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Trait Theory

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Title: Trait Theories Biological / Psychological Author: bradbury Last modified by: Owner Created Date: 3/22/2007 3:06:07 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Trait Theory


1
Trait Theory
  • SOC 112
  • Chapter 5

2
Biological Factors
  • First research (1500s)
  • - Giovanni Battista della Porta
  • - human features
  • a. Physiognomy
  • - The art of judging human character
  • from facial features
  • b. School of Physiognomy
  • - character
  • - contours of face

3
Factors
  • Continued late 1700s / early 1800s
  • a. Phrenology
  • - Franz Joseph Gall
  • - bumps / irregularities on head
  • b. Theory
  • - outside / inside of head (brain)
  • - measure shape / measure behavior
  • - traits studied

4
Factors, cont.
  • c. Personality theory
  • - divided into specific traits
  • d. Cesare Lombroso
  • - atavistic criminals
  • - appearance (body / head shape)
  • Lombroso (Positive School) 1835 to 1909
  • - biological theories
  • - biological criminal
  • - Born Criminal

5
Factors, cont.
  • a. Categories of criminal
  • - epileptic
  • - insane
  • - born
  • - occasional
  • b. First three
  • - physical / mental weaknesses
  • - physical features
  • - moral imbeciles

6
Factors, cont.
  • c. Occasional (drawn into / fall into)
  • - habitual
  • - passionate
  • - political
  • - criminaloids
  • d. Atavism
  • - evolutionary throwbacks
  • - characteristic of savages
  • - pre-human creatures
  • - diminishes evolutionary process

7
Factors, cont.
  • e. Theory of evolution
  • - evolved / more complex
  • - higher stage of development
  • (1) Criminals
  • - physically different
  • - physically inferior
  • - not evolved
  • (2) Crimes committed
  • - characteristics distinguished

8
Factors, cont.
  • - according to crime committed
  • (3) Treatment
  • - compared to wild animals
  • - needed rehabilitation
  • - more than imprisonment
  • Physique and crime
  • - constitutional approaches
  • a. Behavior determined by

9
Factors, cont.
  • - body structure
  • - other physical characteristics
  • - the mind
  • b. William Sheldon (1940s)
  • - first approach to physical characteristics
  • - compared body type to temperament
  • - 3 body types
  • (1) Ectomorph

10
Factors, cont.
  • - tall / skinny body
  • - easily excitable person
  • (2) Endomorph
  • - short / fat body
  • - easily agitated
  • (3) Mesomorph
  • - athletic body
  • - gregarious / assertive
  • - action oriented

11
Theories of Crime
  • Biological theories
  • - caused by biological process
  • - genetic makeup / things eaten
  • a. Heredity
  • - do criminals inherit bad genes
  • (1) Belief structure determines behavior
  • - people behave differently
  • (2) Chromosomes / genes / chemistry

12
Theories, cont.
  • (3) Brain scan study (1980s)
  • - areas of inactivity in criminals
  • - control study
  • (4) University of Texas (1997)
  • - hair trigger tempers
  • - impairment frontal / parietal lobes
  • b. Twin studies
  • - genetically predetermined
  • - identical / fraternal

13
Theories, cont.
  • (1) Monozygotic (MZ) twins (identical)
  • - single fertilized egg
  • - two embryos
  • - share all genes
  • (2) Dizygotic (DZ) twins (fraternal)
  • - two separate eggs
  • - fertilized same time
  • - share half their genes
  • (3) Greater behavioral similarity identical

14
Theories, cont.
  • c. Adoptive study
  • - separate influence of inherited traits
  • - from environmental conditions
  • (1) Adoptive / biological parents
  • - no criminal record
  • - 13.5 convicted
  • (2) Criminal adoptive / noncriminal biological
  • - 14.7 convicted

15
Theories, cont.
  • (3) Non-criminal adoptive / criminal
    biological
  • - 20 convicted
  • (4) Criminal adoptive and biological
  • - 24.4 convicted
  • d. Findings support claim
  • - criminality of biological parents
  • - more influence on child

16
Theories, cont.
  • Biochemical factors
  • - food allergies / diet / hypoglycemia / etc
  • a. Allergies
  • - aggression / antisocial behavior
  • - chocolate / caffeine / artificial
    sweeteners
  • / food enhancers
  • b. Diets
  • - high in sugar / carbohydrates
  • - vitamin deficiency / dependency

17
Biochemical, cont.
  • c. Hypoglycemia
  • - sugar in blood
  • - 80 to 120 mgs
  • - low impair brain function
  • d. Hormones
  • - abnormal levels
  • - testosterone (males)
  • - PMS (females)
  • Biosocial theories

18
Biosocial, cont.
  • Edward O. Wilson
  • - Sociobiology The New Synthesis (1975)
  • a. Genetic explanations
  • - altruism / homosexuality / male
    dominance / conformity
  • - sociobiology concepts
  • b. Biosocial criminology
  • - study from biological perspective
  • - interaction biology / environment

19
Biosocial, cont.
  • c. Biological concepts / environment
  • - two contributing aspects
  • - long-term survival
  • (1) Altruism
  • - selfless / helping behavior
  • - law abiding / non-law abiding
  • - primary determinant
  • (2) Territoriality
  • - explains conflict

20
Biosocial, cont.
  • - associate with group / territory
  • - terms behavior tribalism
  • (3) Explains intra-group aggression
  • - within / between
  • - location / possessions / other
    people
  • Constitutional Factors
  • - more than just sociobiology
  • - all aspects applied

21
Constitutional, cont.
  • a. Gender
  • - predominantly male
  • b. Age
  • - aging out process
  • c. Body type
  • - mesomorph / ectomorph / endomorph
  • d. Intelligence
  • - associated with low intelligence

22
Constitutional, cont.
  • e. Personality
  • - aggressive / impulsive / cruel
  • 3. Crime prevention
  • - biologically designed
  • a. Pre/post natal care
  • - developmental conditions
  • b. Monitoring children
  • - identify early symptoms

23
Constitutional, cont.
  • c. Reduce exposure
  • - child abuse / violence
  • d. Neurological exams
  • - CAT / PET / MRI
  • e. Biological research
  • - prisons
  • - treatment facilities
  • - identify root causes

24
Difference / Defectiveness Theory
  • Frederick Wohler (1828)
  • - bio-chemically different
  • - biochemical imbalance
  • a. Neuro-endocrinology
  • - imbalance of body chemicals
  • - glandular system
  • b. Endocrine glands
  • - certain hormones
  • - irrational behavior

25
Dif / Def, cont.
  • (1) Research
  • - relationship
  • - lower aggressive / dominant / hostile
  • (2) PM Syndrome / PM Tension
  • - factors violent personal crime
  • - imbalance estrogen / progesterone
  • (a) Suicide / attempts / psychological
    admissions / medical problems /
    crimes

26
Dif / Def, cont.
  • Neurochemistry
  • - imbalance poor diet
  • - effect on human behavior
  • a. Diet lacks iodine
  • - China
  • - 10 million mentally retarded
  • b. CNS
  • - brain adapts physically to threats
  • - poverty / abuse / neglect / deprivation

27
Dif / Def, cont.
  • c. Bio-criminology
  • - biological variables
  • - study of modern criminology
  • 3. Evolutionary views
  • - violence
  • - long process / human evolution
  • a. Born criminal
  • - develop into / beliefs over time
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