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Emergency Vehicle Incident Prevention

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Title: Emergency Vehicle Accident Prevention Author: Gateway Authorized Customer Last modified by: network administrator Created Date: 11/17/1994 9:40:08 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Emergency Vehicle Incident Prevention


1
Emergency Vehicle Incident Prevention

2
Introductions
  • EVIP Instructor

3
Incident vs. Accident
  • The word accident implies that motor vehicle
    incidents are not preventable, it is quite the
    contrary. Almost all motor vehicle incidents are
    preventable and someone is almost always at
    fault. It is incumbent on all emergency vehicle
    operators to learn to be safe drivers and
    practice safe driving habits while operating
    apparatus.

4
VRFA

5
3 DOL Exemptions from CDL Rules
  • WSAFC EVIP Program
  • VFIS Emergency Driving
  • National Academy of Professional Driving Program
    (NAPD)
  • NOTE DOL approves, WSP accredits the lesson plan

6
The EVIP Standard
  • 26,000 GVW is the requirement for CDL or
    Exceptions
  • Most agencies use it for all emergency vehicles
  • Review of department specific policy is in the
    lesson

7
EVIP Administrative Rules
  • Letter on file with State Fire Marshal
  • Program meets standard (based on the lesson plan!)

8
EVIP Administrative Rules (cont)
  • Jurisdiction issues certificate (WSAFC will print
    one for you for 1)
  • 9703AWEVAP97PO12 must be on certificate.
  • Recert rules 1-3.9
  • Agency approves instructors/evaluators
  • Like vehicles defined by agency.

9
Trivia Points You Might Have Missed.
  • 2-3.1Rodeo samples in book are suggested
  • 2-3.2 Predetermined Road Course required!

10
Emergency Vehicle Incident Prevention
  • Protect
  • Yourself
  • Your Fellow Firefighters
  • Your community
  • By learning to drive
  • Safely

11
To drive Department vehicles in emergency
mode, drivers must have EVIP certification,
Washington State Drivers License, and be at
least 18 years old. An EVIP road test form is
required to be on file for each type of vehicle
driven (engines, aid units, etc.). To drive in
the non-emergency mode, all of the above apply
except EVIP training. Firefighters who are not
EVIP certified may only drive code yellow in the
training mode when accompanied by an
EVIP-certified driver.
12
Program Outline
  • We use the WSAFC EVIP curriculum for initial
    training and refresher training.
  • All new employees or reserve employees shall have
    the entire EVIP program, which comprises
    classroom presentation, written test, rodeo, and
    road test.
  • The Fire Chief or designee shall certify
    instructors to deliver the classroom presentation
    rodeo.
  • The Fire Chief or designee shall approve company
    officers to evaluate the road test.
  • All responders shall be tested on all types of
    vehicles they drive (i.e. engines, trucks, aid
    cars).
  • EVIP is only required for vehicles over 26,000
    GVW

13
Lesson One
  • Some Legal Aspects of Emergency Vehicle Operations

14
Apparatus Incident Facts
  • Over 1300 workers are killed in traffic related
    incidents each year
  • On average about 20 Firefighters are killed
    responding to/or returning from alarms
  • In 1999, six firefighters were killed when they
    were ejected from a fire apparatus.

15
EVIP Emergency Vehicle Incident Prevention
  • We are in the business of responding to traffic
    incidents to help. We should be especially
    mindful of preventing traffic incidents. We have
    a great deal of responsibility and liability as
    firefighters to drive and reach our destination
    safely.

16
Why EVIP?
  • Congress requires commercial drivers to obtain a
    CDL.
  • Each state must devise a way to ensure all
    commercial drivers meet the minimum standards.

17
EVIP qualifies emergency vehicle drivers in lieu
of a CDL
  • In Washington State, the DOL has accepted the
    fire service EVIP course as an alternative for
    firefighters to drive emergency vehicles.

