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New Imperialism

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New Imperialism Responses to Modernity: Case Study Africa Old Imperialism -vs New Imperialism OLD Occurred between 16th and 18th centuries Set up ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Imperialism


1
New Imperialism
  • Responses to Modernity
  • Case Study Africa

2
Old Imperialism-vs New Imperialism
  • OLD
  • Occurred between 16th and 18th centuries
  • Set up trading companies along establish trading
    routes in the world
  • To intercept goods, and gain tax money and
    monopoly over goods
  • Acquisition of territory not the norm (except for
    Spain in Americas and Portugal in Brazil)
  • Economic penetration of non-European regions in
    the 19th century
  • NEW
  • Began in 1870s colonized Asia and Africa by using
    military force to take control of local
    governments
  • Exploiting local economies for raw materials
    required by Europes growing industry (industrial
    rev)
  • Imposing Western values to benefit the
    backwards colonies to make the acquisition of
    resources more efficient
  • What choices does the non-west have in response
    to this aggressiveness?

3
Responses to Modernity
  • Tribute Compromise
  • Submit to Western demands and pressures,
    outwardly, and cultivate cultural institutions
    internally
  • Compete with the West
  • Adopt Western methods to complete militarily,
    economically compete with Western Pressures
  • Resist/Assert indigenous difference
  • Shun Western ideas and institutions. Revive
    traditional, indigenous ideas and institutions to
    thwart Western influence
  • Often leads to a myopic /emasculated/terse
    interpretation of historical past
  • Isolationism
  • Assimilate
  • Adopt Western norms cosmologically, politically,
    etc

4
Responses so Far
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Forced to meetand competewith Modernity face to
    face when Industrial Revolution and start of
    Charter Companies began to compromise Ottoman
    income and influence in world trade
  • Bullion no longer flowed through Istanbul.
  • Ottoman traders no longer controlled ancient
    trade routes
  • Attempt to turn the empire into a modern
    industrial nation
  • Policies awkwardly executed,
  • Hence Eurocentric term
  • Sick Man of Europe
  • Policies?
  • State centralization
  • Industrialization
  • Rule of law uniform civil code (like Napoleonic
    Code)
  • Centralized army to replace Janissary
  • Beat them at their own game.
  • India
  • Did not figure out quickly the British and French
    technique
  • To exploit their segmented state, and use of
    divide and conquer method of acquiring trading
    rights
  • Did not develop a unified response to British
    exploitation of Mughal-vs-Hindu relations
  • Zamindari system, and exploitation of taxes
  • Many elite took the route of assimilation
    trained as British civil servant to run the
    empire
  • Opposition grows only around 1860s, after the
    Sepoy Mutiny
  • Indian National Congress
  • Use western model of nationalism and state
    formation, to demand expulsion of Britain
  • Beat them at their own game

5
Responses so Far
  • East Asia
  • Remember.
  • Dutch Charter Company (Dutch East India Co.)
    makes inroads
  • Ruthlessly killed natives for commercial
    expediency
  • Introduced merchants to Opium into East Asia
    (below cost) --including China to create a
    system of dependency
  • Missionaries throughout
  • By 18th c, half of South East Asia converted to
    either Christianity or Islam
  • China and Japan, responded initially through
    policy of Seclusion
  • Western powers bully their way into China through
    Opium Wars
  • Taiping (Boxer) Rebellion (1850), of
    traditionalists-vs-Manchu leaders and Christian
    missionaries
  • Rebellion put down with British help
  • By 1853, only Japan had the military might to
    withstand Western domination

6
Major Causes for the Imperialist Impulse
  • Search for new markets and raw materials
  • Missionary work far more successful in Africa
    than in Asia and Islamic world.
  • Dr. David Livingston first white man to do
    humanitarian and religious work in south and
    central Africa
  • H. M. Stanley found Livingston (whom westerners
    thought to be dead) and his newspaper reports
    created European interest in Africa Stanley
    sought aid of king of Belgium to dominate the
    Congo region.

7
Africa
  • 1880, Europeans controlled 10 of Africa by 1914
    controlled all except Liberia Ethiopia
  • Belgian Congo
  • At behest of Leopold II, H. M. Stanley
    established trading stations, signed treaties
    with African chiefs, and claimed land for
    Belgium.
  • Leopolds incursion into Congo basin raised the
    question of the political fate of black Africa
    (south of the Sahara) also Britain's conquest of
    Egypt

8
Africa Berlin Congress 1884-85
  • Established the "rules" for conquest of Africa
  • Sponsored by Bismarck Jules Ferry sought to
    prevent conflict over imperialism
  • Congress coincided with Germany's rise as an
    imperial power
  • Agreed to stop slavery and slave trade in Africa
  • Germany took control of Cameroon, Togo, southwest
    Africa, East Africa
  • France took control Tunisia, Algeria, French
    West Africa (including Morocco, Sahara, Sudan,
    Congo basin)
  • Italy took control of Libya
  • Each power divided Africa into arbitrary
    political units, to serve interests of
    Administration
  • How would this lead to the problems in Darfur and
    Rwanda?
  • Justifications? Social Darwinism? Scientific
    Racism

9
Africa Berlin Congress 1884-85
  • Britain perhaps the most enlightened of the
    imperialist powers (though still oppressive)
  • Took control of Egypt in 1883 (model for "New
    Imperialism")
  • Pushed southward and took control of Sudan
  • Battle of Omdurman (1898) General Horatio H.
    Kitchener defeated Sudanese tribesman and killed
    11,000 (use of machine gun) while only 28 Britons
    died
  • Fashoda Incident (1898) France Britain nearly
    went to war over Sudan France backed down in the
    face of the Dreyfus Affair
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