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Title: Unit 6: Cold War to the Present


1
Unit 6 Cold War to the Present
  • (Part 2)
  • Vietnam to Iraq

2
Vietnam
  • Vietnam is part of a former French colony that in
    1954 was divided into North and South Vietnam.
    North Vietnam was run by a communist government
    headed by Ho Chi Minh. South Vietnam was run by
    a noncommunist government headed by Ngo Dinh
    Diem.

3
Vietnam
  • The government of South Vietnam was corrupt and
    often repressive. However, the U.S. supported
    the government because it was anti-Communist, in
    fear that if South Vietnam fell to the
    communists, all of Southeast Asia might follow.

4
Vietnam
  • Throughout the early 1960s, communist-backed
    guerilla forces known as Vietcong fought against
    the South Vietnamese government. The U.S. sent
    aid and support to the government.
  • By the summer of 1964, the U.S. had begun
    limited bombing of positions held by the Vietcong
    and supported limited commando raids on North
    Vietnams coast.

5
Vietnam
  • In August, 1964, President Johnson reported that
    the North Vietnamese had attacked two American
    ships in the Gulf of Tonkin. At the Presidents
    request, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin
    Resolution, which allowed the President to carry
    out a war against the Vietcong and North Vietnam.

6
  • Johnson quickly began bombing military bases in
    North Vietnam. In February 1965, after the
    Vietcong attacked an American airbase in South
    Vietnam, Johnson ordered an escalation, or
    military expansion, of the war. In April 1965 he
    began sending U.S. troops to fight against the
    Vietcong.

7
Vietnam
  • American troops encountered difficulties in
    fighting the communist rebels. Vietcong
    guerrillas used hit-and-run tactics and booby
    traps. They launched small-scale attacks and
    then disappeared into the jungles or friendly
    villages. To counter such tactics, American
    troops adopted a search-and-destroy strategy.
    The troops destroyed jungles and villages in an
    attempt to force the Vietcong out into open
    combat.

8
Vietnam
  • The U.S. continued pouring troops into Vietnam.
    During the height of the conflict, more than
    500,000 American soldiers were serving in the
    country. Despite the growing influx of U.S.
    troops and massive bombing of his country, Ho Chi
    Minh vowed to keep fighting, believing that his
    forces would outlast the U.S. in a war.

9
Vietnam
  • Once the U.S. had escalated the fighting, there
    seemed to be no way of leaving without damaging
    its international prestige. Between 1965 and
    1967, American officials estimated that some
    2,000 attempts were made to open direct
    negotiations, all unsuccessful.

10
Vietnam
  • By the end of 1967, U.S. military leaders assured
    the country that the end of the war was in sight.

11
Vietnam
  • January 30, 1968, marked a turning point of the
    war. That day, the Vietcong launched surprise
    attacks on numerous towns and bases in South
    Vietnam. Occurring on Tet, the Vietnamese lunar
    New Year, these attacks became known as the Tet
    Offensive.

12
  • These attacks were quickly repelled. However,
    the American people were shocked that an enemy
    was supposedly near defeat could launch such a
    large-scale attack. After Tet, many citizens
    began to believe that the U.S. could not win the
    war.

13
Vietnam
  • In March, 1968, President Johnson announced that
    he would halt nearly all bombing of North Vietnam
    and try to begin negotiations. These peace
    negotiations proved fruitless, however, and the
    fighting continued.

14
Vietnam
  • Gradually, as the U.S. moved deeper into the
    Vietnam War, opposition grew. Americans divided
    into two groups. Those who supported the war
    were called hawks, those who opposed the war
    were called doves.

15
Vietnam
  • A - Many of those who opposed the war were
    students. The antiwar movement centered on
    college campuses.

16
  • B - Many students protested the draft calling the
    system unfair because it offered a deferment to
    college students, which meant that a person who
    could not afford a higher education was more
    likely to be drafted. Many people protested the
    fact that Black Americans made up a
    disproportionately large number of American
    soldiers fighting overseas.

17
Vietnam
  • C - Some protests turned violent. During a 1970
    protest at Kent State University in Ohio, four
    students were killed when the Ohio National Guard
    fired on demonstrators. Two more students were
    killed by state police at Jackson State
    University in Mississippi.

18
Vietnam
  • During this tumultuous period in the U.S., some
    young people rebelled against established values
    and searched for a new set of beliefs. These
    people made up what was known as the
    counterculture because their values and practices
    conflicted with those of established society.

