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Chapter 9: Ancient Greek Civilization


Chapter 9: Ancient Greek Civilization Math and Medicine Pythagoras contributed the Pythagorean theorem. This mathematical formula is used in geometry. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 9: Ancient Greek Civilization

Chapter 9 Ancient Greek Civilization
Section 1 War in Ancient Greece
This picture depicts the formation of the
phalanx. Image taken from
The Persian Wars Darius Invades Greece
  • The Persians didnt need to wait long to invade
    the Greek city-states in their quest for world
    domination. The Athenians burned down the city of
    Sardis to help the Ionian people in their fight
    against the Persians. This was the perfect
    excuse for the Persians to invade Greece!
  • The plain of Marathon was the perfect place to
    act as the battlefield for the Persians, because
    it would be advantageous for Persias cavalry, or
    soldiers on horseback.

Battle of Marathon and the Origin of the words
  • At the Battle of Marathon, the Athenians attacked
    the day after the Persians arrived.
  • The Athenians did not give the Persians enough
    time to form a strategy and thus their attack was
    one of a surprise. In panic, the Persians fled to
    their ships.
  • The word marathon was originated from the Battle
    of Marathon. Legend says that a man ran 26 miles
    to carry news victory of the Battle at Marathon.
    The man died right after letting the Athenian
    people know of their victory. Since then the word
    marathon has been used to describe a challenging

  • Xerxes was the son of Darius.
  • He wanted revenge in the name of his father, who
    had initially tried to take over Greece, but
  • Xerxes was successful at the Battle at
    Thermopylae, but only because a Greek traitor
    advised the Persians the location of the Greek

Battle at Salamis
  • The Battle of Salamis, the Persians thought that
    they would win, because they outnumbered the
    Athenians in everyway an army could outnumber
    another, with the exception of strategy.
  • The Athenians waited until the Persians filled
    the strait and attacked them. The Persians had
    nowhere to go and was defeated.

Delian League
  • The Delian League consisted of Athens and other
    city-states that formed an alliance in which they
    promised to protect each other from Persian
    invasion and provide money or ships for defense.
  • The Delian League was initially located on the
    island of Delos, but was eventually moved to

Athens and the Delian League
  • The Athenians were obviously the most powerful
    members of the Delian League, even though each
    member should have equal standing.
  • Athens behaved arrogantly towards the other
    members by taking money to build an army even in
    times of no war. They also requested only money
    be given to help the cause instead of ships,
    which was one way of contributing. The last
    straw of arrogance came when Athens moved the
    headquarters of the Delian Leagues treasury to
    Athens. The Athenians started using the Leagues
    money to rebuild Athens instead of focusing on
    their initial goal. These events led to several
    members to have resentment towards the Athenians.

Peloponnesian League
  • The purpose of the Peloponnesian League was to
    show unity against the Delian League.
  • The Peloponnesian League feared the power that
    Athens was gaining and their style of government.
    In 433 B.C. the Peloponnesian League and the
    Delian League came into conflict, because Athens
    placed a ban on trade with Megara, this act
    opened up a can of worms and war was soon to

The Peloponnesian War
  • The war between Athens and Sparta was essentially
    coming and there was no stopping it.
  • The war started when Sparta marched onto Athens
  • The Athenian leader, Pericles instructed the
    farmers living in the surrounding area to move
    into the citys walled area for safety. The
    Athenians also prepared for the Spartan camping
    outside their walls, by building two long walls
    to line the four-mile road that connected Athens
    to its port city. They were able to get food
    through their ships, by this strategy.

