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Globalization and Transnationalism


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Title: Globalization and Transnationalism

Globalization and Transnationalism
  • PS130 World Politics
  • Michael R. Baysdell

Globalization/International Trade
  • Your pencil contains
  • Graphite from Sri Lanka
  • Mississippi mud
  • Mexican carnauba wax
  • Canadian wood
  • Lacquer made from Mexican castor beans
  • Australian zinc or Michigan copper
  • Rubber from Malaysia
  • Pumice (derivative of rapeseed oil) from
  • Trade isnt very important, now, is it?

Changes in the International System That Lead to
Globalization and Transnationalism
  • New realities and threats to international
    security (terrorism cant be handled by 1 country
  • Increased human interaction
  • Political identity transcending national borders
  • Myriad of regional and global linkstrade,
  • Recent Chinese-African relations a good example

  • Multifaceted concept representing the increasing
    international integration of economics,
    communications, and culture
  • Creates opportunities and problems
  • Opportunities spread of technologies, markets
  • Problems/Challenges
  • Countries cant handle content flows
  • Disproportionately empowers women
  • India example as challenge of globalization
    Bangalore v. the ultrasound machines
  • Accelerated by government policy technology

  • Globalization a process transnationalism
  • Attitudinal human interactions that connect
    humans across nations and national boundaries.
  • Transnationalism preceded and has been spurred by
  • Substantially counternationalistundermines
    nationalism by internationalizing political
    loyalties (Parties in the EU Parliament)

Globalization of Communications Transportation
  • Advances in modern transportation for both moving
    people and goods
  • Trade and tourism promote familiarity
  • Growth in ocean-going transportation and
    declining cost of shipping
  • Growth in communication capabilities--telephone
    service booming, 24 hour news (CNN, FOX,
  • Instantaneous news and information available over
    the Internet

Impacts of Globalized Communications
  • Formation and growth of a multitude of
    transnational groups
  • Distant events become realities through medias
    undermining of authoritarian governments
  • Democratic Internationalism
  • Access to alternative information and opinions

Economic Globalization
  • Trade expands markedly
  • Merchandise v. Services trade develops (LDCs and
    NICs provide merchandise EDCs provide services
  • Impacts jobs, wages, and the costs of goods and
  • Increased demand for raw and synthetic resources
    (not just oil, but lithium, gold, and diamonds)
  • Connections continue to grow more complex and
  • Increased investment financial interdependence
    (1998 Asian currency crisis, 2007-09 world
    recession caused by U.S. subprime mortgages)
  • MNCs contribute most Foreign Direct Investment
  • FDI much preferable to foreign aid (Barnett)
  • Monetary exchange requires increased financial
    services worldwide, and very large banks (good?)
  • Increased economic interchange bringing people
    and cultures together
  • Promotes global/cultural familiarity through

Cultural Globalization
  • Existence of a global civil society?
  • Spread of a common culture (McWorld)
  • English the common language of business,
    diplomacy, communications, etc.
  • Interchange of popular consumer goods (movies,
    music, and clothing)
  • American culture dominance fuel for some

Global Reactions to Cultural Homogenization
  • Mixedboth ambivalence and resistance
  • Threatens to erode traditions and cultural
  • But, allows for more options and choices
  • France embodies this contradictory reaction to
    American cultural and linguistic influences
  • But thats supposing you notice whats actually
    happeningmost people DONT

Thomas Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree
  • Thesis Globalization is the new international
    system that has followed the Cold War and
    influences world geopolitics and economics
  • The world is currently undergoing two struggles
    the drive for prosperity and development,
    symbolized by the Lexus, and the desire to retain
    identity and traditions, symbolized by the olive
  • He says he came to this realization while eating
    a sushi box lunch on a Japanese bullet train
    after visiting a Lexus factory and reading an
    article about conflict in the Middle East
  • Big concept (p.232) -If you can't see the world,
    and you can't see the interactions that are
    shaping the world, you surely cannot strategize
    about the world." He states that, "you need a
    strategy for how to choose prosperity for your
    country or company.
  • Introduces Golden Arches Theory of Conflict
    Prevention No two countries that both possess
    McDonalds have ever gone to war against each

