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Modern European History I HIS-106

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Title: Modern European History I HIS-106


1
Modern European History IHIS-106
  • Unit 2 The 15th Century and the Renaissance

2
Catholic Church in the 15th Century
  • The Conciliar Movement
  • After the Council of Constance (1415), there was
    desire to create general councils to become a
    permanent fixture in the church
  • For the next thirty years, a struggle took place
    between the popes and the councils
  • The popes were not willing to share power with
    the councils
  • This was to prevent any major reforms from
    occurring within the church
  • During the 15th century, there was a need for
    major reforms

3
Problems with the Clergy
  • The problems with the church began on the lowest
    levels
  • Many of the clergy were ignorant and uneducated,
    and some led rather scandalous lives
  • Economic Dichotomy
  • Wealthy Priests
  • High ranks in the clergy were held by either
    nobility or wealthy bourgeoisie
  • Led very comfortable lives while not even living
    in their assigned areas
  • Poor Priests
  • Made up a majority of the clergy
  • They did not have enough money to live off of
  • Had to take on other positions (i.e. running the
    local tavern)

4
Problems with the Clergy
  • Simony
  • The buying and selling of church offices
  • This meant that church positions would go to
    those who would pay the most money rather than to
    those who earned it
  • Technically it was a crime but could not be
    stopped
  • Pluralism
  • Holding of more than one church office at a time
  • Was done in order to boost their incomes
  • This led to absenteeism because the clergy could
    not cover the entire areas of the positions they
    held

5
Problems with the Clergy
  • Sexual Issues
  • There were monks and priests who were unchaste
    and did not follow their vows of celibacy
  • With lower clergy, neither the mistresses nor the
    children could not benefit from this relationship
  • With upper clergy, many children of these
    relationships were given high positions in the
    church (nepotism)
  • Indulgences
  • Practice started with Pope Boniface VIII in 1300
  • A person could either earn or buy an indulgence
  • Comes from the Treasury House of Merit which was
    a collection of all the good deeds the saints
    did
  • It would supposedly reduce a persons time in
    purgatory

6
Popular Religion
  • These problems with the church led to a rise in
    popular religions
  • People wanted a more meaningful religious
    experience than just going to church and leading
    good lives
  • They wanted a more certain guarantee of salvation
  • One form of popular religion was Modern
    Devotion
  • They believed that to guarantee salvation, you
    needed to act like Christ
  • This was dangerous to the Church because all the
    people had to do for salvation was read the Bible

7
Popular Religion
  • Another form of popular religion was the
    veneration of holy relics
  • People began to see their salvation (or a
    reduction of time in purgatory) guaranteed
    through the veneration of holy relics
  • There were many instances of false relics
  • Erasmus once said that there were enough pieces
    of wood from the so-called true cross of Jesus
    to make an ocean going ship
  • Five churches claimed to have the shinbone of the
    donkey that carried Jesus to Jerusalem
  • Twelve churches claimed to have the head of John
    the Baptist

8
Renaissance Popes
  • Once the struggle with the councils ended, the
    power of the pope enjoyed a period of prosperity
  • Many of the popes at the time took on more
    modern outlooks
  • Included becoming scholars and patrons of the
    arts
  • There was still some corruption in the papacy
  • They also had illegitimate children who they
    promoted to positions of power
  • Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503) helped elevate his
    sons, including Cesare Borgia, to high political
    and church positions
  • Pope Leo X (1513-1521) was a member of the
    powerful de Medici family and was not even a
    priest when he was elected pope

9
  • The Renaissance

10
The Renaissance
  • While the 14th century was plagued with
    disasters, there was a change for the better
  • The Renaissance is a period in European history
    from the 1350-1700
  • Renaissance means rebirth
  • It marks a shift back towards Greco-Roman
    thinking and begins what many consider the
    modern era
  • The Renaissance had its origins in Italy
  • It began in the city-states of northern and
    central Italy
  • The most influential one was Florence

11
The Renaissance in Italy
  • The Italian cities had benefited the most from
    the rise of merchant trade to and from the east
  • Businesses flourished especially who traded in
    luxury goods
  • This brought a lot of money into the region
  • Industry also prospered this time
  • Italy was known for more refined trade skills
    such as goldsmithing and stonecarving
  • The banking industry also flourished in Italy
  • Many of the wealthier merchants would loan their
    money to princes and popes thus becoming
    wealthier as bankers

