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Early Civilizations

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Title: Early Civilizations


1
Early Civilizations
  • Asian Indian
  • African Bantu
  • Central South American

2
The Standard Goal of Learning
  • SSWH2 The student will identify the major
    achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from
    1100 BCE to 500 CE.
  • a. Describe the development of Indian
    civilization include the rise and fall of the
    Maurya Empire, the Golden Age under Gupta, and
    the emperor Ashoka.

3
  • Why study India?
  • Has one-fifth of worlds population
  • Two prominent religions came from it Hinduism
    Buddhism
  • The geography and climate of an area explains how
    and why civilization emerged in that region in
    the first place. So thats where we start for
    India too.

4
Early Indian Civilizations
  • Indian subcontinent
  • natural barriers
  • North the Himalayas
  • East Bay of Bengal
  • West Arabian Sea
  • South Indian Ocean
  • Two major rivers
  • Indus
  • Ganges

5
Early Indian Civilizations
  • Climate
  • Monsoons - seasonal winds
  • Summer bring torrential rains
  • Winter bring dryer air
  • must come at the right time or agriculture will
    fail.

6
Indus Valley Area Called Harappan Civilization
7
Harappan Civilization 3000-1500 BC
  • Settled in the valley because of better soil for
    farming
  • Built walled cities
  • Technology advanced
  • Copper knives, axes and arrows
  • Pottery and small figurines of deities
  • Had highly planned cities (grid designed)
  • Citadel
  • Temples granaries
  • Public baths
  • Buildings for public meetings
  • Indoor toilets and a system of clay pipes a
    sewer

8
Harappan Civilization 3000-1500 BC
  • Size as big as Mesopotamia Egypt combined
  • Cities housed as many as 40,000
  • Economy
  • Agriculture
  • Raising sheep, cattle, pigs Domesticating cats,
    horse, elephant
  • Produced pottery, cloth, jewelry, bronze
  • Mass production
  • Trade by land and boat (to Mesopotamia)
  • Writing
  • Dravidian (unreadable)

9
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10
Aryans 1500-500 BC
  • They migrated into the Indus area
  • ruled after Harappan Civilization declined
  • No sophisticated government. They grouped in
    clans, and were ruled by warrior chiefs called
    rajas.
  • constant war amongst themselves
  • We can learn about them from the Vedas a
    collection of poems and sacred hymns
  • Writing system Sanskrit

11
Aryan Contributions
  • Established caste system
  • Rigid social categories based on your position in
    society.
  • Could only change castes through death.
  • Castes (Varnas)
  • Brahmen priests
  • Kshatriyas warriors and rulers
  • Vaisyas common people merchants, artisans, and
    farmers
  • Sudras servants
  • Dalit Untouchables
  • would later be used in Hinduism and permeated the
    Indian civilization until modern times.

12
Mauryan Civilization 321-183 BC
13
Mauryan Civilization 321-183 BC
  • Founded by Chandragupta Maurya
  • Capital city was 8 miles by 1.5 miles with 570
    guard towers and a moat 900 feet wide beyond the
    walls.
  • feared assassination so had an army a spy
    network.
  • Extensive network of civil servants in government
  • Flourished under Asoka.
  • Chandraguptas grandson.
  • Considered to be greatest ruler in Indian history

14
Asoka (Ashoka)
  • Converted to Buddhism
  • Made him a very kind ruler.
  • Examples of leadership
  • Religious toleration
  • Required missionary work of himself and his
    officials
  • Public works
  • Hospitals for people and animals
  • Provide medicines
  • Planting trees groves
  • Digging wells
  • Roadside rest houses
  • Prevention of animal cruelty
  • Reducing public slackness

15
Mauryan Civilization 321-183 BC
  • Collapse
  • After Asokas death in 232 BC the empire fell
    apart.
  • In 183 BC, the last Mauryan ruler was killed.

16
Kushan Kingdom c. AD 105-250
  • They took over the area after the Mauryan Empire
    fell.
  • They benefited from trade on the Silk Road.
  • trade route between the Roman Empire and China.
  • Called Silk Road because silk was Chinas main
    export.

17
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18
Gupta Empire AD 320-550
  • Located over most of Northern India, the region
    presently in the nation of Pakistan, and what is
    now western India and Bangladesh.

19
Gupta India
  • Chandra Gupta I
  • Reunited India in AD 320
  • Samudra Gupta
  • Took over after his fathers (Chandra Gupta I)
    death
  • Expanded the border of Empire through conquest
  • Chandra Gupta II AD 375-415
  • Took Empire to its highest point
  • fostered trade throughout Asia and Eastern Europe.