Thomas Friedman, The World is Flat (2006)
  • Thesis Globalization has changed core economic
  • This flattening is a product of a convergence of
    personal computer with fiber-optic micro cable
    with the rise of work flow software.
  • He termed this period as Globalization 3.0,
    differentiating this period from the previous
    Globalization 1.0 (in which countries and
    governments were the main protagonists) and the
    Globalization 2.0 (in which multinational
    companies led the way in driving global
  • To fight the quiet crisis of a flattening world,
    the United States work force should keep updating
    its work skills. Making the work force more
    adaptable, Friedman argues, will keep it more
    employable. He also suggests that the government
    should make it easier to switch jobs by making
    retirement benefits and health insurance less
    dependent on one's employer and by providing
    insurance that would partly cover a possible drop
    in income when changing jobs. Friedman also
    believes there should be more inspiration for
    youth to be scientists, engineers, and
    mathematicians due to a decrease in the
    percentage of these professionals being American.
  • 10 things/events flattened the world

10 Forces that Flattened the World (Friedman)
  • 1 Collapse of the Berlin Wall 11/9/89 The
    event not only symbolized the end of the Cold
    War, it allowed people from other side of the
    wall to join the economic mainstream. "11/9/89"
    is a discussion about the Berlin Wall coming
    down, the "fall" of communism, and the impact
    that Windows powered PCs (personal computers) had
    on the ability of individuals to create their own
    content and connect to one another. At this
    point, the basic platform for the revolution to
    follow was created IBM PC, Windows, a
    standardized graphical interface for word
    processing, dial up modems, a standardized tool
    for communication, and a global phone network.
  • 2 Netscape 8/9/95 Netscape and the Web
    broadened the audience for the Internet from its
    roots as a communications medium used primarily
    by "early adopters and geeks" to something that
    made the Internet accessible to everyone from
    five-year-olds to ninety-five-year olds. The
    digitization that took place meant that everyday
    occurrences such as words, files, films, music
    and pictures could be accessed and manipulated on
    a computer screen by all people across the world.
  • 3 Workflow software The ability of machines to
    talk to other machines with no humans involved,
    as stated by Friedman. Friedman believes these
    first three forces have become a "crude
    foundation of a whole new global platform for
    collaboration". There was an emergence of
    software protocols (SMTP simple mail transfer
    protocol HTML the language that enabled anyone
    to design and publish documents that could be
    transmitted to and read on any computer anywhere)
    Standards on Standards.
  • 4 Uploading Communities uploading and
    collaborating on online projects. Examples
    include open source software, blogs, and
    Wikipedia. Friedman considers the phenomenon "the
    most disruptive force of all".
  • 5 Outsourcing Friedman argues that outsourcing
    has allowed companies to split service and
    manufacturing activities into components which
    can be subcontracted and performed in the most
    efficient, cost-effective way. This process
    became easier with the mass distribution of fiber
    optic cables during the introduction of the World
    Wide Web.

Friedmans 10 Forces (Contd)
  • 6 Offshoring The internal relocation of a
    company's manufacturing or other processes to a
    foreign land to take advantage of less costly
    operations there. China's entrance in the WTO
    (World Trade Organization) allowed for greater
    competition in the playing field. Now countries
    such as Malaysia, Mexico, Brazil must compete
    against China and each other to have businesses
    offshore to them.
  • 7 Supply-chaining Friedman compares the modern
    retail supply chain to a river, and points to
    Wal-Mart as the best example of a company using
    technology to streamline item sales,
    distribution, and shipping.
  • 8 Insourcing Friedman uses UPS as a prime
    example for insourcing, in which the company's
    employees perform services beyond shipping
    for another company. For example, UPS repairs
    Toshiba computers on behalf of Toshiba. The work
    is done at the UPS hub, by UPS employees.
  • 9 In-forming Google and other search engines
    are the prime example. "Never before in the
    history of the planet have so many people on
    their own had the ability to find so much
    information about so many things and about so
    many other people," writes Friedman. The growth
    of search engines is tremendous for example take
    Google, in which Friedman states that it is "now
    processing roughly one billion searches per day,
    up from 150 million just three years ago".
  • 10 "The Steroids" Personal digital devices
    like mobile phones, iPods, personal digital
    assistants, instant messaging, and voice over
    Internet Protocol (VoIP). Digital, Mobile,
    Personal and Virtual all analog content and
    processes (from entertainment to photography to
    word processing) can be digitized and therefore
    shaped, manipulated and transmitted virtual
    these processes can be done at high speed with
    total ease mobile can be done anywhere,
    anytime by anyone and personal can be done by
  • These are multiplied by a triple convergence

