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French Revolution: Revolution Brings Reform

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French Revolution: Revolution Brings Reform & Terror Objectives: Understand the actions of the National Assembly 1790-1791; Declaration of the Rights of Man ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: French Revolution: Revolution Brings Reform


1
French RevolutionRevolution Brings Reform
Terror
2
Objectives
  1. Understand the actions of the National Assembly
    1790-1791 Declaration of the Rights of Man
    decision to take over the Church in France
  2. Summarize the positions of the 3 factions of the
    Legislative Assembly that tried to govern France
  3. Describe the events of the Reign of Terror under
    the National Convention the Jacobin leader,
    Robespierre
  4. Explain the aftermath of the Reign of Terror

3
National Assembly (204)
4
  • The National Assembly
  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man (Aug. 27,
    1789)
  • equality of all men
  • political rights (life, liberty, property, etc.)
  • free speech/religion
  • official motto Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

5
  • The National Assembly takes control of the
    Catholic Church in France (1790)
  • needs way to raise revenue w/o raising taxes
  • confiscates Church lands
  • places clergy under govt. control
  • turns devout peasants against the revolution ?
    mainly an urban revolution of workers and
    bourgeosie
  • Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette caught while
    trying to flee the country (June, 1791)
  • returned to Paris under house arrest

6
Legislative Assembly takes Charge (127)
7
  • The Legislative Assembly Forms/Fractures
  • The Constitution of 1791 is ratified and creates
    a constitutional monarchy in France
  • The new government is known as the Legislative
    Assembly

8
x_________________________________________________
____________________xLeft Wing Centrist
Right Wing(Radicals) (Moderates)
(Conservatives)
  • Immediately the L.A. splits into 3 factions over
    differences about how far the revolution should
    go
  • Conservatives (Emigres Royalists) ? bring the
    King back to his rightful position of authority
  • Sans-Culotes (Jacobins Radicals) ? get rid of
    King and create a democratic republic (like the
    U.S)
  • Moderates ? middle-of- the- roaders who feel that
    France should keep its constitutional monarchy as
    created by the 1791 Constitution

9
  • France declared war on Austria (1792)
  • Austria tried to have Louis XVI reinstated on
    throne (see revolution as a threat to their own
    power)
  • France wants to try to export revolution to other
    countries
  • Austria threatens to destroy Paris if Royal
    family harmed
  • angers Parisian mobs ? storm palace place Louis
    family in prison
  • September Massacres ? Parisian mob takes nobility
    prisoners out of prisons and massacres over 1,000
  • Legislative Assembly resigns, dissolves the
    Constitution of 1791, deposes the king
  • calls for election of new government ? the
    Jacobins win

10
  • The National Convention and the Reign of Terror
  • The radical element of Leg. Assembly wins
    election (Sept. 1792) ? calls itself the National
    Convention
  • The Jacobins
  • most radical faction in Paris ? remove king
    est. a republic

11
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Paul_Marat
  • Leaders
  • Jean Paul Marat editor of Pariss radical
    newspaper
  • Georges Danton gifted orator popular with
    lower classes
  • Maximilien Robespierre leader of the Committee
    of Public Safety (charged with ferreting out the
    enemies of the revolution)

http//pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danton
http//home.intekom.com/southafricanhistoryonline/
pages/classroom/pages/projects/grade8/lesson2/04-e
vents-02.htm
12
The Terror (341)
13
http//www.acsu.buffalo.edu/tt27/REV.html
  • The Reign of Terror (1793-1794)
  • Thousands of French citizens were executed on the
    guillotine during this period
  • Fanatical paranoia led Robespierre to oversee a
    witch hunt
  • playing cards not allowed to have Jacks, Queens,
    etc. due to its connection with royalty
  • devoted to the logic/reason of the Enlightenment,
    churches were closed govt. was reformed along
    more reasonable lines
  • excesses included a young man who was executed
    for cutting down a liberty tree
  • Marie Antoinette was put to death for treason in
    1793 finally, Danton was beheaded for betraying
    his revolutionary ideals
  • Estimated that as many as 40,000 may have been
    killed during this time (85 poor or urban
    middle-class)
  • The Terror comes to an end
  • July 28, 1794 Robespierre was condemned
    beheaded himself for treason? theTerror was
    finally over

14
The Directory and Napoleons Rise to Power (145)
15
  • The Directory
  • French opinion swings back to the right
  • weary of the excesses of the radicals
  • wanted stability
  • Form the Directory in 1795
  • moderate govt. that placed power in the hands of
    the upper middle class
  • 2 house legislature w/ 5 man executive council
    (Directors)
  • very weak type of government

16
The Directory
  • The Directory actually began to put into place
    many of the reforms the revolution started out to
    accomplish, but the Directory was very weak, and
    the power lied in the hands of the military
  • A coup was put into place by one of the
    Directors, along with a rising military star
    named Napoleon.
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