20
Golden Age of Gupta
  • The Golden Age of India occurs under the rule of
    the Gupta Dynasty (320 - 550 CE)
  • The Gupta established a strong central government
    which also allowed a degree of local control. 
  • Gupta society was ordered in accordance with
    Hindu beliefs.  This included a strict caste
    system, or class system. 
  • The peace and prosperity created under Gupta
    leadership enabled the pursuit of scientific and
    artistic endeavors.

21
Gupta Golden Achievements
  • The most significant achievements of the Gupta
    period were in education, mathematics, art,
    literature and drama, and astronomy.
  • Math
  • developed the concept of zero infinity (8) in
    the use of math
  • Algebra
  • developed the decimal system based on the 10. 
  • Determined the value of p to 4 decimals
  • created Arabic number writing system that is used
    throughout the world today. 

22
Gupta Golden Achievements
  • Medicine
  • Pharmacological treatments
  • Surgery cesarean section
  • bone setting
  • skin grafting
  • Vaccinations for smallpox
  • Free hospitals
  • Art/architecture (influenced by religious
    toleration)
  • stone temples dedicated to Hindu gods. 
  • shrines (stupas) built to house the remains of
    select holy people of Buddhism.
  • murals

23
Guptas Golden Achievements
  • Literature
  • Styles fables, folktales, poetry, drama
  • written in Sanskrit. 
  • Astronomy
  • proposed that the earth was round and rotated on
    an axis by viewing a lunar eclipses.
  • made discoveries about gravity and the planets of
    the solar system, which they used to tell the
    horoscopes.
  • Education plan
  • grammar, composition, logic, metaphysics,
    mathematics, medicine, and astronomy

24
The Standard Goal of Learning
  • SSWH2 The student will identify the major
    achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from
    1100 BCE to 500 CE.
  • b. Explain the development and impact of Hinduism
    and Buddhism on India and subsequent diffusion of
    Buddhism.

25
Hinduism
  • Origin unknown but it dates back over 5000 years.
  • Oldest organized religion
  • Sacred texts Vedas
  • Spiritual leader guru or sage
  • Place of worship Mandir or home shrine
  • Eastern Religions
  • Not concerned with individual
  • Views all living things as part of vast circle of
    life

26
Hinduism Facts
  • Polytheistic
  • Belief in a single, supreme figure Brahman
  • All gods are expressions of Brahman.
  • Three gods stand out as most important.
  • Brahma creator
  • Vishnu preserver
  • Siva destroyer

27
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28
Hinduism Facts
  • Afterlife reincarnation or liberation
  • Purpose of life to attain liberation (moksha)
    from the cycle of reincarnation and oneness with
    Brahman
  • How to live live life according to the dharma to
    create good karma so you can move forward in your
    caste (varna)

29
Necessary Vocabulary
  • Varna social class in the caste system
  • Dharma is the divine law that sets requirements
    of your caste (varna)
  • Karma the force generated by a persons actions
    or the impact of previous deeds on one's current
    circumstances
  • determines how a person will be reborn in the
    next life.
  • directed by Dharma.

30
Hindu Beliefs
  • Beliefs common to nearly all forms of Hinduism
  • the authority of the Vedas and the Brahmans
    (priests)
  • the existence of an enduring soul that
    reincarnates
  • the law of karma.
  • Note that a specific belief about God or gods is
    not considered one of the essentials.

31
History of Buddhism
  • Origins
  • Founder - Siddhartha Guatama (c.563-470 BCE)
  • Born into royal family during the Aryan period of
    Indian history
  • In his late 20s, he became aware of the pain of
    illness, the sorrow of death and the effects of
    old age.
  • He dedicated the rest of his life to seeking a
    cure for human suffering.
  • To do so he began meditating
  • One day he reached enlightenment as to the
    meaning of life and began preaching it.

32
Buddhist Beliefs
  • The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism
  • 1. Life is suffering
  • 2. Desire leads only to suffering and ultimately
    destruction.
  • 3. Suffering can end.
  • 4. Follow the Eight-Fold Path

33
Buddhist Beliefs
  • Eight-fold Path
  • 1. Right thought facing realities of life,
    including suffering and death
  • 2. Right speech avoid lying, divisive and harsh
    speech and idle gossip.
  • 3. Right actions being honest and not breaking
    laws
  • 4. Right livelihood living a righteous life
  • 5. Right understanding developing genuine wisdom
    right and good intentions
  • 6. Right effort opposing evil
  • 7. Right mindfulness try to be aware of the
    "here and now", instead of dreaming in the "there
    and then".
  • 8. Right concentration regular meditation

34
Buddhism Facts
  • Sacred texts Pali Canon (Tripitaka),
  • Original language Pali
  • Spiritual leader Monk (lama in Tibetan Buddhism)
  • Place of ritual Temple, meditation hall.
  • Type of religion historically, not a religion
    but a lifestyle aimed at relieving suffering. Has
    polytheistic elements in many of todays sects.