Peloponnesian War Continued
  • After a year of living in hiding in the city, a
    contagious disease broke out killing thousands of
    Athenians. This disease probably became even more
    contagious, because the city became over crowded.
    The disease even took the life of Pericles,
    Athens great leader. The Spartans eventually
    decided that they needed to leave the citys
    region or risk getting the plague.
  • The Persians saw that the Athenians were weakened
    by continuous war and so they gave money to the
    Spartans to build their navy to destroy Athens.
    The Athenian navy did all they could to defend
    their city-state, but they eventually had to
    surrender, because the Spartan army was blocking
    ships from brining in food, which led to the
    Athenian people starving. The Spartans made the
    Athenians gave up their democratic government and
    the long wall built during the first
    Peloponnesian war.

Section 2 Alexanders Empire
Alexander with his horse. Image taken from
The Rise of Macedonia and Philip II
  • Philips brother was king of Macedonia, when he
    died his infant son could not take the throne.
    Due to this, the nobles of Macedonia elected
    Philip as their king.
  • In order to enhance the ability of his army,
    Philip organized his infantry into phalanxes. He
    then armed each man with a pike, which is a
    18-foot long spear. Finally, Philip trained his
    men to change direction without loosing
    formation. This allowed Philips army to achieve
    greatness beyond belief.

Philip II Continued....
  • Philip had initially tried conquering Greece
    through peaceful means, but failed.
  • He then went to war and won. Philip was not a
    cruel ruler and let the Greek city-states keep
    their forms of government, but they were expected
    to fight with him against the Persians.

Alexanders Conquest
  • Achilles inspired Alexander to become a great
    leader and a good person.
  • Alexander quickly squashed rebellions by the
    Greek city-states and to discourage future
    rebellions, Alexander burned the city of Thebes
    to the ground.
  • The Egyptians welcomed Alexander into their
    country, as they hated the Persians and was
    grateful to Alexander for liberating them from
    the Persians. They named Alexander pharaoh of
    Egypt. Alexander then built the great city of

Alexander Continued.
  • Alexander was called Alexander the Great
    because he built a vast empire in just 11 years.
  • Alexanders horse died in battle and that event
    led to the demise of Alexander and his empire.
    Alexander wanted his troops to continue on their
    quest for world dominance, but his troops were
    tired and mutinied against Alexander. He finally
    gave in to their wishes. When he reached Babylon,
    he died of malaria.

Hellenistic Culture
  • The Hellenistic culture was created due to
    Alexander the Great conquest of lands and his
    implementation of Greek culture and customs upon
    each conquest.

All philosophers of the Hellenistic culture are
pictured here. Image taken from
Section 3 Ancient Greek Beliefs and Arts
Picture depicting Greek religious beliefs. Image
taken from
Greek Mythology
  • The Greeks believed in polytheism, which is the
    belief in many Gods and Goddesses, or a deity.
  • The Greeks expressed their religious beliefs
    through myths or stories that people tell about
    their Gods or heroes. The myths the Greeks told
    expressed why there is so much suffering in the
    world, the changing of seasons, human behavior,
    and finally how heroes behave.

Greek Gods and Goddesses
  • The Greek Gods and Goddesses each had a specific
    role. There were 12 Gods and Goddesses that the
    Greeks believed were the most important. They
    lived on Mount Olympus and were known to behave
    as a human, but were immortal.
  • The Greeks favored Athena, because they believed
    that she gave them the olive tree and protected
    them at war.

Honoring Greek Gods and Goddesses
  • The Greeks honored their Gods and Goddesses by
    having public and private religious rituals.
  • On holy days, Greeks made sacrifices in front of
    their Gods temples.
  • They participated in athletic contest in which
    they displayed their skill and strength to honor
    the Gods.
  • Finally, they honored their Gods and Goddesses at
    sacred sites such as Mount Olympus and Delphi.

Olympic Games and Sacred Sites
  • The purpose of the Olympic games was to honor
    Zeus. Athletes from all over the city-states came
    together for the Olympic games in hopes of
    winning. City-states had a truce during the time
    of the Olympic games, so the games can be held in
    peace. Finally, those who won in the Olympic
    games often became overnight celebrities
    throughout the city-states.
  • The temple of Apollo held the Delphic oracle.
    This oracle could predict the future of those who
    came to her. Often, people left the oracle
    confused, because she would answer their
    questions with a puzzling statement.