12
The Renaissance in Italy
  • This combination of merchants, artisans, and
    bankers helped the area prosper
  • They helped bring large amounts of money into the
    region
  • The Po River valley was also very fertile land
  • This meant the region was able to provide enough
    food for the population without having to import
    it
  • The plague also brought an increase in the
    standard of living
  • Wages increased and prices dropped
  • People had extra money to devote to things such
    as art and literature
  • Helped contribute to the decline of church power
    which allowed people to think outside the box

13
The Renaissance in Italy
  • The political structure of Italy also helped
  • The city-states were independent entities
  • There was no king to unify all of the states
    together under the banner of Italy
  • The pope were absent from Rome for most of the
    14th century so he was not a unifying figure
    either
  • In the cities, it was the merchant oligarchies
    who had the power
  • Because of a lack of king and pope, they
    essentially had free reign to do as they pleased
  • Most cities were republics
  • These included Florence, Venice, and Genoa
  • However some, like Milan, had a local prince or
    despot

14
The Renaissance in Italy
  • No matter what form of government, these small
    states allowed for people to participate in
    government at various levels
  • They ran for public office, were involved in
    alliances, and conducted affairs of state
  • This gave many people opportunities
  • The Renaissance really has its roots in Florence
  • Most of it had to do with the power and wealth of
    the de Medici family
  • The de Medicis were one of the richest families
    in Florence during the 15th century
  • They started out as wool merchants in the 14th
    century

15
  • Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici
  • (13601429)

16
Florence Under The Medicis
  • The family made their money mostly in banking but
    had numerous business ventures throughout Italy
  • Giovanni di Bicci de Medici (1360-1429) founded
    the Medici Bank in 1397
  • It is this money that helps propel the family to
    becoming not only one of the richest families in
    Europe but one of the most powerful as well
  • Giovanni never held political office but did have
    some influential ideas
  • One of which was a proportional taxing system
    which was very popular

17
Florence Under The Medicis
  • Cosimo de Medici (1389-1464)
  • Son of Giovanni who is the first to gain
    political power for the family
  • His used his money and influence to become gran
    maestro, the unofficial ruler of the city
  • He also played a role in Italian politics as he
    helped negotiate the Peace of Lodi to end the
    warring between Italian city-states
  • He also used his wealth to become a patron of the
    arts
  • Lorenzo de Medici (1449-1492)
  • He was the grandson of Cosimo
  • It is during his rule that the golden age of
    Florence takes place and he becomes known as
    Lorenzo the Magnificent

18
  • Lorenzo de Medici
  • (1449-1492)

19
Florence Under The Medicis
  • While Lorenzo was gran maestro like his
    grandfather, he ruled Florence as though he was a
    monarch
  • This created some enemies
  • In 1478, Lorenzo and his brother Giuliano were
    attacked in church
  • Lorenzo survived but his brother did not
  • The attack was orchestrated by the Pazzi family
    and the archbishop of Pisa, and had the blessing
    of Pope Sixtus IV
  • The conspirators were executed by being hung out
    the windows of the Palazzo Vecchio
  • This included the popes nephew
  • The Archbishop of Pisa was lynched by a mob who
    supported the Medicis

20
Florence Under The Medicis
  • Pope Sixtus IV responded by excommunicating
    Lorenzo
  • He also issued an interdict which declared war on
    Florence
  • By this time, Lorenzo had negotiated an alliance
    with the King of Naples
  • The combined forces were able to force the pope
    to negotiate a peace
  • Lorenzo had a huge impact on the arts
  • He was himself a poet and had many artists in
    attendance at his court
  • Some of the artists included da Vinci,
    Botticelli, and Michelangelo
  • He also donated large amounts of money to artists

21
Florence Under The Medicis
  • He also built the Medici Library
  • Lorenzo considered himself to be a humanist
  • He built the library to include classic and
    contemporary works of literature
  • In his later years, the Medici fortune declined
  • Lorenzo was not much of a businessman and the
    family businesses suffered

22
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • (1452-1519)

23
Renaissance Man
  • One of the bigger changes coming out of the
    Renaissance was the concept of the Renaissance
    Man
  • In the Middle Ages, poverty and chastity were
    seen as great virtues
  • Christian doctrine promoted these especially in
    terms of living the lives of saints
  • Many were encouraged to donate their wealth to
    the church and renounce material goods
  • Also during that time, mankind was seen as
    fallible
  • Humans were prone to sin and required Gods grace
    to acquire salvation

