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Periodic Table

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Title: Periodic Table Author: Administrator Last modified by: Administrator Created Date: 11/29/2011 6:55:38 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Periodic Table


1
DURING CLASS Record lecture notes here Concise
sentences Abbreviations Lists Skip spaces
between lines and points Clarify after class
as you review
AFTER CLASS DURING REVIEW Main ideas Questions to
connect ideas Diagrams Study Helps
AFTER CLASS DURING REVIEW Big Ideas in your own
words For quick reference
2
Sort it out!
National Review Pc Magazine Teen Vogue New
Republic Catholic Digest Cruise Trade Field and
Stream Esquire MacWorld Tiger Beat Travel
Weekly Xbox Videogamer GQ Car and
Driver Snowboarder ESPN Smithsonian
Auto Travel Truckin Fortune Consumers
Digest Readers Digest Cats Fancy Ranger
Rick Highlights Popular Mechanics TV
Guide BonAppetit Watercolor Taste of
Home National Geographic Redbook National
Lampoon Ebony Guitar Player
  • American Girl
  • Time
  • Wired
  • Ladies Home Journal
  • Cosmopolitan
  • Humpty Dumpty
  • Newsweek
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  • Lutheran Magazine
  • Sports Ilustrated
  • Dog Fancy
  • Beading
  • People
  • Consumer Reports on Health
  • Military History
  • Dragon
  • Mad
  • Rolling Stone

3
Figuring it out
  • By the mid-1800s there were 62 known elements,
    but no system to understand them!

4
How did we get this?
5
Periodic Table
  • How did they figure it out?
  • They observed physical and chemical properties
    and looked for repeating patterns.

PERIODIC happening or appearing at regular
intervals regularly repeating pattern regularly
repeating pattern regularly repeating
pattern regularly repeating pattern regularly
repeating pattern regularly repeating
pattern regularly repeating pattern regularly
repeating pattern regularly repeating pattern
6
What does PERIODIC have to do with SCIENCE?
  • Scientists use patterns to help us figure things
    out.
  • After allstI namuh erutan ot erugif sgniht tuo
  • The patterns help explain chemical behavior and
    details about atomic structure.
  • Patterns help us predict.

7
Dobereiner
  • German chemist in the early 1800s
  • Developed concept of TRIADS
  • Groups of 3 elements with similar properties in
    which the middle element has average of the other
    2

Cl 36 amu 1.6 g/L
Br 80 amu 3.1 g/L
I 127 amu 5 g/L
Ca 40 amu 1.6 g/mL
Sr 88 amu 2.6 g/mL
Ba 137 amu 3.5 g/mL
8
NEWLANDS
  • English chemist 1865
  • Law of Octaves
  • The properties of elements repeated every 8
    elementslike an octave in music
  • Everyone laughed!
  • But he was eventually credited with the idea of a
    periodic pattern to the properties of the elements

9
MENDELEEV
  • Russian chemist 1869
  • Wrote elements their properties on cards and
    arranged them different ways according to the
    different properties
  • Noticed periodic repetition of properties when
    cards were arranged by atomic mass

10
He had a problem!
  • Some elements did not fit the pattern
  • If he sorted by properties, some were out of
    order according to masses!
  • Check Periodic table for examples
  • Ar/K Co/Ni Te/I
  • Why? He lived in the 1800s and didnt know about
    the parts of an atom. All he knew was atomic
    mass. Protons and neutrons and the idea of
    isotopes would have helped him.

11
What did he do?
  • He boldly broke the pattern of atomic mass to
    keep the properties together. He even proposed
    that the masses were wrong!
  • He predicted the discovery of elements to fill
    gaps, and he correctly predicted their
    properties.

12
He predicted missing elements. Heres one.
Property Ekasilicon Germanium
Atomic mass 72 amu 72.59 amu
Density 5.5 g/cc 5.35 g/cc
Melting point high 947 degrees C
Color gray gray
Predicted 1869 Discovered 1882
13
Father of the Periodic Table
14
MOSELEY
  • English chemist early 1900s
  • Solved the problem of elements out of order
    according to mass
  • Developed the concept of ATOMIC NUMBER, the
    number of protons in the nucleus.
  • The correct way to order the chart is by ATOMIC
    NUMBER not atomic mass.
  • Mendeleevs exceptions fell into place when
    ordered by number, not mass. Isotopes (unknown at
    the time) threw off the order by mass.

15
ALL of these scientists contributed to the
PERIODIC LAW
  • When elements are arranged in order of INCREASING
    ATOMIC NUMBER,
  • their physical and chemical properties show a
    PERIODIC PATTERN.
  • (The properties repeat regularly.)

From this
To this
16
PERIODIC TRENDSWe can predict many things.
  • The periodic table is organized so that the
    elements with similar electron configurations are
    in the same column or family.
  • Many properties of elements change in a
    predictable way as you move through the periodic
    table.
  • These variations are called PERIODIC TRENDS.
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