Triple Convergence (Friedman)
  • In addition to the ten flatteners, Friedman
    offers "the triple convergence", three additional
    components that acted on the flatteners to create
    a new, flatter global playing field.
  • Up until the year 2000, the ten flatteners were
    semi-independent from one another. An example of
    independence is the inability of one machine to
    perform multiple functions.
  • When work-flow software and hardware converged,
    multiple functions such as e-mail, fax, printing,
    copying and communicating were able to be done
    from one machine.
  • Around the year 2000, all the flatteners
    converged with one another. This convergence
    could be compared to complementary goods, in that
    each flattener enhanced the other flatteners the
    more one flattener developed, the more leveled
    the global playing field became.
  • After the emergence of the ten flatteners, a new
    business model was required to succeed. While the
    flatteners alone were significant, they would not
    enhance productivity without people being able to
    use them together.
  • Instead of collaborating vertically (the top-down
    method of collaboration, where innovation comes
    from the top), businesses needed to begin
    collaborating horizontally. Horizontalization
    means companies and people collaborate with other
    departments or companies to add value creation or
  • Friedman's Convergence II occurs when
    horizontalization and the ten flatteners begin to
    reinforce each other and people understand the
    capability of the technologies available.
  • After the fall of the Berlin Wall, countries that
    had followed the Soviet economic model
    including India, China, Russia, and the nations
    of Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Central
    Asia began to open up their economies to the
    world. When these new players converged with the
    rest of the globalized marketplace, they added
    new brain power to the whole playing field and
    enhanced horizontal collaboration across the
    globe. In turn, Convergence III is the most
    important force shaping politics and economics in
    the early 21st century.

Evaluating Globalization
  • The Good
  • The Bad
  • Open economies will lead to more prosperity, more
    evenly distributed
  • Longer, more fulfilling lives for more people
    around the globe
  • More democracies
  • Decreasing sense of difference among people
  • Prosperity may not lead to peace
  • Benefits not distributed evenly now
  • Wealthy EDCs exploit NICs/LDCs cheap labor
  • Virtual colonialization
  • Undermines diversity, creates 1 culture through
    cultural imports

  • Both preceded and spurred by globalization
  • Phenomena connecting humans across nations and
  • Sources of transnationalism
  • Gglobal interaction
  • Human thought Stoicism, Confucianism, Buddhism,
    Hinduism, Roman Catholic Church universalistic
  • Thomas Paine (Rights of Man, 1791)
  • Immanuel Kant
  • Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels
  • Undermines nationalism and promotes
    cross-national political activity and even
    political loyalties
  • Both action and identification elements

Contemporary Transnational Thought
  • Postmodernism A radically critical approach that
    seeks to deconstruct the practice of
    international politics
  • Constructivism Attempts to redefine
    international politics as a social process in
    terms of agents and structures
  • Feminism Focuses on socially defined relations
    in order to transform how we conceptualize gender
    and international politics

Transnationalism in Action Nongovernmental
Organizations (NGOs)
  • Growth of NGOs
  • Over 47,000 worldwide
  • Representing a diversity of interests
  • WHY?
  • Disenchantment with existing political
  • Response to transnational nature of many issues
    (e.g., climate change and human rights)
  • Advances in transportation and communication