24
Renaissance Man
  • During the Renaissance, these virtues changed
  • People started to enjoy their wealth and play a
    more involved role in their communities
  • Individualism flourished during this period
  • From this, came the concept of a Renaissance
    Man
  • This concept was based on the Greek polymath, a
    person who has master many different subjects
  • These were individuals who expanded their talents
    to many different fields
  • A perfect example of this was Leonardo da Vinci
    who was an artist, mathematician, scientist, and
    inventor

25
Realism in Art
  • The Renaissance is best known for its art
  • Many of the wealthy spent their money as patrons
    of the arts
  • They would commission numerous pieces and help
    provide incomes to the artists
  • In painting, major changes took place
  • There was the changeover to the use of oil-based
    paint
  • There was a shift to more realistic artwork
  • Many painters studied anatomy to make humans look
    more realistic
  • They also used perspective to give the art a 3-D
    look
  • The themes remained religious but became more
    realistic

26
Realism in Art
  • Sculptors also took advantage of this shift in
    art
  • During the Middle Ages, their work had been
    confined to cathedrals
  • Now they were able to focus on free-standing
    sculptures
  • They had their inspiration from the classical
    Greek and Roman sculptors
  • Like the painters, they studied anatomy to make
    their pieces more realistic
  • In architecture, there was also the rebirth of
    the Greco-Roman styles
  • Architects also had more varied buildings to
    design including non-religious ones

27
  • Mona Lisa
  • By Leonardo da Vinci
  • (c. 1503-1506)

28
Humanism
  • Literature was also greatly affected by the
    Renaissance
  • It was called litterae humaniores, humane
    letters
  • During the Middle Ages, there were writers
  • Many great histories, hymns, and songs were
    written
  • In the late 14th century, there was fresh
    discoveries in Greek and Roman texts
  • The original humanists were teachers of Latin
    literature
  • What they discovered was that the old classical
    texts dealt with a larger range of subjects,
    including politics, morals, and ethics

29
Humanism
  • Humanist writers discovered these works and were
    inspired by them
  • There is the rebirth of Studia Humanitatis the
    liberal arts including rhetoric, philosophy,
    history, and poetry
  • With this, writing changed from a part-time
    occupation to life-long careers
  • They also began focusing their works to reach a
    much larger audience
  • This included writing in the vernacular so that
    more people would have access to their works
    Latin was seen as too scholastic

30
  • Francesco Petrarch
  • (1304-1374)

31
Humanist Writers
  • Petrarch (1304-1374)
  • Is considered the father of Renaissance humanists
  • His family was exiled from Florence and resettled
    in the Provence region of France
  • He spent most of his life in Provence but did
    spend time in Milan and Venice
  • Through the course of his life, Petrarch had many
    patrons
  • Therefore, he was able to devote his life to
    writing and classical scholarship
  • What made Petrarch unique from Middle Ages
    writers was that he used his writing not only to
    give information but to discuss emotions and
    thoughts

32
Humanist Writers
  • Petrarch made a number of important contributions
    to literature
  • His use of Italian as a common form of written
    language
  • His development of the sonnet (lyric poetry)
  • His transformation of writing into an art form
  • He is credited with naming the Middle Ages the
    Dark Ages
  • Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375)
  • He was a contemporary of Petrarch and was
    considered the father of Italian prose
  • The Decameron, a series of tales told over the
    course of ten days, discussed traditional mores
    and wisdom in an entertaining format

33
Humanist Writers
  • Coluccio Salutati (1331-1406)
  • He was chancellor of Florence during the time it
    was under attack by Milan and was the one who
    called the city a Republic
  • He was a student of classical literature and had
    discovered lost letters by Cicero
  • He also wrote a history of Florence, tying it to
    the great Roman Republic
  • Niccolò de' Niccoli (13641437)
  • He collected classical manuscripts as well
  • His contributions included correcting mistakes
    that had been made, putting in a table of
    contents, and breaking down chapters into
    divisions
  • His private library was the largest in Florence

34
Humanist Writers
  • Leonardo Bruni (1369-1444)
  • He was also chancellor of Florence and had been
    secretary to four popes
  • He is most famous for his History of the
    Florentine People, which is considered the first
    modern work of history
  • He broke down the history of Florence into three
    periods antiquity, middle age, and modern
    age
  • He used the history to show pride in the city of
    Florence by having roots in great Roman
    traditions
  • He is also the writer who used the term Studia
    Humanitatis
  • He made contributions to the classics by
    translating numerous works by Plato and Aristotle

