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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM CHAPTER 15 BLOOD PRESSURE BLOOD PRESSURE Definition Fluid pressure exerted on walls of vessels Usually arterial pressure Decreases as distance ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM


1
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
  • CHAPTER 15
  • BLOOD PRESSURE

2
BLOOD PRESSURE
  • Definition
  • Fluid pressure exerted on walls of vessels
  • Usually arterial pressure
  • Decreases as distance from heart decreases
  • Fluctuations between ventricular contractions
  • Systolic number top number
  • Pressure as ventricles contract
  • Arteries expand ? pulse
  • Diastolic bottom number
  • Resting pressure as ventricles relax
  • Pulse pressure difference between systolic and
    diastolic pressures
  • Directly related to cardiac cycle

DIAGRAM
3
HOW TO TAKE C.A. 15.5 (598)
  • Sphygomanometer
  • Attach cuff to upper left arm
  • Brachial artery
  • Increase cuff pressure greater than arterial
    pressure
  • Place stethoscope on antecubital
  • No sound ? no blood flow
  • Slowly decrease pressure
  • 2-5 mmHg / sec for best results
  • Korotkoffs Sound thump
  • When you first hear sound Systolic
  • When you stop hearing sound diastolic
  • Normal values 120/80
  • Younger people lower normal BP
  • Hypertension abnormally high BP

PRESSURE IN VESSELS
4
FACTORS AFFECTING PRESSURE
  • Heart Action
  • Stroke Volume amt. / heart beat
  • Cardiac Output amt. / minute
  • Stroke volume X heart rate
  • Increase action increase BP
  • Blood Volume
  • More Blood higher BP
  • Blood Viscosity
  • Peripheral Resistance
  • Vasoconstriction and vasodilation
  • Disease
  • Atherosclerosis fatty deposits (cholesterol)
  • Arteriosclerosis hardening of arteries

5
CONTROL AND PROBLEMS
  • Starlings Law of Heart- greater the distention
    greater the force of contraction
  • Keeps blood flowing
  • Baroreceptors in carotid art. and aorta
  • Cardiac center
  • Parasympathetica and sympathetic NS
  • Exercise, body temp, emotions
  • Vasomotor reflexes
  • Chemical influences
  • CO2, H ions, O2
  • Hypertension chronic high blood pressure
  • Silent killer heart overgrowth
  • Aneurysm
  • Embolisms
  • Stroke
  • Kidney diseases
  • Angiotensin II
  • Alsosterone
  • High sodium
  • Obesity
  • Stress
  • Treatment
  • Lifestyle and medications

6
Blood Pressure and the Cardiac Cycle
7
Pressure Vs Distance
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