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New Imperialism

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Title: New Imperialism


1
New Imperialism
2
Building Overseas Empires
  • Imperialism is the domination by one country of
    the political, economic, or cultural life of
    another country or region
  • New Imperialism was European expansion during
    1800s in Africa, Asia South America

3
  • Economic interests lead to expansion
  • Need natural resources, new consumers, colonies
    to spread out population
  • Political and Military Motives
  • Need for military bases, global empire brought
    prestige
  • Humanitarian and Religious Goals
  • Christians wanted to spread religion help less
    fortunate
  • Applying Social Darwinism
  • Europeans thought they were better

4
Western Advantages
  • Europeans had strong economies, well-organized
    governments, powerful armies
  • Advanced technology like riverboats, telegraph
    and medicines like Quinine
  • Maxim machine guns, repeating rifles, and steam
    driven warships

5
Forms of Imperialism
  • French imposed direct rule
  • Had Frenchmen control colonies wanted to impose
    French culture on colonies
  • Britain used indirect rule
  • Had local officials run the colonies taught
    local kids to become more westernized
  • Protectorate had local rulers who were expected
    to follow the advice of European advisers on key
    issues
  • Sphere of influence is an area where an outside
    power claims exclusive trading privileges

6
The Partition of Africa
  • Africa was made up many regions, hundreds of
    languages, and varied governments
  • Some lived in large states others in villages

7
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8
Islamic Crusades in West Africa
  • Usman dan Fodio called for social and religious
    reforms based on Islamic law
  • Usman helped create a powerful Islamic state in
    northern Nigeria
  • Literacy improved, local wars stopped, trade
    improved

9
  • Shaka led the Zulu conquest of many tribes in
    southern Africa
  • Helped create a strong Zulu kingdom and army
  • Dutch Boers started to migrate north into Zulu
    territory
  • Boers were forced out of their land by British
    soldiers
  • Zulus were eventually defeated due to lack of
    technology

10
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11
European Contact Increases
  • Explorers traveled into Africa to create a map
  • Missionaries followed explorers to help and
    convert Africans
  • Were paternalistic, believing they were superior
    to African children

12
  • Dr. David Livingstone is the most well known
    explorer/missionary
  • Traveled all around Africa and wrote about its
    peoples
  • Journalist Henry Stanley went to Africa in 1869
    to find Livingstone
  • Found him in 1871 Dr. Livingstone I presume?

13
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14
A Scramble for Colonies
  • Belgium King Leopold II spoke of civilizing and
    Christianizing barbaric Africans really wanted
    more power and money
  • Sent Henry Stanley to report on his findings in
    Africa
  • Led to other countries to scramble for colonies

15
Berlin Conference
  • European countries met in 1884 to determine how
    to divide African territory
  • Meeting took place in Berlin, Germany
  • No Africans were present
  • Countries needed government officials to claim
    territories
  • Created new boundaries with no regard tradition
    or ethnicity

16
  • Leopold treated natives of the Congo cruelly had
    to give up his colony to the Belgian government
  • France controlled portions of Africa larger then
    the United States
  • Britain controlled eastern and western coasts
  • Once diamonds were found in Boer territory,
    Britain moved north to control that territory
  • Boer War was fought with Britain winning harsh
    battles and creating Union of South Africa

17
Africans Resist Imperialism
  • Nehanda led the Shona tribe in Zimbabwe against
    colonists
  • Was executed, but legacy helped fuel future
    fights for freedom
  • Menelik II began to modernize Ethiopia
  • Roads, schools, weapons and training
  • Defeated Italian invaders

18
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19
European Claims in Muslim Regions
  • In the Sudan, Muhammad Ahmad claimed to be the
    Mahdi, or savior of the faith
  • Fought against British invasion
  • In Arabia, the Wahhabi movement wanted to go back
    to the purity of Muhammads original teachings
  • Wahhabi still influences Saudi Arabia today

20
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21
Problems for the Ottoman Empire
  • Nationalism spread leading to uprisings and
    independence for several countries
  • Russia wished to gain control of the Bosporus and
    the Dardanelles
  • Russia wanted to gain control of the
    Mediterranean Sea

22
Efforts to Westernize
  • Ottoman rulers saw a need to reform
  • Tax collection, railroads, education and military
  • Many officials opposed changes influenced by
    foreign cultures
  • Ottoman sultans, rulers, rejected reform and go
    back to old ways

23
  • The Young Turks overthrew the sultan and tried to
    reform
  • Ottoman Turks usually let other nationalities
    practice their own religions
  • Nationalism led to tensions between Turks and
    minorities
  • Armenians faced genocide, or extermination,
    because of their beliefs