35
  • Boccaccio and other Florentines fleeing the
    plague
  • (c. 1485)

36
Politics in the Italian Renaissance
  • Ironically, with all of its accomplishments,
    Italy could not come up with an effective
    political institution
  • In the city of Florence, the republic in essence
    became a one-man rule
  • The wealthy leaders of other cities did not have
    armies to fight for them nor did the people rally
    behind them instead, they were forced to rely on
    mercenaries
  • There was Italian cunning where those who are
    smart enough were able to rise to the top
  • However, this meant that there was a rise and
    fall of dictators or very powerful families, such
    as the Medici in Florence, and the Sforza in Milan

37
Machiavelli (1469-1527)
  • During the Middle Ages, most of the political
    writings had ties to God
  • Many of them were devoted to following Gods will
    and had strong connections to theology
  • With the Renaissance, those ties to theology were
    broken
  • Niccolò Machiavelli - (1469-1527) He was one of
    the few political geniuses in Italy
  • He wrote about the attributes of successful
    rulers, and was very realistic about how they got
    that way using whatever means were necessary for
    the political atmosphere of the time

38
Machiavelli (1469-1527)
  • The Prince (1532)
  • It was not published until after Machiavellis
    death
  • In it, he describes the characteristics of a good
    ruler wielding power effectively with less focus
    on being a just ruler
  • This included not only the use of force but of
    cunning as well
  • He believed that rulers should be loved and
    feared, at the very least feared
  • He saw the best examples of rulers outside of
    Italy, namely in countries like Spain and France
  • While the term Machiavellian is still used
    today to explain someone who is ruthless and
    immoral, Machiavelli never supported immoral
    behavior

39
  • Niccolò Machiavelli
  • (1469-1527)

40
End of the Italian Renaissance
  • While all this change was occurring in Italy, the
    governments there were never powerful enough to
    exert their influence outside the region
  • In 1494, the French invaded northern Italy
  • Italy became a battleground for French and
    Spanish forces vying for control of the region
  • In 1527, the city of Rome was sacked by Spanish
    and German troops
  • Even the pope was imprisoned and the cardinals
    were marched through the streets on mules
  • With this, the Renaissance ended in Italy

41
  • Jan van Eyck
  • (c. 1395-1441)

42
Northern Renaissance
  • Slowly, the effects of the Renaissance began to
    work their way northward
  • However, there was not such a drastic embrace of
    new ideas as there had been in Italy
  • The Renaissance in northern Europe was more of a
    blend of the new and the old
  • It also had a much more religious feel to it than
    the more secular Italian movement
  • It also saw the building of many new universities
  • Large centers of learning were built in
    throughout northern Europe
  • Included fourteen in Germany
  • One of which was the University of Wittenberg

43
Renaissance in Germany
  • Germany was a very diverse yet unorganized region
  • It was still part of the Holy Roman Empire
  • However, it was made up of over 200 small states
    and city-states with diverse cultures and
    backgrounds
  • The southern parts of Germany flourished with
    strong trade
  • These were the areas most affected by the
    Renaissance
  • It was here that Johannes Gutenberg invented the
    moveable type printing press roughly around 1439
  • Mass printed the Gutenberg Bible in 1455
  • There was also a flurry of new artists including
    Albrech Dürer and Hans Holbein

44
Renaissance in Germany
  • There also occurred a growth of the sciences
  • Regiomontanus (Johan Müller) put down the
    foundations of a mathematical conception of the
    universe
  • Nicholas of Cusa made contributions to science
  • He contradicted Aristotles concept of perfect
    circles for planets and orbits
  • Also developed the concept of relative motion
  • Many believe that it was the works of these
    scientists that helped create the Scientific
    Revolution in the next century
  • Copernicus and Kepler both attributed their work
    having basis in the studies of these Renaissance
    scientists

45
  • Regiomontanus
  • (1436-1476)

46
Christian Humanism
  • Northern Europe also had its fair share of
    humanists
  • However, unlike the pagan humanists of Italy,
    these humanists kept many ties to the Catholic
    Church
  • These Christian humanists believed in reading the
    original versions of the Bible and writings of
    church fathers such as St. Augustine
  • ad fontes (to the sources)
  • They based their studies on primary sources
    rather than depending on later interpretations
  • They wanted to solve the problems of the Church
    by reexamining the early Christian works

