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What is Hinduism?

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SSWH2 The student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE. b. Explain the development and impact of Hinduism and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is Hinduism?


1
SSWH2 The student will identify the major
achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from
1100 BCE to 500 CE. b. Explain the development
and impact of Hinduism and Buddhism on India and
subsequent diffusion of Buddhism.
2
What is Hinduism?
  • One of the oldest religions of humanity
  • The religion of the Indian people
  • Gave birth to Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism
  • Tolerance and diversity "Truth is one, paths are
    many"
  • Many deities but a single, impersonal Ultimate
    Reality
  • A philosophy and a way of life focused both on
    this world and beyond

3
How did Hinduism begin?
  • No particular founder
  • Indus River Valley Civilization gt5000 years ago
  • Aryans enter 4000 - 3500 years ago
  • Vedic Tradition 3500 2500 years ago
  • rituals and many gods (polytheism)
  • sacred texts (Vedas)
  • social stratification (caste system)
  • Upanishads 2800 2400 years ago
  • Vedic Tradition develops into Hinduism

4
The Indus valley Civilization
3300 BCE - 2400 BCE
5
Aryan Migration
6
What are the Sacred Texts?
The Vedas
  • 1200 BCE-600 BCE.
  • written in SANSKRIT.
  • Hindu core of beliefs
  • hymns and poems.
  • religious prayers.
  • magical spells.
  • lists of the gods and goddesses.

7
What are the Sacred Texts?
  • Shruti (heard) oldest, most authoritative
  • Four Vedas (truth) myths, rituals, chants
  • Upanishads considered early source of faith
  • Came from oral tradition
  • Smriti (remembered) the Great Indian Epics
  • Ramayana
  • Mahabharata (includes Bhagavad-Gita)
  • Highlights Hindu customary law

8
What do Hindus believe?
Ashramas
  • Atman

Moksha
Karma
Samsara
Brahman
trimurti
Caste System (Varna)
Dharma
9
What do Hindus believe?
  • One impersonal Ultimate Reality Brahman
  • Manifest as many personal deities
  • True essence of life Atman, the soul, is
    Brahman trapped in matter (That art thou)
  • Reincarnation atman is continually born into
    this world lifetime after lifetime (Samsara)
  • Dharma- religious duty
  • Karma spiritual quality gained by doing dharma.
    Leading to positive or negative reincarnation
  • Ultimate goal of life to release Atman and
    reunite with the divine, becoming as one with
    Brahman (Moksha)

10
  • CREMATION
  • Is seen as a necessary step in aiding the soul
    into the next life.
  • Certain rituals are followed to accomplish this
    goal.
  • The goal of cremation is to take the body/soul
    back to the basic elements and to release the
    soul for the next life

11
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12
How does Hinduism direct life in this world?
  • Respect for all life many vegetarian, no beef
  • Human life as supreme
  • Four stations of life (Caste) - priests
    teachers, nobles warriors, merchant class,
    servant class
  • Four stages of life student, householder,
    retired, holy man (Ashramas )
  • Four duties of life pleasure, success, social
    responsibilities, religious responsibilities
    (dharma)

13
SADHUS
14
Varna (Social Hierarchy)
Brahmins
Kshatriyas
Vaishyas
Shudras
Pariahs Harijan ? Untouchables
15
The Caste System
Brahmins
WHO IS
Kshatriyas
  • The mouth?
  • The arms?
  • The legs?
  • The feet?

Vaishyas
Shudras
16
Caste System
Untouchables are out of caste groups. They are
not part of the original social structure. They
were street sweepers and latrine cleaners.
17
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18
What are the spiritual practices of Hinduism?
  • The Four Yogas - seeking union with the divine
  • Karma Yoga the path of action through selfless
    service (releases built up karma without building
    up new karma)
  • Jnana Yoga the path of knowledge (understanding
    the true nature of reality and the self)
  • Raja Yoga the path of meditation
  • Bhakti Yoga the path of devotion
  • Guru a spiritual teacher, especially helpful
    for Jnana and Raja yoga

19
How do Hindus worship?
  • Bhakti Yoga is seeking union with the divine
    through loving devotion to manifest deities
  • In the home (household shrines)
  • In the Temples (priests officiate)
  • Puja making offerings to and decorating the
    deity images
  • Darsan seeing the deity (not idol worship)
  • Prasad taking the divine within your own being
    through eating of food shared with the deity

20
How do Hindus worship?
  • In the home (household shrines)
  • In the Temples (priests officiate)
  • Puja making offerings to and decorating the
    deity images
  • Darsan seeing the deity (not idol worship)
  • Prasad taking the divine within your own being
    through eating of food shared with the deity

21
Worship in the home
22
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23
Who do Hindus worship? the major gods of the
Hindu Pantheon
Brahma, the creator god
24
Who do Hindus worship? the major gods of the
Hindu Pantheon
Vishnu, the preserver god
Incarnates as ten avatars (descents) including
Rama (featured in the Ramayana)
Krishna (featured in the Mahabharata)
(Each shown with his consort, Sita and Radha,
respectively)
25
Who do Hindus worship? the major gods of the
Hindu Pantheon
Shiva, god of constructive destruction (the
transformer)
Appears as Shiva Nataraj, lord of the dance of
creation
and with his wife, Parvati, and son Ganesha (the
elephant headed remover of obstacles)
26
BRAHMAN
BRAHMA
VISHNU
SHIVA
PRESERVER
DESTROYER
CREATOR
ONE GOD MANY FORMS
Known as the Trimurti Tri three
Murti image
27
What about the goddesses? Devi the feminine
divine
Saraswati, goddess of wisdom, consort of Brahma
28
What about the goddesses? Devi the feminine
divine
Lakshmi, goddess of good fortune, consort of
Vishnu
29
What about the goddesses? Devi the feminine
divine
Parvati, divine mother, wife of Shiva
30
What about the goddesses? Devi the feminine
divine
Durga, protectress
Kali, destroyer of demons
31
All these deities are but Manifest forms
(attributes and functions) of Brahman
32
And we too are manifest forms of God!
We are not human beings having spiritual
experiences We are spiritual beings having a
human experience!
That art Thou
Hinduism is about recognizing the all
pervasiveness of the divine
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