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Early Civilizations


Asian Indian African Bantu Central & South American – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Civilizations

Early Civilizations
  • Asian Indian
  • African Bantu
  • Central South American

The Standard Goal of Learning
  • SSWH2 The student will identify the major
    achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from
    1100 BCE to 500 CE.
  • a. Describe the development of Indian
    civilization include the rise and fall of the
    Maurya Empire, the Golden Age under Gupta, and
    the emperor Ashoka.

  • Why study India?
  • Has one-fifth of worlds population
  • Two prominent religions came from it Hinduism
  • The geography and climate of an area explains how
    and why civilization emerged in that region in
    the first place. So thats where we start for
    India too.

Early Indian Civilizations
  • Indian subcontinent
  • natural barriers
  • North the Himalayas
  • East Bay of Bengal
  • West Arabian Sea
  • South Indian Ocean
  • Two major rivers
  • Indus
  • Ganges

Early Indian Civilizations
  • Climate
  • Monsoons - seasonal winds
  • Summer bring torrential rains
  • Winter bring dryer air
  • must come at the right time or agriculture will

Indus Valley Area Called Harappan Civilization
Harappan Civilization 3000-1500 BC
  • Settled in the valley because of better soil for
  • Built walled cities
  • Technology advanced
  • Copper knives, axes and arrows
  • Pottery and small figurines of deities
  • Had highly planned cities (grid designed)
  • Citadel
  • Temples granaries
  • Public baths
  • Buildings for public meetings
  • Indoor toilets and a system of clay pipes a

Harappan Civilization 3000-1500 BC
  • Size as big as Mesopotamia Egypt combined
  • Cities housed as many as 40,000
  • Economy
  • Agriculture
  • Raising sheep, cattle, pigs Domesticating cats,
    horse, elephant
  • Produced pottery, cloth, jewelry, bronze
  • Mass production
  • Trade by land and boat (to Mesopotamia)
  • Writing
  • Dravidian (unreadable)

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Aryans 1500-500 BC
  • They migrated into the Indus area
  • ruled after Harappan Civilization declined
  • No sophisticated government. They grouped in
    clans, and were ruled by warrior chiefs called
  • constant war amongst themselves
  • We can learn about them from the Vedas a
    collection of poems and sacred hymns
  • Writing system Sanskrit

Aryan Contributions
  • Established caste system
  • Rigid social categories based on your position in
  • Could only change castes through death.
  • Castes (Varnas)
  • Brahmen priests
  • Kshatriyas warriors and rulers
  • Vaisyas common people merchants, artisans, and
  • Sudras servants
  • Dalit Untouchables
  • would later be used in Hinduism and permeated the
    Indian civilization until modern times.

Mauryan Civilization 321-183 BC
Mauryan Civilization 321-183 BC
  • Founded by Chandragupta Maurya
  • Capital city was 8 miles by 1.5 miles with 570
    guard towers and a moat 900 feet wide beyond the
  • feared assassination so had an army a spy
  • Extensive network of civil servants in government
  • Flourished under Asoka.
  • Chandraguptas grandson.
  • Considered to be greatest ruler in Indian history

Asoka (Ashoka)
  • Converted to Buddhism
  • Made him a very kind ruler.
  • Examples of leadership
  • Religious toleration
  • Required missionary work of himself and his
  • Public works
  • Hospitals for people and animals
  • Provide medicines
  • Planting trees groves
  • Digging wells
  • Roadside rest houses
  • Prevention of animal cruelty
  • Reducing public slackness

Mauryan Civilization 321-183 BC
  • Collapse
  • After Asokas death in 232 BC the empire fell
  • In 183 BC, the last Mauryan ruler was killed.

Kushan Kingdom c. AD 105-250
  • They took over the area after the Mauryan Empire
  • They benefited from trade on the Silk Road.
  • trade route between the Roman Empire and China.
  • Called Silk Road because silk was Chinas main

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Gupta Empire AD 320-550
  • Located over most of Northern India, the region
    presently in the nation of Pakistan, and what is
    now western India and Bangladesh.

Gupta India
  • Chandra Gupta I
  • Reunited India in AD 320
  • Samudra Gupta
  • Took over after his fathers (Chandra Gupta I)
  • Expanded the border of Empire through conquest
  • Chandra Gupta II AD 375-415
  • Took Empire to its highest point
  • fostered trade throughout Asia and Eastern Europe.