47
Christian Humanism
  • They discovered that Christianity had been a more
    simple religion
  • Over the years, the Church had altered the
    original beliefs of Christianity
  • To fix the problem, they encouraged people to
    read the original sources
  • From that, they would feel renewed piety and help
    bring about reform in the church
  • They tried to help bring about the reform by
    publishing new editions of the classics, the
    Bible, and writings of the church fathers
  • This would make it easier for people to get
    access to such works

48
  • Erasmus
  • (1469-1536)

49
Erasmus (1469-1536)
  • Desiderius Erasmus (1469-1536)
  • He was one of the most influential Christian
  • He was an ordained priest and had been an
    Augustinian monk
  • He studied the classical writers and believed the
    Scholasticism of the Middle Ages was asinine
  • Erasmus became known as a highly respected
    intellectual whose presence was requested
    throughout Europe
  • He was respected by both secular and religious
    leaders
  • He spent time as a councilor for the king of
    Spain
  • He received permission from Pope Leo X to write a
    new translation of the Bible

50
Erasmus (1469-1536)
  • Some of his work was controversial as he did
    criticize the abuses of the church and called for
    major reform
  • By using the classics, he wanted to show how
    things were simpler and better in the past
  • He wanted people to be educated, have enlightened
    discussions, and have their morality improved
  • The reforms he did call for were designed to be
    implemented within the church rather than
    creating a new church
  • In Praise of Folly (1511)
  • In this humorous criticism of society, Erasmus
    focuses on the human fallibility and the abuses
    of the church
  • In it, he has the goddess Folly praise all those
    who followed her
  • He especially mocked members of the clergy

51
Erasmus (1469-1536)
  • The Handbook of the Christian Knight (1503)
  • In this work, he stated that the current church
    was too focused on dogma
  • He believed that the church should be focusing on
    inner piety rather than pilgrimages, sacraments,
    veneration of relics, etc.
  • He also showed how a man could participate in
    politics and remain a good Christian
  • In 1516, he issued a new edition of the Greek New
    Testament
  • He translated it himself into Latin pointing out
    problems with the official church translation
  • He even dedicated it to Pope Leo X

52
  • Henry VII
  • (1485-1509)

53
The New Monarchies
  • During the 15th century, the modern state began
    to emerge
  • In the 14th and 15th centuries, Europe was
    plagued with violence from feudal battles and
    civil wars
  • People wanted peace, law, and stability and were
    willing to give up some of their rights to have
    it
  • The monarchs used that to put down the wills of
    unruly nobility
  • Set up a system with a powerful hereditary leader
  • Then used their power collect taxes and form
    armies made up of commoners rather than knights

54
The New Monarchies
  • The monarchs also based their legal system on
    Roman law instead of feudal, or common, law
  • This broke the power of the nobility
  • It also gave the king power since he was the one
    to make the laws just based on his own authority
  • The people saw this as a benefit for them since
    they believed the laws were for the good of the
    people
  • The three countries where these new modern
    monarchies rose up were England, France, and
    Spain

55
English Tudors
  • England had been plagued by the War of the Roses
    (14551487)
  • It was a civil war between the houses of
    Lancaster and York that tore through all of
    England
  • Henry VII (1485-1509)
  • In 1485, Henry Tudor became king of England and
    ended the war
  • He also started the Tudor dynasty which lasted
    until 1603
  • On of the things that benefited his monarchy was
    that many of the feudal lords had been killed or
    weakened by the war

56
English Tudors
  • Henry created the Court of the Star Chamber
  • This was where his Privy Council acted as the new
    form of legal court to bypass the complicated
    legal system
  • One big concern for Henry was that many of the
    lords had their own private armies
  • They were made up of men-at-arms who were called
    servants
  • He then went on to abolish many of the feudal
    laws including those against livery (giving
    emblems or badges to those favored by a lord) and
    maintenance (the practice of having large
    amounts of male servants)
  • He also hired Justices of the Peace to make sure
    his laws were followed

57
English Tudors
  • Henry was successful at securing the power of the
    monarchy of England
  • However, his later life was plagued with problems
  • He had his eldest son Arthur marry Catherine of
    Aragon to secure an alliance between England and
    Spain
  • However, Arthur died in 1502 of illness
  • To keep the alliance, he got a papal dispensation
    to allow his second son, Henry, marry her
  • In 1503, his wife died in childbirth
  • Henry VII died in 1509