18
The three types types of regulations that
emergency vehicle operators must follow
  • 1. Motor vehicle and traffic laws (RCWs) enacted
    by the state government.
  • 2. Local ordinances.
  • 3. Departmental policy.

19
Three principles of emergency vehicle operation
  • 1.Emergency vehicle operators are subject to all
    traffic regulations unless a specific exemption
    is made.
  • 2.Exemptions are legal only in the emergency
    mode.
  • 3.Even with an exemption, the operator can be
    found criminally or civilly liable if involved in
    a traffic incident.

20
State statutes concerning emergency vehicle
operation.
  • The law applies to me.

21
The law applies to me
  • While there are laws on the books which allow us
    to operate emergency vehicles and give us some
    freedom of action the general public does not
    have, there are also in each section catch
    phrases which place the ultimate liability on
    our shoulders.
  • So essentially, the traffic laws as written apply
    to each and every one of us, emergency responder
    or not.

22
In other words,
  • The BIG PRINT gives it to you, the little print
    takes it away.

23
The BIG PRINT gives it to you
  • While responding to an alarm, you may
  • Park or stand your vehicle irrespective of all
    other laws to the contrary.
  • Proceed past red lights and stop signs.
  • Exceed the maximum speed limits.
  • Disregard regulations governing the direction of
    movement of traffic or turning in specific
    directions regardless of posted signs or
    regulations to the contrary.

24
However, the little print takes it away.
  • The RCW (Revised Code of Washington) reads that
    the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle,
    when responding to an emergency call or
    responding to but not returning from a fire
    alarm, may exercise the privileges set forth, but
    subject to the conditions herein stated.

RCW 46.61.035
25
Look at the little print.
  • While the emergency vehicle operator may
    proceed past a red or stop signal or stop sign,
    they may do so only after slowing down as may be
    necessary for safe operation.
  • And the emergency vehicle operator may exceed
    the maximum speed limits so long as he does not
    endanger life or property.
  • RCW 46.61.035

26
Furthermore,
  • The RCW continues, the exemptions . . . granted
    to an authorized emergency vehicle shall apply
    only when such vehicle is making use of visual
    signals meeting the requirements of RCW
    46.37.190
  • and emergency vehicles shall use audible
    signals when necessary to warn others of the
    emergency nature of the situation.

27
More little print
  • The provisions granted emergency vehicles shall
    not relieve the driver. . . from the duty to
    drive with due regard for the safety of all
    persons, nor shall such provisions protect the
    driver from the consequences of his reckless
    disregard for the safety of others.

(RCW 46.61.035 (4))
28
You should now be able to see what is meant by
BIG print and little print
  • The big print gives you some freedom of action,
    but the little print still holds you liable for
    careless actions!!

29
A True Emergency
  • Drivers of emergency vehicles will greatly reduce
    the chances of being found guilty of negligence
    if they are reasonably certain that a situation
    represents a true emergency before exercising the
    exemptions granted in the state statutes.

30
Is this a true emergency?
  • ASK,
  • Is there a high probability that this situation
    could cause death or serious injury to an
    individual?
  • Is there significant property imperiled?
  • Could action on my part reduce the seriousness of
    the situation?

31
Once you have made the decision to treat a
situation as a true emergency,
  • Remember that under all circumstances, according
    to the RCW (State laws), you must exercise due
    regard for the safety of others.

32
Besides state traffic laws which govern all
drivers and have sections which apply to
emergency vehicle drivers,
  • We are also responsible for following other State
    regulations--most notably the State Labor and
    Industrys Safety Standards for Firefighters.

33
Furthermore
  • Besides RCWs and WACs we are also bound by
  • Local ordinances
  • Department policy

34
Department Policy
  • Review your department policy, if applicable,
    now.

35
The Issue of Liability
  • Courts apportion blame if you should be driving
    an emergency vehicle when involved in a wreck.
  • They look at the case and determine who and what
    contributed to the incident. They assign a
    percentage of blame to each party.