24
Egypt Seeks to Modernize
  • Muhammad Ali, appointed governor of Egypt, helped
    lead reforms and independence
  • Improved tax collection, irrigation, and
    industries
  • Had military experts help form and train an army
  • Helped conquered neighboring lands

25
  • Alis successors let foreign countries gain
    control of Egypt
  • Ferdinand de Lesseps of France created a company
    to build the Suez Canal
  • Egypt was unable to pay back loans for the canal
  • Sold shares of the canal to pay debts
  • Britain gained majority control of the Suez Canal
  • Egypt became a protectorate of Britain
  • Controlled decisions and led to riots

26
Persia and European Powers
  • The Qajar shahs ruled Persia and worked to reform
    and modernize
  • Russia wanted to expand through Persia, Britain
    wanted to protect interests in India
  • Oil led these countries to create spheres of
    influence and were granted concessions
  • Some Persians wanted more western influence,
    Muslim leaders disliked the governments decisions

27
The British Takeover India
  • British East India Company gained trading rights
    with the Mughal Empire
  • Britain conquered India by exploiting its
    diversity
  • Home of many cultures, languages, people
  • Used superior weapons when needed

28
  • East India Company wanted to make money also
    helped advancements
  • Education, law, religions
  • End slavery cast system
  • Improve position of women
  • Ended sati, a practice of widows throwing
    themselves on husbands funeral fire

29
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30
Growing Discontent
  • East India Company sent sepoys, Indian soldiers
    in its service, overseas
  • Offensive to upper class Hindus
  • Passed a law allowing widows to remarry
  • Believed to be a Christian conspiracy
  • Soldiers rifles had cartridges greased with
    animal fat
  • Indians who refused to use them were imprisoned

31
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32
  • Sepoys rebelled claiming Mughal rulers as their
    leaders
  • Killed British men, women and children
  • Britain crushed the rebellion and slaughtered
    thousands of Indians
  • British government took control of India

33
  • British Raj system controlled India
  • Viceroy governed in the name of the queen
  • Britain was helping India to westernize
  • Improved roads and railroads, communication
  • Westernization hurt Indians
  • Textiles hurt hand weavers
  • Growing cash crops caused deforestation, or
    cutting down of trees

34
  • Increased population led to famine
  • Better healthcare
  • Growing cash crops instead of food

35
Different Views on Culture
  • Ram Mohun Roy felt India could learn from the
    west
  • Founded Hindu College
  • Disliked caste system, child marriage, sati, and
    purdah, isolating women in separate quarters

36
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37
Indian Nationalism Grows
  • Western educated Indians turned toward western
    ideas of democracy
  • Formed Indian National Congress
  • Wanted self-rule but liked modernization
  • Muslim League formed to pursue own goals
  • Feared Hindus would oppress Muslims

38
China and the New Imperialism
  • China had a trade surplus, exported more than it
    imported
  • Sold silk, porcelain and tea for gold and silver
  • Europeans were restricted to a small trading area

39
The Opium War
  • British were trading Indian opium for Chinese tea
  • Many Chinese became addicted and gave up silver
    for opium
  • Chinese government banned opium and executed drug
    dealers
  • Asked Britain to stop trading they refused

40
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41
  • Chinese warships attacked British merchant ships
  • British warships bombarded Chinese ports and were
    easily defeated

42
  • Britain received a huge indemnity, payment for
    losses in war and the island of Hong Kong
  • China had to open 5 ports to foreign trade
  • British citizens in China received
    extraterritoriality, the right to live under home
    laws and tried by home courts

43
  • Poor living conditions and corrupt upper class
    lead to a peasant rebellion
  • Taiping Rebellion lasted 14 years and called for
    an end of the Qing dynasty
  • The government was able to crush the rebellion
  • Caused 20-30 million deaths

44
  • Chinese scholars thought that western ideas
    threatened Confucian ways
  • Empress Ci Xi created a self-strengthening
    movement little progress was made
  • Sino-Japanese War led to Japan gaining the island
    of Taiwan

45
  • European powers carved China into spheres of
    influence
  • U.S. supported an Open Door Policy that left the
    trade door open to everyone.

46
  • Emperor Guang Xu instituted 100 days of reform to
    help China modernize
  • Ci Xi regained power and reversed all reforms

47
The Qing Dynasty Falls
  • The Righteous Harmonious Fists formed to rid
    China of foreign influence
  • Given the name Boxers they started the Boxer
    Uprising
  • A multinational force helped defeat the Boxers

48
  • Reforms took place instituting western ideas
  • Sun Yixian helped form the Revolutionary Alliance
    to rebuild China
  • Nationalism, democracy and economic security were
    goals of the alliance
  • Sun was named president of the new Chinese
    republic
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