58
  • Louis XI
  • (1461-1483)

59
Valois France
  • In France, the new monarchy began with Louis XI
    (1461-1483) of the house of Valois
  • Louis XI was the son of Charles VII
  • During his reign, Louis consolidated the power of
    the French throne
  • He expanded the size of the French army
  • He abolished the power of the feudal lords
  • He also expanded trade within the country and
    built up the infrastructure
  • He also kept up the Pragmatic Sanction (1438)
    which gave the French king greater control of the
    clergy in the country

60
  • Louis XII
  • (1498-1515)

61
Valois France
  • Louis XII (1498-1515)
  • He continued to modernize the French government
  • He kept his most power nobility under his
    control, especially the Bourbons
  • He made large efforts to reform the legal system
    by putting in regulations to prevent corruption
  • He improved the taxation system
  • He also expanded French territory by successfully
    taking Milan and Venice and for a short time
    Naples
  • He was very popular with the people and earned
    the title Le Père du Peuple (father of the
    people)

62
  • Francis I
  • (1515-1547)

63
Valois France
  • Francis I (1515-1547)
  • He was considered the first Renaissance king of
    France
  • During his reign there is an expansion of culture
    and humanist ideas
  • He also consolidated the power of the monarchy
    but at the same time did make some concessions to
    the church
  • In 1516, he signed the Concordat of Bologna which
    allowed Rome to collect church taxes but still
    allowed the king to appoint church officials
  • This agreement gave the crown enough control to
    avoid the lure of Protestantism

64
  • Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castille

65
Ferdinand and Isabella
  • During the 15th century, there was no unified
    kingdom of Spain
  • Smaller territories had consolidated into two
    kingdoms Aragon and Castile
  • In 1469, King Ferdinand II of Castile married
    Queen Isabella of Aragon
  • Even though they were married, the two kingdoms
    remained separate political entities with the
    spouse ruling as consort
  • While the two kingdoms were different in
    practically every way, including language, their
    religion was a unifying factor

66
Ferdinand and Isabella
  • Until the last Moors were evicted from Granada in
    1492, the Inquisition was a unifying element in
    Spain
  • The development of the new monarchy of Spain
    followed a very religious path
  • One of the characteristics of Spain going into
    the 16th century was the belief that all
    Spaniards were Catholic
  • All Jews had technically be expelled in 1492
  • However, just being a Christian was not enough as
    large numbers of Muslims and Jews had converted
  • Spaniards were fearful that these converts were
    not true Christians

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  • Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!

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The Spanish Inquisition
  • The Jews who converted were known as Marranos
    while the Muslims were known as Moriscos
  • The Marranos flourished both politically and
    economically
  • Many rose up and achieved high positions in the
    government
  • Their success and lack of true devotion led to
    jealousy and hatred by the Spaniards
  • The monarchs decided to use public opinion to
    their advantage
  • In 1478, Ferdinand was granted a papal bull to
    set up an Inquisition in Spain
  • The Inquisition was a Catholic institution set up
    in the Middle Ages to fight heresy

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The Spanish Inquisition
  • The Inquisition was set up as a royal court
    rather than a church court
  • This meant that the monarchs appointed its
    members and verdicts could not be appealed to
    Rome
  • It became a very powerful tool for the monarchs
  • The Inquisition itself commanded great fear
  • Witnesses of heresy did not have to give proof
    nor did they have to testify at trial
  • It used torture to get confessions
  • Those accused were not given legal counsel
  • Those convicted had their property confiscated
    which in turn was divided up between the
    Inquisition, the monarchy, and the accusers

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The Spanish Inquisition
  • Depending upon what the person was accused of
    determined what the punishment would be
  • In some cases, the punishment would be as mild as
    penance or losing property
  • Those who were accused of converting back to
    their old faith were executed
  • Several thousand were killed
  • Technically, they were not executed by the
    church they were handed over to civil courts for
    punishment
  • The Inquisition was so dangerous because the
    power was abused
  • Many people would accuse others of heresy to seek
    revenge
  • The Inquisition itself set up spies in Marranos
    communities to obtain proof that they reverted
    back

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  • Heretic on the wheel during the Inquisition