19
Vietnam
  • On the other side, a large number of conservative
    Americans were angered by riots, protests, and a
    war that seemed to be going nowhere. The deep
    anger these Americans felt against the protesters
    soon developed into a backlash against the
    anti-war movement.

20
Vietnam
  • By 1968, American society had reached a turning
    point. As a result of the Tet Offensive and the
    continuing protests, polls showed that the
    majority of Americans had turned against the
    Presidents handling of the war.

21
Vietnam
  • A - The Democratic party also became split.
    Senators Eugene McCarthy and Robert Kennedy, both
    of whom opposed the war, announced they would
    challenge Johnson for the presidential
    nomination. In March 1968, Johnson stunned the
    nation by announcing that he would not run for
    reelection.

22
  • Hubert Humphrey, Johnsons Vice-President, became
    the administration candidate. As the election
    progressed, however, it appeared that Kennedy
    would gain the Democratic nomination. Then,
    Kennedy was assassinated in June 1968. In
    August, the Democrats nominated Humphrey for
    President.

23
Vietnam
  • B - Meanwhile, the Republicans chose Richard
    Nixon as their candidate. During the campaign,
    Nixon promised to bring order to the nation and
    end the war in Vietnam. Nixon won a close
    victory and thus became President.

24
Vietnam
  • To help him handle foreign policy matters, Nixon
    appointed Henry Kissinger, a brilliant political
    scientist, as his national security adviser and
    later his secretary of state. Wanting to be
    remembered as a peacemaker, Nixon proclaimed a
    policy of détente, or relaxation of tensions
    between the United States and the communist
    block.

25
Vietnam
  • He also visited Moscow and began arms limitation
    talks with the Soviets that led to agreements by
    both sides to ban biological warfare and limit
    the growth of nuclear weapons. Nixon also worked
    to improve relations with China, lifting trade
    and travel restrictions, and in February 1972, he
    visited the country.

26
Vietnam
  • Despite a campaign promise to end the war in
    Vietnam, Nixon moved slowly. He did not want to
    withdraw U.S. troops without a peace agreement
    and thus become the nations first President to
    lose a war.

27
  • In June 1971, the New York Times published a
    secret defense department study known as the
    Pentagon Papers, which indicated that the
    nations various administrations had misled
    Congress and the public about the war in Vietnam.
    The documents angered many Americans and
    increased protests against the war.

28
Vietnam
  • To quiet opposition to the war, Nixon announced a
    policy of Vietnamization. The policy consisted
    of withdrawing U.S. troops and replacing them
    with South Vietnamese soldiers. Nixon hoped that
    Vietnamization, combined with saturation bombing
    of North Vietnam, would allow the U.S. to
    withdraw from the war with honor.

29
Vietnam
  • In January 1973, the warring sides signed a
    cease-fire agreement ending the military presence
    of the United States in Vietnam. The war,
    however, continued. In 1975, Congress refused
    President Fords request for funds to aid South
    Vietnam in its continuing war. In January 1975,
    North Vietnam launched a major offensive against
    the South. In a few months, the communists
    conquered South Vietnam and united the country
    under communist rule.

30
Vietnam Myths Facts
  • Myth The U.S. soldiers were very young and
    poorly educated.
  • Fact The average age was 23, and 79 of our
    troops were high school graduates.

31
Vietnam Myths Facts
  • - Myth The soldiers were mostly poor and from
    minorities.
  • Fact While 30 of the 58,000 killed came from
    the lowest third in income, 26 came from the
    highest third 12.5 were black.

32
Vietnam Myths Facts
  • - Myth Many were jailed for draft-evasion
    during the Vietnam war.
  • Fact Though 500,000 did dodge the draft, only
    9000 were convicted.

33
Latin America
34
Latin America
  • Shortly after taking office, Kennedy implemented
    a program of aid to Latin America called the
    Alliance of Progress. Its purpose was to develop
    long-term economic growth among Latin American
    nations in order to prevent communist
    revolutions.

35
Middle East
36
The Middle East
  • When war broke out between Israel and its Arab
    neighbors, the U.S. supported Israel. The Soviet
    Union backed and armed the Arab states. Israel
    quickly won the Arab-Israeli War of 1967.