36
For example
  • They may say that the other driver was 40 to
    blame the fire department 40 to blame and the
    emergency vehicle operator 20 to blame.
  • They look at the dollar award and assign the
    percentages accordingly.

37
If the other driver is asking for 1,000,000 in
damages for alleged harm due to an incident with
an emergency vehicle, the award would be as
follows
  • Other driver, 40 No award.
  • Fire department, 40 400,000
  • Emergency vehicle driver (YOU, PERSONALLY), 20
    200,000

38
If an emergency vehicle operator were driving in
excess of the established rules adopted by their
fire department, or without due regard for the
safety of others, then that emergency vehicle
operator could be held personally responsible.
  • This would be especially true if the
    court-awarded compensation was in excess of the
    limits of the departments insurance coverage.

39
What problems might a person encounter after an
incident?
  • Possible individual financial responsibility.
  • Possible criminal penalties.
  • Uncertainty of outcome.
  • Months and/or years of mental strain on the
    individual and family.
  • Grief, if you took a life or seriously injured
    someone.

40
Other Legal Stuff
  • A fire department has an obligation to ensure
    that its drivers are not only qualified under
    EVIP, but are also safe drivers.
  • So, departments may review a candidates or
    employees driving record.
  • The employee must give authorization for release
    of his/her driving record. However, many
    departments obtain blanket permission from
    employees to review driving records whenever the
    employer chooses to do so.

41
As if driving an emergency vehicle didnt entail
enough personal liability. . .
  • The state of Washington grants NO special
    driving privileges to firefighters driving their
    own private vehicles.

42
No special privileges in private vehicles
  • Volunteer or paid
  • Responding to an alarm
  • Reporting back to work on a recall
  • Green light or license placard

43
In fact, the green lights and placards some
departments issue to their firefighters for their
personal vehicles are for identification purposes
only.
  • They serve only to identify a firefighter to
    members of the public and law enforcement
    officers at the scene of an emergency.
  • They must be accompanied by an identification
    card carried in the vehicle and signed by the
    chief of the fire department.

44
Record Keeping
  • Fire Departments are responsible for keeping
    records!

45
What Records need to be kept?
  • Individual training records
  • Qualifications on various apparatus
  • Test results
  • Maintenance records
  • Purchasing specifications
  • During an investigation or court appearance you
    will be required to produce records.

46
Summary
  • Drive with Due Regard because you will be held
    responsible for your actions while operating an
    emergency vehicle!!

47
Lesson Two
  • Concepts of Defensive Driving
  • A Matter of Attitude

48
Mental Motivation
  • Defensive driving is largely a matter of attitude
  • Understanding how your mental state effects your
    driving is critical to becoming a safe driver
  • Routine (driving in the same area every day) can
    cause us to become inattentive

49
The Five Components of the Driving Process
  • Scan
  • Identify
  • Predict
  • Decide
  • Execute
  • S.I.P.D.E

50
Scan
  • Focus of attention - What the driver looks at as
    the deal with an ever changing environment
  • Search rate How frequently the driver searches
    the environment
  • Search pattern How efficiently does the driver
    search the environment

51
Identify
  • Identify - refers to the driver identifying
    potential hazards

52
Predict
  • Predict - refers to predicting the outcome of
    potential hazards (can I stop in time, is the
    car behind me to close, do I have an area to move
    to on the right or left)

53
Decide
  • Deciding on a course of action

54
Execute
  • Execution refers to the basic maneuvers,
    braking, steering, and acceleration needed to
    safely maneuver the vehicle

55
Driver FailureTypes of Driver Failure
  • Carelessness
  • Incompetence
  • Recklessness
  • Inattentiveness
  • Inability to judge distances
  • Slow reaction of drivers

56
A Defensive Driver
  • Expects and makes allowances for the mistakes of
    others.
  • Keeps alert, adjusts driving to meet all hazards
    of weather, road, and traffic conditions.
  • Avoids bad habits.
  • Avoids following too closely.