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Expansion of Spanish Influence
  • After the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, the
    country attacked northern Africa
  • The ridding of Muslims in Spain and north Africa
    took on the semblance of a crusade and helped
    unite the Spanish together
  • The Spanish also exerted their religious
    influence in the New World
  • Missionaries were sent to the New World with the
    sole purpose of converting the American Indians
    to Christianity
  • All of these factors make Spain the Catholic
    stronghold of Europe
  • It also helps to fight against the growing threat
    of Protestantism

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  • Europe (c. 1519)

74
The Holy Roman Empire
  • The HRE was different from the rest of Europe
  • It contained three different kinds of states
  • Princely States
  • Small hereditary dynastic monarchy
  • These included duchies, margravates, and even one
    kingdom
  • Examples were Saxony, Brandenburg, Bavaria, and
    Bohemia
  • Ecclesiastical States
  • A bishop or abbot was the ruling government
    official
  • Most states inside the Empire were ecclesiastical
    states
  • Free City-States
  • A city that was an independent entity
  • There were about 50 inside the HRE and dominated
    the commercial aspect of the Empire

75
The Holy Roman Empire
  • The HRE was created after the division of the old
    Roman Empire in the 9th century
  • This was after the death of Charlemagne
  • It did not become known as the HRE until the
    reign of Emperor Otto I in 962
  • Golden Bull of 1356
  • The Emperor was elected by seven members of the
    Electoral Council
  • This included four princes the Count of the
    Palatine, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of
    Brandenburg, and the King of Bohemia
  • It also included three ecclesiastical lords the
    Archbishop of Mainz, the Archbishop of Trier, and
    the Archbishop of Cologne

76
The Holy Roman Empire
  • While the Electoral Council did technically elect
    the Emperor, the position was traditionally
    hereditary
  • The only time the Councils vote was important
    was when a family no longer had a male heir for
    the position
  • In 1452, the Council elected Frederick, Archduke
    of Austria as the Holy Roman Emperor
  • He was of the House of Habsburg, a very powerful
    Austrian family
  • After Frederick IIIs rule, the position of the
    Emperor remained in the hands of the House of
    Habsburg until 1806

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  • Maximilian I (1493-1519)

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New Monarchy in the HRE
  • The Habsburgs were effective in centralizing the
    Holy Roman Empire under their leadership
  • This was done even though there was no true
    central government to the Empire
  • Maximilian I (1493-1519)
  • He did attempt to centralize the government
  • Smaller governments throughout the Empire were
    resistant to his changes
  • In 1495, he did bring about reform to the
    Empires constitution
  • His biggest contribution was a series of
    marriages and alliances that made the Habsburgs
    one of the most powerful families in Europe

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  • Charles V
  • (1519-1588)

80
Charles V (1519-1558)
  • In 1508, Maximilian took the title of Elected
    Roman Emperor
  • This meant that the emperor no longer had to be
    crowned by the pope
  • When Emperor Maximilian died in 1519, there were
    two candidates vying for the position
  • Charles I of Spain Maximilians grandson and
    heir to the House of Habsburg
  • Francis I of France House of Valois
  • Even though Charles was a shoe in for the
    position, numerous bribes had to be placed to
    secure a victory

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Charles V (1519-1558)
  • Charles was elected June 28, 1519 and became
    Emperor Charles V
  • Charles had control of a vast empire when he took
    the position
  • He controlled Spain (and its overseas empire),
    the Spanish Netherlands (aka Low Countries),
    lands in Austria and Hungary, the Kingdoms of
    Naples and Sardina, and Bohemia
  • He wanted full control over his lands and wanted
    to unify it under one faith
  • In Eastern Europe, his brother Ferdinand was put
    in charge of Hungary and Bohemia to deal with the
    invading Turkish forces under Sulayman I

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  • Lands Controlled by the House of Habsburg in 1556

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Europe at 1500
  • By 1500, Europe was on its way to recovery after
    the terrible 14th century
  • The population was finally starting to increase
    into pre-plague levels
  • The economy was expanding, including trade and
    colonialism
  • Monarchs had secure holds on their thrones in
    England, France, and Spain
  • The Catholic church had survived upheavals by the
    Lollards and the Hussites

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Europe at 1500
  • However, things were not perfect
  • The church was still suffering from many abuses
    and the popes had lost a considerable amount of
    power
  • It was also threatened by the growing secularism
    coming out of the Renaissance
  • Monarchs were trying to control everything in
    their kingdoms, including the church
  • Many monarchs were fearful of the growing power
    of the Habsburg empire
  • The Turks were invading eastern Europe
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