Golden Age of Gupta
  • The Golden Age of India occurs under the rule of
    the Gupta Dynasty (320 - 550 CE)
  • The Gupta established a strong central government
    which also allowed a degree of local control. 
  • Gupta society was ordered in accordance with
    Hindu beliefs.  This included a strict caste
    system, or class system. 
  • The peace and prosperity created under Gupta
    leadership enabled the pursuit of scientific and
    artistic endeavors.

Gupta Golden Achievements
  • The most significant achievements of the Gupta
    period were in education, mathematics, art,
    literature and drama, and astronomy.
  • Math
  • developed the concept of zero infinity (8) in
    the use of math
  • Algebra
  • developed the decimal system based on the 10. 
  • Determined the value of p to 4 decimals
  • created Arabic number writing system that is used
    throughout the world today. 

Gupta Golden Achievements
  • Medicine
  • Pharmacological treatments
  • Surgery cesarean section
  • bone setting
  • skin grafting
  • Vaccinations for smallpox
  • Free hospitals
  • Art/architecture (influenced by religious
  • stone temples dedicated to Hindu gods. 
  • shrines (stupas) built to house the remains of
    select holy people of Buddhism.
  • murals

Guptas Golden Achievements
  • Literature
  • Styles fables, folktales, poetry, drama
  • written in Sanskrit. 
  • Astronomy
  • proposed that the earth was round and rotated on
    an axis by viewing a lunar eclipses.
  • made discoveries about gravity and the planets of
    the solar system, which they used to tell the
  • Education plan
  • grammar, composition, logic, metaphysics,
    mathematics, medicine, and astronomy

The Standard Goal of Learning
  • SSWH2 The student will identify the major
    achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from
    1100 BCE to 500 CE.
  • b. Explain the development and impact of Hinduism
    and Buddhism on India and subsequent diffusion of

  • Origin unknown but it dates back over 5000 years.
  • Oldest organized religion
  • Sacred texts Vedas
  • Spiritual leader guru or sage
  • Place of worship Mandir or home shrine
  • Eastern Religions
  • Not concerned with individual
  • Views all living things as part of vast circle of

Hinduism Facts
  • Polytheistic
  • Belief in a single, supreme figure Brahman
  • All gods are expressions of Brahman.
  • Three gods stand out as most important.
  • Brahma creator
  • Vishnu preserver
  • Siva destroyer

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Hinduism Facts
  • Afterlife reincarnation or liberation
  • Purpose of life to attain liberation (moksha)
    from the cycle of reincarnation and oneness with
  • How to live live life according to the dharma to
    create good karma so you can move forward in your
    caste (varna)

Necessary Vocabulary
  • Varna social class in the caste system
  • Dharma is the divine law that sets requirements
    of your caste (varna)
  • Karma the force generated by a persons actions
    or the impact of previous deeds on one's current
  • determines how a person will be reborn in the
    next life.
  • directed by Dharma.

Hindu Beliefs
  • Beliefs common to nearly all forms of Hinduism
  • the authority of the Vedas and the Brahmans
  • the existence of an enduring soul that
  • the law of karma.
  • Note that a specific belief about God or gods is
    not considered one of the essentials.

History of Buddhism
  • Origins
  • Founder - Siddhartha Guatama (c.563-470 BCE)
  • Born into royal family during the Aryan period of
    Indian history
  • In his late 20s, he became aware of the pain of
    illness, the sorrow of death and the effects of
    old age.
  • He dedicated the rest of his life to seeking a
    cure for human suffering.
  • To do so he began meditating
  • One day he reached enlightenment as to the
    meaning of life and began preaching it.

Buddhist Beliefs
  • The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism
  • 1. Life is suffering
  • 2. Desire leads only to suffering and ultimately
  • 3. Suffering can end.
  • 4. Follow the Eight-Fold Path

Buddhist Beliefs
  • Eight-fold Path
  • 1. Right thought facing realities of life,
    including suffering and death
  • 2. Right speech avoid lying, divisive and harsh
    speech and idle gossip.
  • 3. Right actions being honest and not breaking
  • 4. Right livelihood living a righteous life
  • 5. Right understanding developing genuine wisdom
    right and good intentions
  • 6. Right effort opposing evil
  • 7. Right mindfulness try to be aware of the
    "here and now", instead of dreaming in the "there
    and then".
  • 8. Right concentration regular meditation

Buddhism Facts
  • Sacred texts Pali Canon (Tripitaka),
  • Original language Pali
  • Spiritual leader Monk (lama in Tibetan Buddhism)
  • Place of ritual Temple, meditation hall.
  • Type of religion historically, not a religion
    but a lifestyle aimed at relieving suffering. Has
    polytheistic elements in many of todays sects.