57
A fire department driver must maintain a safe
driving attitude
  • Regardless of the contributing factors which may
    tend to influence him/her.
  • Drivers with poor attitudes usually make excuses
    for mistakes thats cause property damage or
    injury.

58
ATTITUDE!
  • A good attitude is the most important requirement
    of being a good driver.

59
The driver of an emergency vehicle has
responsibilities to
  • Their own family.
  • The department and community.
  • The other crew members on board.

60
Driver Distractions
  • Auditory - radio, phone ringing, someone talking.
    Any one of these can create a distraction and
    cause the driver to loose focus on the driving
    environment.
  • Physical the removal of one or both hands from
    the steering wheel to interact with the vehicle.
  • Cognitive thoughts that cause the driver to be
    distracted from driving the vehicle.
  • Visual blocked vision or visual distractions.

61
S.I.P.D.EDefensive Driving Methods
  • Predict the unpredictable
  • Expect the unexpected
  • Handle problems
  • SIPDE Scan, Identify, Predict, Decide, Execute
  • Defensive driving can be defined as observing the
    presence and intentions of other traffic to avoid
    incidents.

62
Defensive Driving Traits
  • There are a number of attitudes and traits that
    describe a defensive driver
  • Knowledge-Do you know the traffic laws?
  • Alertness-Are you aware of your surroundings?
  • Foresight-Do you look ahead when driving?
  • Judgment-Doing things at the right time?
  • Skill-Do you know how to handle the vehicle you
    are driving?

63
Lesson Three
  • Important Physical Forces

64
Vehicle Control
  • While driving, an operator can only control a
    vehicles velocity (speed) and direction.

65
Several physical forces influence the amount of
control the operator has
  • If the limits created by the physical force are
    not exceeded, the operator can fully control both
    the emergency vehicles velocity and direction.
  • If they are exceeded, control will be lost.

66
Define the following
  • Velocity
  • Centrifugal Force
  • Inertia
  • Friction

67
Velocity/Inertia
  • Speed/Remaining in motion until influenced by
    outside forces

68
Centrifugal Force
  • Away from center
  • This is the force that tends to push a body in
    curvilinear motion away from the center of
    curvature or axis of rotation.
  • This applies to the push that occurs when
    carrying to much speed into a corner. The driver
    is unable to keep the apparatus in the center of
    the corner.

69
Friction
  • Resistance to slipping

70
You can exceed the physical limits and lose
control by
  • Driving too fast for conditions.
  • Braking inappropriately.
  • Changing direction too abruptly.
  • Tracking a curve at too high a speed.

71
Weight Transfer
  • Every time an emergency vehicle accelerates,
    decelerates, or changes direction, the weight
    distribution of the vehicle shifts. This is
    referred to as weight transfer.

72
Weight Transfer When Braking
A
  • Imagine a fulcrum under the vehicles center of
    gravity.
  • When braking, the downward force at A (front) is
    increased, placing more weight on the front tires.

73
Weight Transfer When Accelerating
  • Downward force at B (rear) is increased.
  • More weight and traction at rear tires (unless
    they are spinning).

B
74
Effects of Changing Direction On Weight Transfer
  • Were all familiar with the way a vehicle leans
    outside in a curve.
  • This is a manifestation of centrifugal force.

75
Centrifugal Force and Weight Transfer
  • Centrifugal force places more of the weight of
    the vehicle on the side toward the outside of a
    curve (on a right hand turn, the weight is
    greater on the left side wheels).

76
Weight Transfer Centrifugal Force Braking
  • In a right hand curve, with most of the weight on
    the left side tires, what happens if you then
    apply the brakes?

77
In a right hand curve with the brakes applied,
  • The vehicles weight transfers again, from center
    to front.
  • Thus most of the vehicles weight is on the left
    front tire.

78
What can happen if these forces overwhelm the
vehicle and driver?
  • The left front tire can tear off the rim.
  • The left front tire will act like a pivot and the
    vehicle will spin out of control around that tire.