35
Buddhism Facts
  • Ultimate reality none. Nothing is permanent.
  • Human nature there is no self or soul.
  • Purpose of life historically, attain
    enlightenment and nirvana
  • Nirvana is the end of self and union with the
    great world soul
  • Afterlife Reincarnation or nirvana
  • Rejects the caste system

36
Diffusion of Buddhism
  • After Gautamas death Buddhism spread throughout
    China, because of the travels of merchants and
    monks.
  • Missionary efforts sponsored by Asoka during the
    Mauryan Empire spread Buddhism throughout India
    and Southeast Asia.

37
The Standard Goal of Learning
  • SSWH6 The student will describe the diverse
    characteristics of early African societies before
    1800.
  • a. Identify the Bantu migration patterns and
    contribution to settled agriculture.

38
Bantu Migration Pattern
  • Started in Niger River area
  • Spread South
  • 1st to Congo
  • 2nd to Angola Zambia
  • Spread East to Uganda
  • then South to Congo, Zimbabwe and Mozambique

Bantus moved like small communities, not like
invaders - Assimilating and/or displacing native
populations
39
Bantu Contributions
  • Contributions
  • Farming
  • Subsistence farming
  • Spread knowledge of high-yield crops
  • Linguistic Contributions
  • Languages of eastern, central and southern Africa
    show similarities with the mother tongues
    originally spoken in West Africa
  • Iron-smelting
  • Creating tools weapons to assist in survival
  • Brought development of the system of statehood
  • Government
  • development of leadership
  • state-craft
  • organizing people for campaigns for battles.

40
The Standard Goal For Learning
  • SSWH8 The student will demonstrate an
    understanding of the development of societies in
    Central and South America.
  • a. Explain the rise and fall of the Olmec, Mayan,
    Aztec, and Inca empires.
  • b. Compare the culture of the Americas include
    government, economy, religion, and the arts of
    the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas.

41
  • Mesoamerica is the name for areas of Mexico and
    Central America that were civilized before the
    Spaniards arrived.

42
Olmec
  • Rise
  • 1200 B.C.
  • On coast south of Veracruz, Mexico.
  • Economy
  • farmed along riverbanks.
  • Arts/Architecture
  • The Olmec had large cities (Teotihuacan)
  • carved colossal stone heads
  • Fall
  • Around 400 B.C.
  • Dont know the reason - declined, then collapsed.

43
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44
Maya
  • Rise
  • between A.D. 300 and 900.
  • Yucatán Peninsula
  • It covered much of Central America and southern
    Mexico.

45
Maya Culture
  • Government
  • city-states governed by a hereditary ruling
    class.
  • The states warred on each other.
  • Captives given as human sacrifice or enslaved.
  • Mayan rulers claimed to be descended from the
    gods.
  • The nobles and a class of scribes helped the
    rulers .

46
Mayan Culture
  • Economy/Social Structure
  • Agriculture and trade (surplus of maize)
  • Most farmed.
  • Labor divided along gender lines.
  • Men fought and hunted
  • Women kept children
  • Both worked the fields.
  • also had artisans, officials, and merchants.

47
Mayan Culture
  • Religion
  • They believed all life was in the hands of divine
    powers.
  • Supreme god Itzamna (Lizard House)
  • Some gods, like jaguar, god of the night, were
    evil.
  • They practiced human sacrifice to appease the
    gods and for special ceremonial occasions
  • Ball courts

48
Mayan Culture
  • Arts/Learning
  • They had a writing system based on hieroglyphs
    (pictures)
  • Unfortunately, the Spaniards assumed the writings
    were evil because they were not Christian

49
Mayan Culture
  • Arts/Learning contd
  • They had a calendar known as the Long Count.
  • Based on cycles of Creation and destruction
  • According to the Maya the world started in 3114
    BC and will end December 23, 2012.
  • They had a solar calendar
  • 365 days, 18 months (20 days each) 5 extra days
    at the end.
  • They also had a sacred calendar used only by
    priests.
  • 260 days, 13 weeks of 20 days.
  • Foretell future and know omens associated with
    each day

50
Mayan Culture
  • The Maya built splendid temples and pyramids

51
Maya
  • Fall
  • possibly due to invasion, internal revolt, and a
    natural disaster, i.e. volcano
  • may have been overuse of the land that led to
    reduced crop yields and eventually starvation.

