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V. Hypnosis, Biofeedback,

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Title: V. Hypnosis, Biofeedback,


1
V. Hypnosis, Biofeedback, Meditation
2
A. What is Hypnosis?
  • 1. Form of altered consciousness in which people
    become highly suggestible to changes in behavior
    thought
  • 2. A hypnotist guides directs person into
    thinking about things he or she is usually
    unaware of
  • 3. Hypnosis shifts our perceptions but doesnt
    put people to sleep
  • 4. During hypnosis, a person is highly receptive
    responsive to certain internal external
    stimuli
  • 5. Relationship between hypnotist participant
    should involve cooperation

3
B. Uses of Hypnosis
  • 1. Entertainment
  • 2. Medical
  • 3. Therapeutic
  • Posthypnotic amnesia people report forgetting
    events that occurred while they were hypnotized
  • Posthypnotic suggestion suggested things for
    their participants to remember/forget or how to
    behave when trance is over
  • Hypnotic analgesia reduction in pain reported by
    patients after they have undergone hypnosis

4
B. Uses of Hypnosis
  • 1. Can be used to reduce smoking/eating improve
    athletic performance
  • 2. Age Regressionfocuses on past lives
    (controversial)
  • 3. Heightened memory physical/sexual abuse
    crimes (cant use in court)
  • 4. Pain reduction phantom limb

5
C. Theories of Hypnosis
  • 1. Role theory states that hypnosis is not an
    alternate state of consciousness
  • Some people are more easily hypnotized than
    others
  • People with higher hypnotic suggestibility share
    some characteristics
  • Have richer fantasy life
  • Follow directions well
  • Able to focus intensely on a single task for a
    long period of time
  • 2. State theory- points out that hypnosis meets
    some parts of definition for an altered state of
    consciousness
  • Become more or less aware of our environments
  • Some report dramatic health benefits from hypnosis

6
C. Theories of Hypnosis
  • 3. Ernest Hilgard explained hypnosis through his
    dissociation theory
  • Hypnosis causes us to divide our consciousness
    voluntarily
  • One part or level of our consciousness responds
    to suggestions of hypnotist, while another part
    or level retains awareness of reality
  • Example He asked hypnotized participants to put
    arm in an ice water bath
  • They reported no pain
  • However, when Hilgard asked them to lift their
    index finger if any part of them felt pain, most
    participants lifted their finger

7
D. Biofeedback
  • 1. Technique in which a person learns to control
    his or her internal physiological processes with
    help of feedback
  • 2. Feedback makes learning possible
  • 3. Uses machines to tell people about very subtle
    moment-to-moment changes in the body
  • 4. From this, people can learn to change their
    physiological processes

8
E. Meditation
  • A person focusing on his or her attention on an
    image or thought with goal of clearing the mind
    producing relaxation or inner peace
  • 2. Approaches of meditation
  • Transcendental meditation- involves mental
    repetition of a mantra, usually Sanskrit phrase
  • Lasts for 15 to 20 minutes
  • Mindfulness mediation- was developed from a
    Buddhist tradition
  • Focuses on the present moment
  • Breath meditation- is a concentration on ones
    respiration
  • 3. Been found to help lower blood pressure, heart
    rate, respiration rate
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