79
Weight transfer is also complicated by the
location of the vehicles center of gravity.
  • With a high center of gravity, the weight
    transfer is more pronounced.
  • The possibility of rolling over is increased.
  • To improve the center of gravity, load equipment
    as low as possible.

80
Weight transfer is complicated by live loads.
  • Live loads (loads that shift quickly with
    changes in direction, such as pumpers and tenders
    with unbaffled water tanks) can push a vehicle
    from the intended track as weight shifts.

81
Another important physical force Friction
  • Friction the resistance to slipping.
  • It occurs when two surfaces rub together.

82
Between drivers hands and wheel
Friction occurs throughout a vehicle
12
1
11
2
10
Between tires and road surface
9
3
4
8
7
5
6
Engine parts rubbing together.
Gears meshing.
Brake shoes or pads rubbing on drum or disc.
83
Friction is necessary for vehicle control.
  • The most important areas of friction are
  • Between the tires and the road
  • Between the brakes and the wheels.

84
Tires must roll in order for a driver to
control a vehicles direction.
85
Friction in the Brakes
  • Brake shoes pressing on the drums (or pads
    clamping the disc) create friction and slow the
    wheel.
  • Friction at the brake surfaces generates heat.

86
Brake Fade
  • Brake fade is caused by overheating.
  • Sustained hard braking heats up the brakes.
  • The brake pedal becomes harder to apply.
  • Then the brakes can fail entirely.

87
Preventing brake fade - Disc Brakes
Disc surface cooling
  • In disc brakes, the pad makes contact with only
    15 of the disc surface, so about 85 of the disc
    surface is cooling at any time.
  • Disc brakes permit more effective cooling than
    drum brakes.
  • The biggest cause of brake fade in disc brakes is
    worn pads.

Pad contacting disc
88
Preventing brake fade - Disc Brakes
  • Worn pads allow heat to transfer to the hydraulic
    fluid
  • Disc pads that are 50 worn have a 300 greater
    chance of causing fade.

89
Preventing brake fade - Drum Brakes
Drum surface in contact with brake shoe
  • Almost 90 of the total drum surface is in
    contact with the brake shoe at one time.
  • Only 10 of the surface can be cooling off at any
    one time.
  • Drum brakes cool much less effectively than disc
    brakes.

Only
of drum surface is cooling
90
Emergency Braking
  • Get the vehicle to stop in the shortest possible
    distance without locking the wheels or losing
    control.
  • Use different techniques depending on the type of
    brakes.

91
Emergency braking - Hydraulic Brakes
  • Apply hard pressure to the brake pedal without
    locking the wheels.
  • When pavement is dry - quick firm jabs on the
    pedal
  • When roadway is slippery - short, steady
    pressure release and repeat

92
If wheels lock, RELEASE BRAKE PEDAL
  • (Tires must roll in order for a driver to control
    a vehicles direction.)

93
Emergency Braking - Air Brakes
  • Apply a steady pressure.
  • Do not fan air brakes - except on slippery
    pavement.
  • Fanning brakes wastes air pressure and
    contributes to brake fade due to excessive heat
    buildup.

94
Emergency Braking - ABS Brakes
  • Apply a steady, even pressure.

95
Velocity and Friction
  • While accelerating
  • Spinning the wheels reduces friction
    acceleration is slowed.
  • While braking
  • Best braking point is just short of locking the
    wheels.

96
Locked Wheel
One reason locked wheels have less friction than
rolling wheels is because little beads of rubber
come off the locked, skidding tires and act as
ball bearings for the vehicle to slide on.
97
Friction and Changing Direction
  • Friction between the tires and road surface is
    necessary to control the vehicles direction.
  • Tires must be rolling to change the vehicles
    direction.
  • If the brakes lock the front wheels, turning the
    steering wheel will have no impact on the
    direction the vehicle travels.