Activities of NGOs
  • Gaining legitimacyincreased funding (private)
  • Advance many causes, moving them to the center of
    the political stage
  • Examples gender issues, human rights, and
    climate change
  • Facilitate networks of contacts and interaction
  • Domestic lobbying
  • Participation in Multinational conferences
    (Copenhagen 2009)
  • Pressure governments to support their causes
  • Women's Environment and Development Organization

Regional Transnationalism
  • European Union (EU)
  • Most politically and economically integrated
    region in the world. Identity increasing (exEU
  • Still tension between national and EU identity
  • Economic integration began, 1951, 1957
  • Political integration since Maastricht Treaty,
  • European constitution rejected by voters in
    France and the Netherlands in 2005
  • Treaty of Lisbon ratified by all members, 2009,
    puts process back on track

Transnational Culture
  • Could be path towards greater harmony
  • Could be path towards greater conflict
  • Common culture
  • Language
  • Modern communications
  • Consumer productsThe Culture of McWorld
  • Macro-level approach
  • Huntingtons Clash of Civilizations

Samuel Huntington, Clash of Civilizations (1992)
  • World politics is entering a new phase, in which
    the great divisions among humankind and the
    dominating source of conflict will be cultural.
  • Civilizations-the highest cultural groupings of
    people-are differentiated from each other by
    religion, history, language and tradition. These
    divisions are deep and increasing in importance.
  • The fundamental source of conflict in this new
    world will not be primarily ideological or
    primarily economic. The great divisions among
    humankind and the dominating source of conflict
    will be cultural. Nation states will remain the
    most powerful actors in world affairs, but the
    principal conflicts of global politics will occur
    between nations and groups of different
    civilizations. The clash of civilizations will
    dominate global politics. The fault lines between
    civilizations will be the battle lines of the
  • In this emerging era of cultural conflict the
    United States must forge alliances with similar
    cultures and spread its values wherever possible.
    With alien civilizations the West must be
    accommodating if possible, but confrontational if
  • In the final analysis, however, all civilizations
    will have to learn to tolerate each other.

Huntingtons Civilizations
Analysis of Huntington
  • Rejected by most scholars in the 1990s
  • After the September 11, 2001 attacks, Huntington
    has been increasingly regarded as having been
    prescient in light of
  • The United States invasion of Afghanistan.
  • The 2002 Bali Bombings.
  • The 2003 Invasion of Iraq.
  • The 2004 Madrid train bombings.
  • The 2006 cartoon crisis.
  • The 2005 London bombings.
  • The ongoing Iranian nuclear crisis.
  • The 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict.
  • The 2008-09 Israel-Gaza conflict.

Transnational Religion Religion and World
  • Ancient force in international politics
  • Could be a force for good Peace, justice,
    humanitarianism, but rarely is
  • Can ignite or exacerbate conflicts
  • Source of bloody conflict, subjugation of peoples
  • Crusades, Thirty Years' War, imperial era,
    Israel, India/Pakistan, Yugoslavia, Ireland, Iraq
  • Exerts influence through IGOs and NGOs
  • Roman Catholic Church
  • History of Yugoslavia and Israel

  • Formerly part of Austro-Hungarian Empire
    Versailles State
  • 1918 Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
    name change 1929
  • King Alexander I curbs nationalism
  • Attacked 1941 by Axis Powers
  • Held together after 1945 by Josip Broz Tito and
    Soviet influence
  • Tito dies in 1980, no charismatic leader replaces
  • 3-4 leaders control Consul of Leadership
  • Break up in 1989-90
  • Slovenia CroatiaWere prosperous, we want
  • Germany 1st to recognize Croatia (no surprise
    thereformet puppet)
  • Serbia claims rest of Yugoslavia is under their
    control , 1992
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina hotbed of diversity. 3 ethnic
    groups, all hate each other and none dominant
    (31 Serb 45 Muslim 16 Croat).
  • 1995 Dayton Accord leads to peace
  • Macedonia Independent
  • Kosovo, Vojvodina autonomous (Kosovo ethnically
    composed of Albanians)
  • Finally, Montenegro votes to split from Serbia,
  • Yugoslavia gone.