Buddhism Facts
  • Ultimate reality none. Nothing is permanent.
  • Human nature there is no self or soul.
  • Purpose of life historically, attain
    enlightenment and nirvana
  • Nirvana is the end of self and union with the
    great world soul
  • Afterlife Reincarnation or nirvana
  • Rejects the caste system

Diffusion of Buddhism
  • After Gautamas death Buddhism spread throughout
    China, because of the travels of merchants and
  • Missionary efforts sponsored by Asoka during the
    Mauryan Empire spread Buddhism throughout India
    and Southeast Asia.

The Standard Goal of Learning
  • SSWH6 The student will describe the diverse
    characteristics of early African societies before
  • a. Identify the Bantu migration patterns and
    contribution to settled agriculture.

Bantu Migration Pattern
  • Started in Niger River area
  • Spread South
  • 1st to Congo
  • 2nd to Angola Zambia
  • Spread East to Uganda
  • then South to Congo, Zimbabwe and Mozambique

Bantus moved like small communities, not like
invaders - Assimilating and/or displacing native
Bantu Contributions
  • Contributions
  • Farming
  • Subsistence farming
  • Spread knowledge of high-yield crops
  • Linguistic Contributions
  • Languages of eastern, central and southern Africa
    show similarities with the mother tongues
    originally spoken in West Africa
  • Iron-smelting
  • Creating tools weapons to assist in survival
  • Brought development of the system of statehood
  • Government
  • development of leadership
  • state-craft
  • organizing people for campaigns for battles.

The Standard Goal For Learning
  • SSWH8 The student will demonstrate an
    understanding of the development of societies in
    Central and South America.
  • a. Explain the rise and fall of the Olmec, Mayan,
    Aztec, and Inca empires.
  • b. Compare the culture of the Americas include
    government, economy, religion, and the arts of
    the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas.

  • Mesoamerica is the name for areas of Mexico and
    Central America that were civilized before the
    Spaniards arrived.

  • Rise
  • 1200 B.C.
  • On coast south of Veracruz, Mexico.
  • Economy
  • farmed along riverbanks.
  • Arts/Architecture
  • The Olmec had large cities (Teotihuacan)
  • carved colossal stone heads
  • Fall
  • Around 400 B.C.
  • Dont know the reason - declined, then collapsed.

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  • Rise
  • between A.D. 300 and 900.
  • Yucatán Peninsula
  • It covered much of Central America and southern

Maya Culture
  • Government
  • city-states governed by a hereditary ruling
  • The states warred on each other.
  • Captives given as human sacrifice or enslaved.
  • Mayan rulers claimed to be descended from the
  • The nobles and a class of scribes helped the
    rulers .

Mayan Culture
  • Economy/Social Structure
  • Agriculture and trade (surplus of maize)
  • Most farmed.
  • Labor divided along gender lines.
  • Men fought and hunted
  • Women kept children
  • Both worked the fields.
  • also had artisans, officials, and merchants.

Mayan Culture
  • Religion
  • They believed all life was in the hands of divine
  • Supreme god Itzamna (Lizard House)
  • Some gods, like jaguar, god of the night, were
  • They practiced human sacrifice to appease the
    gods and for special ceremonial occasions
  • Ball courts

Mayan Culture
  • Arts/Learning
  • They had a writing system based on hieroglyphs
  • Unfortunately, the Spaniards assumed the writings
    were evil because they were not Christian

Mayan Culture
  • Arts/Learning contd
  • They had a calendar known as the Long Count.
  • Based on cycles of Creation and destruction
  • According to the Maya the world started in 3114
    BC and will end December 23, 2012.
  • They had a solar calendar
  • 365 days, 18 months (20 days each) 5 extra days
    at the end.
  • They also had a sacred calendar used only by
  • 260 days, 13 weeks of 20 days.
  • Foretell future and know omens associated with
    each day

Mayan Culture
  • The Maya built splendid temples and pyramids

  • Fall
  • possibly due to invasion, internal revolt, and a
    natural disaster, i.e. volcano
  • may have been overuse of the land that led to
    reduced crop yields and eventually starvation.