37
The Middle East
  • In 1973, during the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur,
    Egyptian and Syrian forces launched a surprise
    attack against Israel in an attempt to regain
    land lost to Israel during a previous conflict.
    The U.S. supported Israel, while the Soviet Union
    aided the Arab states. The two superpowers,
    however, also worked to end the conflict. The
    combatants eventually agreed to a cease-fire

38
The Middle East
  • After the war, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger
    worked with Israel and Egypt to reduce tensions
    in the Middle East. He engaged in shuttle
    diplomacy-flying back and forth between the
    capitals of the two nations in an attempt to
    produce a lasting peace. Kissingers efforts
    resulted in improved relations between Egypt and
    Israel

39
The Middle East
  • On the world stage, President Jimmy Carter
    attempted to promote a foreign policy based on
    morality and truth rather than military or
    economic considerations. (When the Soviet Union
    invaded Afghanistan in 1979, Carter imposed a
    grain embargo on the Soviets and kept the United
    States out of the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow.)

40
The Middle East
  • Carters greatest foreign policy triumph and his
    greatest failure involved the Middle East.
  • Carter helped to broker peace between long-time
    enemies Egypt and Israel. The two sides signed a
    peace agreement known as the Camp David Accords
    in 1979

41
The Middle East
  • The Iranian hostage crisis-Also in 1979, an
    Islamic revolution toppled the monarchy in Iran.
    A group of rebels, angry over U.S. ties with the
    former rulers, seized the American embassy in
    November 1979 and took hostage more than 50
    Americans. Throughout 1980, Carter worked to win
    the hostages release. Negotiations failed,
    however, as did a military rescue in which eight
    Americans died in a helicopter crash.

42
The Middle East
  • Election of 1980-pitted Democrat Jimmy Carter
    against Republican and former actor and governor
    Ronald Reagan of California. Reagan hammered at
    Carters lack of leadership and of his failure to
    obtain release of the hostages sealed his defeat.
    On Election Day, Reagan won handily. On January
    20, 1981, just after Reagan was sworn in, Iran
    released the American hostages after 444 days in
    captivity.

43
The Middle East
  • Reagan adopted a hands-off attitude toward the
    day-to-day operations of the presidency, giving
    more responsibility to his staff. This practice
    aided what would become known as the Iran-Contra
    affair, a damaging scandal.

44
  • In 1986, several of Reagans national security
    advisors arranged to sell weapons to Iranians in
    exchange for American hostages, then secretly
    used the profits to support anti-Communist rebels
    in Nicaragua in violation of a congressional ban
    on such financing.

45
The Middle East
  • Although investigators cleared Reagan of
    responsibility for the scheme, they faulted him
    for allowing aides to make policy decisions
    without his knowledge.

46
Improved Relations with the Soviet Union
47
Improved Relations with the Soviet Union
  • In 1983, President Reagan announced his Strategic
    Defense Initiative (SDI), nicknamed Star Wars.
    The project involved creating a shield of new
    weapons designed to intercept and destroy nuclear
    missiles. In addition to Star Wars, Reagan
    promoted a giant military buildup costing about
    1 trillion. This increased the debt and left
    less money for housing, education, and
    environmental programs. Congress responded in
    1985 by passing the Gramm-Rudman Act, which put
    pressure on Congress and the President to reduce
    the deficit and balance the budget.

48
Improved Relations with the Soviet Union
  • Reagans desire for a strong defense was based on
    his belief that the Soviet Union was still a
    threat to the United States. U.S.-Soviet
    relations improved, however, when Mikhail
    Gorbachev became the new Soviet premier.
    Gorbachev opened up Soviet society (glasnost) and
    instituted democratic reforms (perestroika).

49
Improved Relations with the Soviet Union
  • In 1986, Gorbachev and Reagan met to discuss
    reducing their nuclear arsenals. They eventually
    signed a treaty calling for the removal of all
    intermediate-range nuclear weapons from Europe.
    The cold war was slowly coming to an end.

50
Improved Relations with the Soviet Union
  • After winning the election of 1988, President
    George H.W. Bush was confronted with a tidal wave
    of change around the world. Gorbachevs new
    reform policies in the Soviet Union created even
    greater demands for freedom and independence in
    Eastern Europe. In 1989, several Eastern
    European nations overthrew their communist rulers
    and forced democratic elections.

51
Improved Relations with the Soviet Union
  • Demands for democracy then erupted in the Soviet
    Union itself. A failed coup left the power to
    govern in the hands of Boris Yeltsin, president
    of the Russian Republic, and Gorbachev resigned
    as Soviet president.

52
  • By December 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to
    exist. In its place was a loose federation of
    self-governing nations made up of former Soviet
    republics, including Russia, known as the
    Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

53
Improved Relations with the Soviet Union
  • All the former Soviet and communist block states
    forced serious economic troubles as they
    attempted to convert state-run economies to
    capitalist systems.

