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Dimensions of Culture

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Title: Dimensions of Culture


1
Dimensions of Culture
2
Dimensions of Culture
  • Geert Hofstede (Dutch management researcher)
  • Individualism Versus Collectivism
  • Masculinity Versus Femininity
  • Power Distance
  • Uncertainty Avoidance
  • Long- Term Versus Short- Term Orientation
  • Polychronic Versus Monochronic
  • High- Context Versus Low- Context
  • Relationship- Driven Versus Task- Driven
  • Concepts of the Future

3
Dimensions of Culture
  • Individualism Versus Collectivism(P184)
  • American Proverb
  • God help those who help themselves.
  • Do you like to do.
  • Chinese Proverb
  • No matter how stout, one beam cannot support a
    house.
  • For those at home, turn to your parents for
    help for those outside, turn to your friends for
    help.
  • The nail that sticks up is pounded down.
  • The highest blade of grass is always the
    first to be cut.

4
Dimensions of Culture
  • Individualism Versus Collectivism
  • Differences
  • Individual vs group
  • Loose ties vs tight ties
  • Setting goals
  • What have you done? vs Who are you related?
  • direct communication vs indirect communication

5
Dimensions of Culture
  • Individualism Versus Collectivism
  • Associations with this dimension
  • Wealth
  • Geography
  • Birth rates
  • History

6
Dimensions of Culture
  • Masculinity Versus Femininity
  • masculinity? assertiveness, competition, material
  • success
  • femininity? quality of life, interpersonal
    relationships,
  • concern for the weak
  • In work place
  • masculine culture? decisive and assertive
  • feminine culture? use intuition and strive for
    consensus

7
Dimensions of Culture
8
Dimensions of Culture
  • Masculinity Versus Femininity
  • Associations with this dimension
  • Geography
  • Birth

9
Dimensions of Culture
  • Power Distance
  • Chinese proverb
  • Let the emperor be an emperor, the minister a
    minister, the father a father and the son a son.
    (Conficius)
  • Five relations ruler /subject, father /son,
    elder brother /young brother, husband /wife,
    friend /friend. (Confucius)

10
Dimensions of Culture
  • Power Distance
  • American proverb
  • All men are born equal.
  • Although we describe ourselves as a nation of
    equals, there is little doubt that some of us
    rank as more equal than others. (Macionis)

11
Dimensions of Culture
  • Power Distance
  • ---gt the extent to which less powerful members of
    institutions and organizations within a country
    expect and accept that power is distributed
    unequally
  • ---gt the extent to which power, prestige, and
    wealth are distributed within a culture. (P195)

12
Dimensions of Culture
  • Power Distance
  • Associations with this dimension
  • Geography
  • Population
  • Wealth
  • History

13
Dimensions of Culture
  • Uncertainty Avoidance
  • ---gt the extent to which people in a culture feel
    threatened
  • by uncertain or unknown situations(P197)

14
Dimensions of Culture
  • Uncertainty Avoidance
  • Chinese Proverb
  • Beforehand preparation leads to
  • success unprepareness results in failure.
  • The past is as clear as a mirror, the future as
    dark as
  • lacquer.

15
Dimensions of Culture
  • Uncertainty Avoidance
  • American Proverb
  • The future is called perhaps, which is the
    only
  • possible thing to call the future.
  • In these matters the only certainty is that
    nothing is
  • certain.

16
Dimensions of Culture
  • Uncertainty Avoidance
  • Associations with this dimension
  • Religion
  • History

17
Dimensions of Culture
  • Long- term versus Short- term Orientation
  • -? values as thrift, persistence, having a sense
    of shame and ordering relationships.

18
Dimensions of Culture
  • Polychronic versus Monochronic
  • Polychronic do multiple tasks simultaneously.
  • linear time and limited
  • Monochronic do one thing at a time.
  • circular time and eternal.

19
Dimensions of Culture
  • Relationship- Driven versus Task- Driven
  • Relationship- driven ? feminine culture, high-
    context ones
  • Task- driven -? masculine culture, low- context
    ones

20
Dimensions of Culture
  • Concepts of the Future
  • How a culture views time and time horizons is
    critical in how business relationships are
    founded and contracts negotiated.
  • An obsession with promptness
  • A much more relaxed and casual attitude towards
    punctuality

21
Dimensions of Culture
  • Cross- Cultural Success Tips
  • SHOW EMPATHY
  • BE FLEXIBLE
  • MANAGE YOUR RESPONSES
  • DONT GO NATIVE
  • RESPECT LOCAL CUSTOMS
  • BE AWARE OF NON- VERBAL COMMUNCATION
  • DEVELOP TRUST BYCOMBATING MISTRUST
  • BEOME INVOLVED
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