Thinking - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Thinking

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Thinking Module 23: Thinking and Language Cognitive Abilities All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing and remembering Thinking: Concepts Module 23 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Thinking


1
Thinking
  • Module 23 Thinking and Language

2
Cognitive Abilities
  • All the mental activities associated with
    thinking, knowing and remembering

3
Thinking Concepts
  • Module 23 Thinking and Language

4
Concept
  • A mental grouping based on shared similarity
  • Categorizing items in ones environment

5
Prototype
  • A typical best example incorporating the major
    features of a concept
  • The closer a new object is to our concept
    prototype the easier it is to categorize it

6
Concept Hierarchy
  • A means to keep mental information organized from
    basic concepts to specific ones

7
Concept Hierarchy
8
ThinkingProblem Solving
  • Module 23 Thinking and Language

9
Algorithms
  • A problem solving strategy that guarantees the
    solution to the problem
  • Not always the most efficient method

10
Heuristics
  • A rule-of-thumb problem solving strategy that
    makes a solution more likely and efficient but
    does not guarantee a solution
  • These can be handy shortcuts, or they can get us
    into trouble

11
Insight
  • The sudden realization of the solution to a
    problem

12
ThinkingProblems Solving Problems
  • Module 23 Thinking and Language

13
Mental Set
  • A tendency to approach a problem in a particular
    way
  • The set may or may not be helpful in solving a
    new problem

14
Fixation
  • A mental set that hinders the solution of a
    problem
  • One needs to think beyond the mental set to solve
    the new problem

15
Confirmation Bias
  • The tendency to focus on information that
    supports ones preconceptions

16
Availability Heuristic
  • Uses information from our memory to judge the
    likelihood of events
  • Can be correct or incorrect

17
Overconfidence
  • The tendency to be more confident than correct
    when estimating the accuracy of ones beliefs and
    judgments

18
Framing
  • The way an issue is worded or presented
  • Can influence decisions and judgments

19
Belief Perseverance
  • Clinging to ones initial beliefs even after new
    information discredits the basis on which they
    were formed
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