54
  • Shortages of essential goods such as food, fuel,
    medicine, and housing created severe hardships
    for large numbers of people. Ethnic rivalries
    flared in the newly independent nations,
    complicating their transition to self-government.

55
Improved Relations with the Soviet Union
  • On January 1, 2000, Vladimir Putin was
    inaugurated as the new president of Russia,
    succeeding Boris Yeltsin. While Russia is now an
    ally of the United States, there are still areas
    of major disagreement.

56
  • In December of 2001, U.S. President George W.
    Bush announced that the United States will
    withdraw from the 1972 Antiballistic Missile
    Treaty mid-2002 in order to build up defensive
    weapons. Russia disagrees that this is the right
    thing to do.

57
COLD WAR IS OVER
58
The Persian Gulf War
59
The Persian Gulf War
  • In August 1990, Iraqi President Saddam Husseins
    troops seized control of Kuwait, Iraqs oil-rich
    neighbor. Following the invasion, Iraq
    controlled 20 percent of the worlds oil
    reserves. President Bush, with cooperation from
    more than 25 other nations, assembled a U.S.-led
    military coalition that drove Iraqi forces out of
    Kuwait. Saddam Hussein, however, remained a
    threat to the regions peace and stability.

60
The Persian Gulf War
  • Observers feared that Iraq was working to develop
    chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons. The
    Persian Gulf War caused Americans to rethink the
    military role of the nation. Some leaders called
    for scaling down U.S. military forces, arguing
    that the real source of power in the new world
    order would be economic.

61
The Persian Gulf War
  • Other experts warned that the U.S. must maintain
    a strong military to guard against several
    remaining hostile and potentially dangerous
    nations. Recently, it is feared that Iraq is
    involved in sponsoring terrorism around the
    world, thus, some speculate that there will be
    more conflict between Iraq and the United States,
    among other nations of the west.

62
Other ethnic conflicts
  • Despite the decline of communism, wars arising
    from ethnic hatreds, political boundaries, and
    religion plagued nearly every world region
    throughout the 1990s.

63
Other Ethnic Conflicts
64
Other ethnic conflicts
  • The first crisis to confront the administration
    of President Bill Clinton was civil war in the
    East African nation of Somalia. When Clinton
    took office, thousands of U.S. troops already
    were in Somalia protecting deliveries of food to
    those left starving by the war. As the U.S.
    troops became more involved in the conflict,
    President Clinton pulled them out in 1995 rather
    than risk American casualties.

65
Other ethnic conflicts
  • The U.S. and its allies also confronted violence
    in Europes Balkan region. In 1991, the
    multinational state of Yugoslavia disintegrated
    as several of the countrys ethnic groups broke
    away and claimed independence. Ethnic hatreds
    and renewed feelings of nationalism after decades
    of totalitarian rule fueled the wars in the
    Balkan region.

66
Other ethnic conflicts
  • Serbia, the regions largest republic, fought
    against Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, and
    Macedonian Independence, and the region descended
    into years of war. As reports of Serb atrocities
    against various ethnic groups mounted, Western
    nations took action.

67
  • The U.S. and its NATO allies bombed Serb military
    sites in the first NATO military offensive ever.
    In 1995, the warring sides agreed to a cease-fire
    and signed an agreement known as the Dayton peace
    accords.

68
Other ethnic conflicts
  • In 1999, violence flared up again in the Balkans,
    as Kosovo, a province of Serbia, sought its
    independence. To put down the rebellion, Serbs
    marched into Kosovo, where again reports surfaced
    of atrocities against ethnic Albanians.

69
  • Serb forces rounded up and executed more than
    8,000 Muslim men and boys. After diplomatic
    relations failed, NATO launched air strikes
    against Serbia, which eventually agreed to remove
    its forces and permit NATO troops to restore
    order in Kosovo.

70
Other ethnic conflicts
  • Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic was forced
    from power in 2000 and was deemed a war criminal
    by Western leaders and the international war
    crimes tribunal in The Hague, the Netherlands.
    Prosecutors say Milosevic held ultimate
    responsibility for at least 900 ethnic Albanians
    and the eviction of 800,000 civilians from their
    homes.

71
Other ethnic conflicts
  • The United States played the role of peacemaker
    in Northern Ireland. For many years, sectarian
    violence between the Protestant majority and
    Roman Catholic minority had torn Northern Ireland
    apart.