The Breakup of Yugoslavia The Aftermath
The Strength of Religious Fundamentalism
  • Fundamentalism-refers to a belief in a strict
    adherence to a set of basic principles (often
    religious in nature), sometimes as a reaction to
    perceived doctrinal compromises with modern
    social and political life.
  • Religion defines political identity
  • Can be found in
  • India and PakistanHindu v. Muslim, Kashmir
  • Iraq and IranSunni v. Shia
  • IsraelUnited Jerusalem
  • United StatesConservative movement

Islam and the World
  • Over 1 billion Muslims worldwide
  • Only one of four Muslims is an Arab
  • Muhammad prophet who received Allahs teachings
  • Koran divine instructions and written word of
  • Multiple interpretations of jihad
  • Triumphant beginning
  • Conflict with Christian powers
  • Domination of Muslims by others

Islam and Nationalism
  • Muslim pride
  • Pan-Arab (ummah) sentiment
  • Palestinian Liberation Organization
  • Yet much diversity within Islamummah unlikely
  • Iraq-Iran war (conflict between countries)
  • Nationalism still prevalent
  • Sectarianism Shiites versus Sunnis
  • Traditionalists (Iran) versus secularists
  • Ethnic differences within Islam

Islam and the Non-Islamic World
  • Deep-seated anti-Western sentiments
  • Ex Iran Friday Prayers Chant
  • Fueled by Iraq war, Western support of autocratic
    and repressive regimes in the Middle East, and
    Israeli-Palestinian conflict
  • Perceptions of Western secular threats to Islamic
    cultural traditions and mores
  • People more open to Western culture than leaders
    (rural Iran)

Transnational Movements Women in the World
  • Women are underrepresented in every country. In
    NO country are women socioeconomically or
    politically equal
  • Gap greater in LDCs
  • Differing worldviews and conceptions of peace and
  • Agenda for change
  • Increase women's political participation
  • Improve women's reality
  • Education Impact of women's illiteracy on
    entire society

Women are underrepresented in world politics
  • Conceptual differences between male and female
    points of view
  • Differing views of politics
  • Peace
  • Security
  • Agenda for change
  • Increase women's political participation.
  • Improve women's reality
  • Education Impact of women's illiteracy on
    entire society

Goals of the Transnational Womens Movement
  • Transformation nationally and internationally
  • More than simply a drive for power
  • Gender equality benefits society as a whole

Programs and Organization of the Transnational
Womens Movement
  • Explosion of information and coordination efforts
    on the Internet
  • Global conferences
  • UN Conference on Population and Development
  • Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing (WCW)
  • Beijing5 Conference

Impact of Women in Politics
  • Cultural differences among women narrowing
  • Advancement of women in politics
  • UN Security Council Resolution 1325 Urges Member
    States to ensure increased representation of
    women at all decision-making levels in national,
    regional and international institutions and
    mechanisms for the prevention, management, and
    resolution of conflict

Transnationalism Tomorrow
  • Common culture versus nationalism
  • English predominant
  • Lasting impacts of globalization and
    transnational movements on efforts to address
    climate change, protecting human rights, and
    promoting public health.

  • After reading this chapter, students should be
    able to
  • 1. Explain the evolution of transnational thought
  • 2. Define the concepts of globalization and
  • 3. Identify the various aspects of globalization
    and indicate how they relate to transnationalism.
  • 4. Analyze the changes in transportation,
    communications, international economic exchange,
    and cultural amalgamation, which have promoted
  • 5. Explain the arguments for economic and
    cultural globalization as well as the concerns
    about economic and cultural globalization.
  • 6. Comment knowledgably on the growth, activity,
    and transnational impact of nongovernmental
  • 7. Indicate the progress of regional
    transnationalism in Europe.
  • 8. Examine the cohesive and divisive effects of
    transnational culture.
  • 9. Discuss the transnational elements of
  • 10. Examine both the positive and negative roles
    of religion in world politics.
  • 11. Analyze, as a case study, the role of Islam
    in world politics.
  • 12. Identify transnational activity of the
    womens movement and trace its progress.
  • 13. Identify barriers to transnationalism in the