52
Aztec
  • Rise
  • twelfth century A.D.,
  • Migrated to the Valley of Mexico.
  • capital at Tenochtitlán on an island in the
    middle of Lake Texcoco, where Mexico City is now.
  • They also consolidated their rule over much of
    what is modern Mexico.

53
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54
Aztec Culture
  • Government
  • collection of semi-independent territories
    governed by lords.
  • Aztec ruler supported the lords in return for
    tributegoods or money paid by conquered peoples
    to their conqueror.
  • Power was in the hands of the king, who claimed
    descent from the gods.
  • A council assisted him.

55
Aztec Culture
  • Economy/Social Structure
  • farming was important
  • some people engaged in trade using the barter
    system
  • The population consisted of
  • commoners,
  • indentured servants,
  • Slaves
  • Merchants also lived in the cities.
  • Boys and girls had different roles from birth.
  • Women were not equal to men
  • could inherit property and enter into contracts
  • were also allowed to be priestesses.

56
Aztec Culture
  • Religion
  • They were polytheistic
  • Believed in an unending struggle between good and
    evil.
  • They practiced human sacrifice to honor
    Huitzilopochtli, the god of the sun and of war,
    in order to delay the final destruction of the
    world.
  • Another was Quetzalcoatl, the feathered serpent.
  • Aztec mistook the Spanish for Quetzalcoatls
    representatives

57
Aztec Culture
  • Arts/Architecture
  • very advanced in architecture
  • built a magnificent city of temples, other public
    buildings, and roadways linking the islands and
    mainland
  • built a huge pyramid in Tenochtitlan dedicated to
    Huitzilopochtli. topped with shrines and an altar
    for human sacrifice.

58
Aztec
  • Fall
  • Unrest around Aztec territory
  • In 1519, a Spanish force under the command of
    Hernán Cortés marched to Tenochtitlán.
  • Cortés was greeted warmly by the Aztec king,
    Montezuma, who believed his visitor represented
    Quetzalcoatl.
  • By 1520, the Aztec drove the Spaniards from the
    city
  • Then Aztec died from European diseases.
  • Cortés returned with help and conquered
    Tenochtitlán.

59
Inca
  • Rise
  • late 1300s, a small community in the area of
    Cuzco, a city high in the mountains of Peru.
  • 1440s, the Inca, under Pachacuti, began to
    conquer the entire region.
  • Eventually went as far as Ecuador, central Chile,
    and the edge of the Amazon basin.

60
Incan Culture
  • Government
  • The Incan state was built on war.
  • Pachacuti divided the empire into four quarters
    ruled by a governor
  • Quarters were divided into provinces also ruled
    by a governor
  • At the top was the emperor
  • believed to be descended from Inti, the sun god

61
Incan Culture
  • Economy/Social Structure
  • agricultural, terraced fields in the mountains
    with irrigation systems
  • Forced labor - All subjects served several weeks
    each year.
  • moved to building projects.
  • The Inca built 24,800 miles of roads.
  • Rest houses and storage depots
  • Bridges
  • Incan society was highly regimented.
  • All young men had to serve in the army
  • Men and women had to marry someone from their own
    social group.
  • Women either worked in the home or were
    priestesses.

62
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63
Incan Culture
  • Religion
  • Inti, the Sun God, was believed to be family with
    the emperors.
  • They gathered in June and December to chant and
    say prayers to Inti

64
Incan Culture
  • Arts/Architecture
  • very excelled in architecture
  • solar observatory.
  • kept records using quipu, a system of knotted
    strings
  • court theatre, with tragedy and comedy
  • recited poetry with music.
  • Required conquered people learn Quechuathe
    spoken Incan language.

65
Inca
  • Fall
  • 1531 Spanish Francisco Pizarro.
  • small band of about 180 men
  • Had steel weapons, gunpowder, and horses.
  • Incans experienced a smallpox epidemic.
  • When the emperor died, his sons fought a civil
    war for control.
  • Atahuallpa won but Pizarro then captured and
    executed him.
  • Pizarro captured the capital Cuzco with the help
    of Incan allies.
  • By 1535, Pizarro had established a new capital at
    Lima for a new colony of the Spanish Empire
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