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What is culture?

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... HISTORY cont. Impact of Oil IRAQ Arabian Peninsula Dubailand And if that isn t impressive enough!!! Try Hydropolis: An Underwater Hotel And there s more! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is culture?


1
What is culture?
  • A group of peoples particular way of life
  • Cultural Hearths are places in which religions,
    language, government organization, inventions,
    etc. have had the most effect on the rest of the
    world.

The seven original culture hearths are 1) The
Nile River Valley2) The Indus River Valley3)
The Wei-Huang Valley4) The Ganges River
Valley5) Mesopotamia6) Mesoamerica7) West
Africa
2
What is cultural diffusion?
  • The spreading of cultures
  • Some cultures are near each other or trade with
    each other and mix and blend over time (Soccer?)
  • Sometimes they are spread by war. In this case,
    those who conquer try to force their beliefs on
    others because they think themselves to be
    superior. This is called ethnocentrism.

3
See, Think, Wonder
  • Make observations about what you see, hear and
    generally notice. (I See)
  • What thoughts were triggered as you made your
    observations? Connections to your experiences
    connections to culture emotional reactions and
    judgments fascinating and interesting
    observations (I think..)
  • What puzzles you? What questions do you have?
    What are you wondering about? (I wonder)

4
(No Transcript)
5
SW Asia and Middle East
6
SW Asia in the World
7
Southwest Asia and Middle East
8
Speaking of ethnocentrism.
  • Why is this part of the world known as the Middle
    East.?
  • The term Middle East was popularized by an
    American naval officer named Alfred Thayer Mahan
    in 1902, but it might have been used by the
    British during their years of colonialism in the
    region. China and Japan for example were
    considered to be the Far East so the region
    between the Far East and The West then became the
    Near East or the Middle East. It now generally
    means the Middle East plus Turkey and Iran. The
    terms Middle East and Near East are Eurocentric
    because they describe a region in relation to
    Europe or The West. Despite this, the term is now
    accepted and even people in the Middle East call
    it that (Al-Sharq Al-Awasat means Middle East in
    Arabic).

9
ANCIENT HISTORY
  • Home of the first Cultural Hearth
  • Centers of ideas, innovations and ideologies
  • Mesopotamia
  • Between Tigris and Euphrates River
  • Farmers used irrigation and food storage
  • Domesticated cereal, vegetables, fruits, animals
  • Developed calendar, math, astronomy, government
    and engineering
  • Many Empires have controlled
  • Sumerian, Persia, Mongols, Romans, Ottoman Turks

10
HISTORY cont.
  • Ottoman Turk Impact
  • Ruled from 1453 until after WWI
  • After WWI divided region into Syria, Iraq,
    Lebanon and Yemen controlled by British and
    French
  • Didnt adequately define border so when colonies
    gained independence, created problems
  • Oil
  • Most important resource for outside world
  • Within the realm, water and land most important
  • About 65 of known reserves in world located here

11
Impact of Oil
  • Middle Easterners who were mostly herders and
    fishermen became rich.
  • Most countries have high standard of living.
  • Countries have built desalinization plants,
    improved education and health.
  • Not all oil is distributed evenly. Most around
    the Persian Gulf
  • First oil in region found in 1908 in Iran. First
    discovery in Saudi Arabia in 1932.
  • Shiites and Palestinians move into Arabia
  • Saudi Arabia has 5 million foreigners in
    population of 23 million
  • Disparities between oil rich and oil poor
    countries
  • Foreign investment

12
IRAQ
  • Size of California with 65 of total land and 42
    of regions wealth
  • Major oil reserves and large areas of irrigated
    farmland
  • Site of Mesopotamia culture hearth
  • Modern Iraq
  • Adversarial with neighbors
  • Turkey, Iran, Kuwait, Jordan, Syria
  • 3 regions
  • Core around Baghdad, heart of country
  • South around Basra, major oil fields, invasion
    of Kuwait in 1990
  • North Land of Kurds and Sunni, but not Arab
    Sunnis
  • Kurds want own country
  • Treated poorly under Suddam

13
Arabian Peninsula
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Mostly desert with huge oil reserves
  • Absolute monarchy
  • Created in 1920s and stabilized now friendly to
    west
  • Currently trying to update social programs
  • Economy entirely dependent upon oil
  • Periphery
  • Kuwait tiny but lots of oil
  • Bahrain island with dwindling oil supply
  • Qatar declining oil but increasing natural gas
  • UAE (United Arab Emirates) unique government
  • Oman absolute monarchy that controls choke point
    of Hormuz Strait
  • Yemen united in 1990s and created democracy,
    only one in region

14
Dubailand
15
And if that isnt impressive enough!!!
16
Try Hydropolis An Underwater Hotel
17
And theres more!The Palms 3 Artificial Islands
in the shape of a tree!
18
IRAN
  • Formerly Persian Empire that ruled for 2500 years
  • Controls area between Caspian Sea and Persian
    Gulf
  • 69.4 million population with 63 urban
  • Struggle between modernity and traditional
    Islamic rulers
  • Revolution in 1979 that put in Ayatollah Khomeini
  • 1980-1990 fought war with Iraq that left Iran
    very weak
  • Late 1990s saw desire to liberalize, but put
    down by government
  • Government is theocracy run by religious law
  • Current US policies becoming a question. Nuke
    Threat?

