figure in US History

Philosophies of Hamilton
  • 1st Conservative
  • Debt Assumption
  • Demonstrates the supremacy of the National
  • Laid ground work for Civil War?
  • Establishment of a National Bank?

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continued Hamilton and Jefferson Debate
Plan for a National Bank Hamilton proposes Bank
of the United States - funded by government,
private investors - issue paper money, handle
taxes Disagreement over Congressional authority
to establish bank Debate begins over strict and
loose interpretation of Constitution
The District of Columbia To win Southern
support for his debt plan, Hamilton suggests -
moving nations capital from NYC to
South Washington, D.C. planned on grand scale
government seat by 1800
The National Bank
  • Will serve to add to the problems of sectionalism
    and will be an issue for the next 100 years!
  • Case for a national bank series of papers
    authored by Hamiltonsummary
  • Currency
  • Investment
  • Upper class
  • Government finance and taxes

Heated controversy over the Bank?
  • Problemwill become the foundation for modern
  • Construction of the constitution
  • Political language, political interpretation and
    a reading of the Constitution.

Whiskey Rebellion
  • The first true test of the Constitutions power
    and authority.
  • What, and Why?

continued The First Political Parties and
The Whiskey Rebellion Protective tariff import
tax on goods produced overseas Excise tax
charged on products manufacture, sale, or
distribution In 1794, Pennsylvania farmers
refuse to pay excise tax on whiskey - beat up
federal marshals, threaten secession Federal
government shows it can enforce laws by sending
in militia
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The Foundation of Modern Politics The Political
  • Birth arising from the difference of opinion
    between Jefferson and Hamilton
  • Jeffersonians Republicans (modern Democrats)
  • Hamiltonians Federalists (modern Republicans)
  • Role of Newspapers

The First Political Parties and Rebellion
Federalists and Democratic-Republicans Split in
Washingtons cabinet leads to first U.S.
political parties - Jeffersons allies
Democratic-Republicans - Hamiltons allies
Federalists Two-party system established as two
major parties compete for power
Continued . . .
Conflicting Views
Two individuals two stark differences (page 215)
  • Hamilton
  • Elitist
  • Strong Central Govt
  • Balanced economy with National Bank
  • Ally of Britain
  • Model our nation after Britain
  • Jefferson
  • Common man
  • Distrusted privilege
  • Weak central government
  • Democratic govt
  • Agrarian economy
  • Support France

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Their Biggest Difference between the two men?
Construction of the Constitution
  • How should the constitution be interpreted?
  • Jefferson a strict constructionist reason
    beingthe best way to check the level of power of
    the large government
  • Hamilton a loose constructionist reason
    beingthe best way to enhance the level of
    governmental power.

Washingtons worst fear realized
  • One of the flaws in Washingtons armor.
  • Washington and King
  • A fierce advocate of Democracyyet?
  • Fear of factions
  • Benefits of Factions

Political Developments Aside
  • Foreign Policy takes center stage.
  • Frenchwhat to do?
  • Native Americans
  • Problem?
  • Revolution
  • Why do we feel the need for loyalty?

A Tale of Two Pictures?
The main difference?
  • Pursuit of goal, liberty?
  • Internal v. External destruction?
  • Probability of Success?

Why we didnt totally involve ourselves with
  • Problems with their revolutionary aims and
  • Problems over land disputes here in colonies
  • Rise of political factionism, political parties
    and the dispute between Jefferson and Hamilton
  • The idiocy of Edmond citizen Genetand his
    privateer approach in Florida. A clue dont
    irritate George Washington.

Pinckneys Treaty
  • Agreed upon with Spain
  • Set the boundary of the US at the 31st parallel
  • US gains Mississippi. (HUGE)

Britain tests US neutrality and authority.
  • The aforementioned problems along with those
    presented by the Britishhave illustrated the
    first challenge to the United States from a
    diplomatic perspective.
  • Britain and neutrality?
  • Why is our role so importantan explanation.

John Jay the Great Diplomat
  • His mission in Britainsimple-stop the seizure of
    American Vessels.
  • His secondary missionsecure neutral alliances if
    mission 1 fails!

Jays Treaty
  • No agreement to stop seizing ships
  • No agreement to leave the Ohio Valley (agreed to
    extend window by 18 months)
  • US had to repay British debts
  • Ummm
  • Damn John Jay, Damn any man who wont damn John
    Jay, Damn any man who wont stay up all night
    damning John Jay. Popular song of the day
  • I imagine I could find my way home (NY) by
    following the fires of burning effigies Jay

Problems with Indians
  • Vacuous western lands confusing in two
    regardswho runs them from our perspective and
    what about the Indians?
  • Remember the Iroqouis (4/6 of the groups) sided
    with the British during the Revolution and were
    obviously not in the best situation since our
  • The time saw a rise in raids on frontier areas
    and families

Indian Actions?
  • Scalping and home destruction were common
  • There destructive murderous raids became a major
    problem for the new nation.

  • Our response was unkind to the Indians and marks
    the beginning of our dramatic mistreatment and
    relocation movements of American Indians in the
    new national phase.
  • Indians will be forced to sell Ohio and much of
    Illinois for a mere 10,000 annually!

Harmars Defeat and Mad Anthony Wayne
  • Stunning defeat-Harmar Victory for Wayne whose
    name conjurs up images of heroism in US History.