98
Momentum and Inertia
  • Momentum is the product of a vehicles mass
    (weight) and its velocity (speed).
  • Inertia is the force that makes a moving vehicle
    tend to stay in motion in the same direction.
  • As momentum increases (with a heavier vehicle or
    faster speed or both), it is harder to overcome
    the effects of inertia.

99
Momentum and inertia affect vehicle control.
  • With increased momentum, that is, as speed
    increases or a bigger vehicle is involved,
  • Stopping distance increases.
  • Brakes must work harder friction and heat
    increase.
  • Inertia will be harder to overcome. Therefore,
    changing direction is more difficult.
  • The track the vehicle will follow must be wider.

100
Centrifugal Force and Inertia
We want to go around the curve.
EV wants to go this way.
  • Centrifugal force and inertia combine to cause
    the vehicle to tend to go straight. The greater
    the vehicles mass and velocity (momentum) and
    the tighter the curve, the greater this effect.

101
Lesson Four
  • Driving Conditions and Contingencies

102
What is a Driving Contingency?
  • A chance, collision, or possibility conditional
    on something uncertain
  • Examples
  • Traffic suddenly and abruptly stopping
  • Ice on the roadway
  • Out of control vehicle
  • A longer reaction time will help you avoid a
    collision when a driving contingency occurs

103
What is a safe following distance?
  • The Three Second Rule keep a separation of at
    least three seconds between the emergency vehicle
    and the vehicle being followed.

104
Start count when the vehicle in front of you
passes a marker on or beside the road.
One thousand-one.
7
Fixed Object
One thousand-two.
7
One thousand-three.
7
105
When should following distance be increased?
  • If the vehicle ahead is unusual.
  • If your vehicle is large or heavy.
  • If road surface is loose or slippery.
  • If your vision is obscured.
  • If you are tired.
  • If road surface is snowy or icy.
  • And especially in adverse weather conditions

106
Speed Feet per second Good weather conditions (3 seconds) Marginal weather conditions (6 seconds) Poor weather conditions (9 seconds)
25 MPH 37 111 ft 222 ft 333 ft
35 MPH 52 166 ft 312 ft 498 ft
45 MPH 66 198 ft 396 ft 594 ft
55 MPH 81 243 ft 486 ft 729 ft
65 MPH 96 288 ft 576 ft 864 ft
75 MPH 111 333 ft 666 ft 999 ft
107
Following Distance and Adverse Weather Conditions
  • Following distance should be increased
    proportionately to the severity of the prevailing
    weather conditions.

108
Wet or rainy weather increases the hazard.
  • Approximately six times more people are killed on
    wet roads than on snowy and icy roads combined.

109
Winter Driving
  • Prepare in advance
  • Engine tuned
  • Heater/defroster in good working order
  • Battery charged
  • Snow tires and/or chains available
  • Brakes adjusted
  • Accessible emergency weather equipment
  • Chains, shovel, sand
  • Clean all windows, inside and out

110
Tips for driving on snow and ice
  • Stay aware of temperature.
  • Wet ice and freezing rain are the most
    treacherous of driving conditions.

111
Wet ice and freezing rain are the most
treacherous of driving conditions.
  • Wet ice and freezing rain occur when the
    temperature hovers around the freezing point (28
    degrees F to 40 degrees F).
  • Remember road bridges freeze before the road
    approaches.

112
Prepare for Contingency Situations
  • Primary causes of contingency situations
  • Vehicle malfunctions or failures
  • A sudden change or deterioration in the roadway
  • The appearance of an obstacle in the roadway
  • Driver error

113
Precautions to Help Prevent Contingencies
  • Reduce the chance of a vehicle malfunction or
    failure by
  • Completing a thorough vehicle inspection
  • Having any problems found repaired promptly
  • Monitoring to detect new problems

114
Precautions to Prevent Contingencies
  • Be aware of any changes in road conditions
    (weather, damage, construction, etc.).
  • Remain alert.
  • Scan well ahead of your vehicle.
  • Look for clues construction signs, skid marks.
  • Know the area.