19
MODERN ISSUES
  • Economically dependent on oil
  • OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting
    Countries
  • Food importers
  • Growing cities
  • Capital of Islamic world
  • What to do with Iraq?

20
EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN
21
ISRAEL
  • Creation
  • Created in 1948 as Jewish homeland with UN
    support with idea of Zionism
  • May 14, 1948 created Israel with Arabic neighbors
    immediately attacking
  • At end of war, Israel controlled 80 of what had
    been Palestine
  • Wars
  • 1967 week long war where Israel gains Golan
    Heights, West Bank and Sinai Peninsula
  • 1973 war forces withdraw from Suez Canal
  • 1978 Israel gives all of Sinai Peninsula back to
    Egypt

22
MAJOR ISSUES MODERN ISRAEL
  • Golan Heights
  • Syria wants it back but Israel wants to keep it
  • West Bank
  • Originally set as Palestinian Homeland but Jewish
    migration now makes it difficult
  • 1977 5,000 Jews in West Bank
  • 2000 200,000 Jews in West Bank
  • Palestinians
  • Nation without a state
  • Many live in Jordan but still large percentage
    living in Israel

23
JERUSALEM
  • Major issue in Middle East
  • Suppose to be international city, but captured by
    Israel in 1967
  • Now considered capital of Israel
  • History
  • Moses leads Jews into Philistine land and created
    Jerusalem where lived 40 centuries
  • After King Solomon, kingdom divided and conquered
  • AD 70 Rome destroys 2nd temple leaving only part
    of West Wall
  • Under Rome became focus for Christians
  • 700 AD Muslims move into Jerusalem

24
JERUSALEM, cont.
  • Holy Site for 3 major religions
  • Western Wall Jewish
  • Church of Holy Sepulcher Christians, place
    where Jesus buried
  • Dome of the Rock Muslims. Muhammad's ascension
    to heaven on Temple Mount
  • Modern Issues
  • 1948-49 captures only part of Jerusalem
  • Tel Aviv suppose to be capital of Israel
  • Jerusalem divided into 2 sections Old and New

25
MODERN ISSUES, cont.
  • Jerusalem
  • 1967 Israel conquered West Bank and reunited
    Jerusalem with West mostly Jewish and East
    mostly Arabic
  • 1980 called foreign nations to move from Tel Aviv
    to Jerusalem, but most didnt and Israel began
    huge resettlement attempt
  • 1990s UN tells Israel to stop construction and
    settlement, but Israel not listening
  • Modern Issues
  • One of wealthiest nations in region
  • 90 of population urban
  • Water issues 30 of useable water under West
    Bank but Israel uses 4X as much water as
    Palestinians
  • Finding peace biggest issue and problem

26
OTHER NATIONS IN REGION
  • Syria
  • Shares border with Israel
  • Lost Golan Heights in 1967 military republic
    since 1963
  • 75 Sunni, but ruled by Alawites who suppress all
    dissension
  • On Mediterranean Coast so can grow crops creating
    come self-sufficiency
  • Damascus believed to be longest lived in city in
    world
  • Needs Modernization
  • Jordan
  • East of Israel and depends upon Lebanon for Port
    Access
  • 1946 population 400,000 with 1 million
    Palestinians refugees coming in 1948
  • Received lots of aide, but hasnt really helped

27
Other Nations, cont.
  • Lebanon
  • 25 population is Christian creating Civil War
  • 1975 civil war after Muslim population grows and
    Christian doesnt
  • Beirut destroyed and only 150,000 still lived
    there out of 1.5 million now being rebuilt
  • Turkey
  • Influenced by Chinese, Mongols, Russians,
    Byzantium and Islam
  • Modern Turkey is remnants of Ottoman Turkish
    Empire
  • Modern Problems
  • 20 of population Kurdish creating human rights
    violations
  • Islamic Fundamentalism gaining some support and
    strength
  • Cultural conflict between Alevis Islam and Sunni
    Islam
  • Wants EU membership but not likely
  • Controls Bosporus and Dardanelles
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