Treaty of Greenville
  • The tribes agreed to surrender their claims to
    lands in the southeastern portion of the
    Northwest Territory (mostly present-day southern
    and eastern Ohio)
  • The tribes also gave up additional defined areas
    that were used by the whites as portages and fort
    locations. This category included Fort Detroit
    and the site of the future town of Chicago on
    Lake Michigan
  • The United States government agreed to make an
    immediate payment of to 20,000 in goods to the
    tribes, as well as annual payments of 9,500 in
    goods to be divided among specified tribes
  • The tribes retained the right to hunt throughout
    the area.

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The End of the Washington Era
  • Refused to serve a third term as
    Presidentestablished a trend.
  • Urged us in his notable Farewell Address to avoid
    Alliances and Factions and threatened that both
    could tear apart the Fragile nation.
  • The next question becomesWho succeeds the

Wellthat didnt last long
  • As soon as Washington and his term ended, the
    partisan war over who was to replace him began.
  • Federalist assumedyou know what is to assume
    that John Adams the VP founding father was the
    logical selection. Problem herewho to nominate
    for VP
  • Hamilton-the talented choice but people
    distrusted him for anything other than a cabinet
  • Selection for VP candidate by Federalists the
    controllable popular Thomas Pinckney

Federalist ticket for 1796
Republican strategy
  • A key opportunity they feared that the country
    after the success of Washington who most
    considered a Federalistwould lead to a monarchy
    of sorts for the Federalists.
  • So they nominated their most popular Candidate
    available to them and that was Thomas Jefferson.

Results a political catastrophe!
  • Order of finish
  • Adams-71
  • Jefferson-68
  • Followed by Pinckney, and Aaron Burr
  • A political calamitythe Constitution called for
    candidates 1, 2 to finish Pres. And then VP.
  • However, the Constitution did not account for the
    partisan nature of the new system.
  • So we have a federalist president, and republican

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Presidency of Adams
  • Characteristics
  • Good intentioned
  • Not very talented
  • Poor judge of character
  • An average President

  • Continuation of problems with France
  • Outraged by Jays treaty
  • French began siezing US vessels
  • Negotiation team sent to avoid war
  • Bribery and deception
  • Issue now becomesdo we go to war or not
  • Adams was able to secure peace without having to
    go to war but is was still a hated act?

Adams and Washingtonproblem
  • Both refused to accept themselves as political
    beingsviewed themselves above Partisan
  • This is not possible.
  • Adams was our first president to be
    criticizedand he got it bad from the
  • Adams takes it to the extreme! Alien and
    Sedition Acts

Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Under the threat of war with France, Congress in
    1798 passed four laws in an effort to strengthen
    the Federal government. Known collectively as the
    Alien and Sedition Acts, the legislation
    sponsored by the Federalists was also intended to
    quell any political opposition from the
    Republicans, led by Thomas Jefferson.
  • A series of Four Acts

Four Acts
  • The first of the laws was the Naturalization Act,
    passed by Congress on June 18. This act required
    that aliens be residents for 14 years instead of
    5 years before they became eligible for U.S.
  • Congress then passed the Alien Act on June 25,
    authorizing the President to deport aliens
    "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United
    States" during peacetime.

  • The third law, the Alien Enemies Act, was enacted
    by Congress on July 6. This act allowed the
    wartime arrest, imprisonment and deportation of
    any alien subject to an enemy power.
  • The last of the laws, the Sedition Act, passed on
    July 14 declared that any treasonable activity,
    including the publication of "any false,
    scandalous and malicious writing," was a high
    misdemeanor, punishable by fine and imprisonment.
    By virtue of this legislation twenty-five men,
    most of them editors of Republican newspapers,
    were arrested and their newspapers forced to shut

The effected!
  • One of the men arrested was Benjamin Franklin's
    grandson, Benjamin Franklin Bache, editor of the
    Philadelphia Democrat-Republican Aurora. Charged
    with libeling President Adams, Bache's arrest
    erupted in a public outcry against all of the
    Alien and Sedition Acts
  • The arrest of Franklin-Bache caused a public
    outrage that threatened the legitimacy of our
    Constitution and the presidency of Adams

Impacts of the Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Set the US on a very dangerous political course!
  • Threatened the future of American Party Politics
    and its greatest gift DISCOURSE
  • Further enhanced the bubbling sectional conflict
    that has been brewing since pre revolutionary
    dayswhy? Lets look at this again

The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
  • Led by our two main Democratic Republican
    forefathers Madison and Jefferson.
  • A movement in southern legislatures that
    denounced the acts as unconstitutional and their
    role as parties to the constitution gave them the
    power to nullifyexercise their rights of social
  • James Madison

Further impact
  • The acts encouraged other states to follow their
    lead and declare the acts of congress null and
    void however fortunately none did sowith the
    weakness of our court system at this time this
    could have torn apart the country.
  • A second harbinger to events of the civil warwhy?

Election of 1800
A very modern election for 1800!
  • Adams those who own the country ought to govern
  • Elitist, violator of civil rights.
  • An ally of Britain
  • Jefferson a defender of liberty
  • A heretic in the eyes of federalists
  • An unpopular ally of France

Results and Worry?
  • Worry
  • The sectional partisan election was so hotly
    contested the fear was that it could serve to
    tear the country apart!
  • Result
  • Jefferson-73
  • Adams-65
  • Only problem-Burr the VP candidate for Jefferson
    also got 73 votes!
  • Federalist congress has to break tie between

An unlikely result
  • Jefferson saved by the unlikely contribution of
    his hated adversary Alexander Hamilton! Why he
    hated Burr more!