  • Rise
  • twelfth century A.D.,
  • Migrated to the Valley of Mexico.
  • capital at Tenochtitlán on an island in the
    middle of Lake Texcoco, where Mexico City is now.
  • They also consolidated their rule over much of
    what is modern Mexico.

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Aztec Culture
  • Government
  • collection of semi-independent territories
    governed by lords.
  • Aztec ruler supported the lords in return for
    tributegoods or money paid by conquered peoples
    to their conqueror.
  • Power was in the hands of the king, who claimed
    descent from the gods.
  • A council assisted him.

Aztec Culture
  • Economy/Social Structure
  • farming was important
  • some people engaged in trade using the barter
  • The population consisted of
  • commoners,
  • indentured servants,
  • Slaves
  • Merchants also lived in the cities.
  • Boys and girls had different roles from birth.
  • Women were not equal to men
  • could inherit property and enter into contracts
  • were also allowed to be priestesses.

Aztec Culture
  • Religion
  • They were polytheistic
  • Believed in an unending struggle between good and
  • They practiced human sacrifice to honor
    Huitzilopochtli, the god of the sun and of war,
    in order to delay the final destruction of the
  • Another was Quetzalcoatl, the feathered serpent.
  • Aztec mistook the Spanish for Quetzalcoatls

Aztec Culture
  • Arts/Architecture
  • very advanced in architecture
  • built a magnificent city of temples, other public
    buildings, and roadways linking the islands and
  • built a huge pyramid in Tenochtitlan dedicated to
    Huitzilopochtli. topped with shrines and an altar
    for human sacrifice.

  • Fall
  • Unrest around Aztec territory
  • In 1519, a Spanish force under the command of
    Hernán Cortés marched to Tenochtitlán.
  • Cortés was greeted warmly by the Aztec king,
    Montezuma, who believed his visitor represented
  • By 1520, the Aztec drove the Spaniards from the
  • Then Aztec died from European diseases.
  • Cortés returned with help and conquered

  • Rise
  • late 1300s, a small community in the area of
    Cuzco, a city high in the mountains of Peru.
  • 1440s, the Inca, under Pachacuti, began to
    conquer the entire region.
  • Eventually went as far as Ecuador, central Chile,
    and the edge of the Amazon basin.

Incan Culture
  • Government
  • The Incan state was built on war.
  • Pachacuti divided the empire into four quarters
    ruled by a governor
  • Quarters were divided into provinces also ruled
    by a governor
  • At the top was the emperor
  • believed to be descended from Inti, the sun god

Incan Culture
  • Economy/Social Structure
  • agricultural, terraced fields in the mountains
    with irrigation systems
  • Forced labor - All subjects served several weeks
    each year.
  • moved to building projects.
  • The Inca built 24,800 miles of roads.
  • Rest houses and storage depots
  • Bridges
  • Incan society was highly regimented.
  • All young men had to serve in the army
  • Men and women had to marry someone from their own
    social group.
  • Women either worked in the home or were

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Incan Culture
  • Religion
  • Inti, the Sun God, was believed to be family with
    the emperors.
  • They gathered in June and December to chant and
    say prayers to Inti

Incan Culture
  • Arts/Architecture
  • very excelled in architecture
  • solar observatory.
  • kept records using quipu, a system of knotted
  • court theatre, with tragedy and comedy
  • recited poetry with music.
  • Required conquered people learn Quechuathe
    spoken Incan language.

  • Fall
  • 1531 Spanish Francisco Pizarro.
  • small band of about 180 men
  • Had steel weapons, gunpowder, and horses.
  • Incans experienced a smallpox epidemic.
  • When the emperor died, his sons fought a civil
    war for control.
  • Atahuallpa won but Pizarro then captured and
    executed him.
  • Pizarro captured the capital Cuzco with the help
    of Incan allies.
  • By 1535, Pizarro had established a new capital at
    Lima for a new colony of the Spanish Empire
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