Ancient Greek Art
  • Greek artist portrayed their work in a realistic
    point of view. They created an impression of
    depth and perspective in their work.
  • Greek sculptures were influenced by Egyptian
    sculptures, but their sculptures were more
    realistic in nature. Greek sculptures also
    portrayed created images of humans and deities
    that inhibit an ideal world of calm and peace.
  • The proportions of the human body and the drive
    for perfection inspired Greek sculpture and

Greek Art Pics
Greek Vase. Image taken from
Sculpture depicting the God Apollo. Image taken
  • Greek tragedies portrayed the downfall of heroic
    figures caught in violent conflict with their
    family, their city, or the Gods.
  • Greek comedies portrayed happy endings that dealt
    with current events and made amusing observations
    about the Greek society.
  • The purpose of a fable was to teach a moral
    lesson. Aesop was known for writing fables that
    taught the Greek society lessons on how they
    should behave and live their lives.

Section 4 Ancient Greek Learning
Bust of Plato. Image taken from
The Importance of Reason
  • The questions the Greek philosophers asked to
    seek out wisdom were What is the nature of the
    universe? What is a good life? How do we know
    what is real? How can we determine what is true?
  • The Greeks believed that they could answer
    questions using the power of reason. They also
    believed that through reason, they could answer
    questions more clearly.

  • The purpose of the Socratic Method was to utilize
    a form of questioning that a person uses to guide
    another person to think more clearly.
  • The leaders of Athens became very upset with
    Socrates, because by using the Socratic method,
    he challenged accepted beliefs. This was of
    course unacceptable behavior for the leaders and
    they charged Socrates with corrupting the young.
    He was sentenced to death for his beliefs.

  • Plato contributed the concept of the nature of
  • He also founded a school on philosophy called,
    the Academy.

  • Stoics were a group, founded by Zeno, who
    believed that people should live in harmony with
    nature and work on controlling their emotions.

Greek Historians
  • Herodotus is known as the father of history,
    because he asked why events happened.
  • Thucydides visited battle sites and interviewed
    participants. This type of research was known to
    gain more accurate information, rather than
    assumed information. Thucydides wanted to teach
    people about the past, so they would avoid
    repeating historical mistakes.

Political Thinkers
  • Plato did not approve of the Athenian democracy.
  • He thought philosopher-kings, who had wisdom and
    the right to make decisions, should run the
  • Aristotle thought that the best governments are
    ones that avoid extremes. He also noted that in
    order for a government to work appropriately, all
    citizens must participate in it.

Natural Sciences
  • Thales encouraged other scientist to use logic to
    develop answers, even if they were incorrect
  • Aristotle, who was a student of Plato and
    attended the Academy, sought knowledge through
  • He analyzed data about plants, animals, rocks,
    governments, and the arts and then made his
    decision about how he felt about them using

Math and Medicine
  • Pythagoras contributed the Pythagorean theorem.
    This mathematical formula is used in geometry.
  • Hippocrates wrote many medical books and ran a
    school teaching new doctors how to practice
    medicine. He taught his students to question
    patients and make observations of the patient so
    they could learn about the symptoms the patient
    is having. He also contributed the Hippocratic
    oath, which is when medical students take an oath
    promising that they would only use their
    knowledge in ethical ways. Today this oath is
    still used to guide doctors.

Medicine Continued
  • The study in human anatomy resulted in the Greeks
    finding that the optic nerves linked the eyes to
    the brain, the brain was the center of thought,
    and the pulse sent blood through arteries.

Hellenistic Learning
  • Alexander required that all of the lands he
    captured be transformed to look like a mini Greek
  • He also encouraged the people living in those
    lands to practice Greek culture.
  • This led to the creation of Hellenistic