72
  • Roman Catholics wanted to reunite with the
    predominantly Catholic, Irish Republic.
    Protestants insisted that Northern Ireland remain
    part of Great Britain. In 1997, the U.S.
    persuaded both sides to disarm and accept a
    cease-fire. A year later, Catholics and
    Protestants agreed to a peace plan.

73
Other ethnic conflicts
  • The U.S. also worked to end years of fighting
    between Israelis and Palestinians, an Arab people
    living under Israeli rule. Under a peace
    agreement reached in 1995, Israel agreed to
    significant Palestinian self-rule and the removal
    of Israeli forces from other Palestinian areas.
    Implementation of the plan, however, went slowly.

74
Other ethnic conflicts
  • In 1998, with Clintons help, both sides signed
    the Wye River Memorandum, which detailed the
    steps needed to implement the peace agreement.
    Unfortunately, a new round of conflict developed
    in 2000 and the two sides have never been more
    divided.

75
Conflict with China
76
Conflict with China
  • In April of 2001, China held 24 Americans for a
    short period of time after a mid-air collision
    between a U.S. Air Force jet and a Chinese jet.
    The Chinese jet crashed killing the pilot and the
    Americans made an emergency landing on Chinese
    soil. Although the Chinese blamed the U.S. for
    the collision, the U.S. government has strongly
    rejected responsibility for the incident.

77
Conflict with China
  • President George W. Bush has been given credit
    for decisive leadership in the quick release of
    the Americans. Bush also pledged military aid
    for Taiwan in the event of aggressive force from
    China. Many suggest the Cold War continues
    between the U.S. and China.

78
Peacemaker
  • As 2000 began the United Nations was directing
    peacekeeping operations in 17 countries from
    Africa to the Middle East to Asia, at an
    estimated cost of around 900 million. Why is
    the United States, more than other countries,
    playing the role of peacemaker around the world?
    The U.S. is widely seen as the only remaining
    superpower, and as such, has the respect and
    authority needed to negotiate peace agreements.

79
Americas War on Terror
80
Americas New War on Terror 9-11-2001
  • On the beautiful morning of September 11, 2001, 4
    planes left 3 major airports to begin what would
    be the deadliest single day in modern American
    history. At 759 a.m., American Airlines Flight
    11 with 92 people left Bostons Logan Airport for
    Los Angeles at 801 a.m., United Flight 93 with
    45 people left Newark Airport for San Francisco
    at 810 a.m., American Flight 77 with 64 people
    left Washingtons Dulles Airport for Los Angeles
    and, at 814 a.m., United Flight 175 with 65
    people left Boston for L.A.

81
  • The next day, Attorney General John Ashcroft
    would say the planes were hijacked by between
    three and six individuals per plane, using knives
    and box cutters, and in some cases making bomb
    threats. He also says a number of suspected
    hijackers were trained as pilots in the United
    States.

82
  • January 29, 2002-In his State of the Union
    address, President George W. Bush in a vital act
    of world leadership declared a declaration
    against the axis of evil referring to 3 nations
    where there are weapons of mass destruction in
    hostile hands.

83
Iraq
  • After the 1991 Persian Gulf War, dictator Saddam
    Hussein was discovered to be only months away
    from producing an atomic bomb and had already
    done tests on a radiological dirty bomb. His
    program was closed, but his pool of trained
    scientists remained, and he might have a nuclear
    device within a few years. When United Nations
    weapons inspectors were banished, they were
    convinced that Saddam had hidden an arsenal of VX
    nerve gas and a whole range of biological agents
    and toxins.

84
Iran
  • According to the Monterey Center for
    Nonproliferation Studies, Iran, under the
    leadership of Ayatullah Ali Khamenei, had an
    arsenal of chemical weapons and, according to the
    U.S. government, had been secretly producing
    biological weapons. It is getting Russian help
    on nuclear power and assistance on missiles from
    Russia and China.

85
North Korea
  • Caught in 1992 producing more plutonium than it
    admitted to making, North Korean president Kim
    Jong II agreed in 1994 to stop producing it in
    exchange for Western nations help with
    less-dangerous nuclear technology. But it
    blocked implementation of the agreement. North
    Korea has large stocks of chemical weapons and a
    well-developed biological weapons program. It is
    also developing a missile capable of reaching the
    United States.

86
  • The three countries dont constitute a
    cooperative axis as Germany, Italy, and Japan
    did in World War II, but there is no question
    that they are evil. They have a history of
    menacing their own people.
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