115
Precautions for Contingencies
  • Be prepared for the appearance of an obstacle in
    the roadway.
  • Maintain a safe speed.
  • Search for obvious clues.
  • School zone signs, heavy pedestrian traffic
  • Watch for subtle clues.
  • Toys, bikes on lawns (even w/no children visible)
  • Vapor from exhaust or parked cars
  • Back-up lights on parked cars

116
Precautions for Contingencies
  • Attempt to head off driver error.
  • Begin shift well rested and w/out personal
    stress.
  • Remain alert.
  • Avoid unnecessary risks.
  • Dont panic.

117
Handling contingencies-- Evasive Steering
Maneuvers
  • Drivers hands should be on the steering wheel at
    the 9 oclock and 3 oclock positions. This
    allows the largest possible turn without moving
    the hands.
  • Turn the steering wheel in the direction of
    escape route.
  • Counter steer as soon as vehicle is clear of
    obstacle.
  • Avoid hard braking--hard braking can lock the
    wheels, and locked wheels wont steer.

118
(No Transcript)
119
Handling contingencies-- Handling Skids
  • Do not apply brakes.
  • Maintain speed or slowly reduce speed (do not
    accelerate).
  • Counter steer - steer in the direction to which
    the rear end of the vehicle is skidding.
  • A common panic reaction is to turn the wheel
    violently to correct a skid. This tends to
    produce back and forth skidding (fishtailing).
  • Once the wheel has been turned to counter steer,
    it may be necessary to immediately counter steer
    in the opposite direction.

120
Handling Skids
  • The vehicle is going straight.

121
  • The back end of the vehicle skids around to the
    left. (The vehicle is still moving forward at an
    angle.)

122
  • Youd steer LEFT, in the direction you want the
    vehicle to go relative to the way its facing.

123
  • The vehicle is back on course.

124
  • The back end fishtails to the right.

125
  • To control fishtailing in the opposite direction,
    youd countersteer RIGHT to help get you back on
    course.

126
  • Steering control is reestablished.

127
Handling Contingencies
  • Evasive acceleration
  • A maneuver that is often forgotten.
  • Some incidents can be best avoided by increasing
    your speed and getting out of the way.

128
Handling ContingenciesEmergency Braking
  • Stopping distance quadruples as speed doubles
  • A vehicle traveling 20 MPH will have a stopping
    distance of 20, a vehicle traveling 40 MPH will
    have a stopping distance of 80

129
Speed Feet per second Perception Reaction Distance
Speed Feet per second Perception Reaction Distance
Speed Feet per second Perception Reaction Distance
20 MPH 29 44 ft
30 MPH 44 66 ft
40 MPH 59 88 ft
50 MPH 73 110 ft
55 MPH 81 121 ft
60 MPH 88 132 ft
65 MPH 95 143 ft
70 MPH 103 154 ft
75 MPH 110 165 ft
130
Handling contingencies-- Unavoidable
Collisions
  • Choose the object you will collide with.
  • Choose the course least likely to cause injury or
    death.
  • Avoid head-on collisions--these are the most
    damaging to life and property.
  • Steer to cause your vehicle to sideswipe or hit
    the other object at an angle.

131
Handling contingencies--Unavoidable Collisions
  • Avoid hitting large, immobile objects (ex
    concrete bridge abutments, buildings, large
    trees, utility poles).

132
Handling contingencies--Unavoidable Collisions
  • Choose impact- absorbing objects (ex parked
    cars, low bushes and shrubs).

133
Each of the following slides illustrates a
potential accident situation.
  • The actions that can be taken include
  • Emergency braking
  • Evasive steering
  • Evasive acceleration
  • No action

134
What would be the appropriate response for this
situation?
The actions that can be taken include Emergency
braking Evasive steering Evasive acceleration No
action
Gravel shoulder
135
The actions that can be taken include Emergency
braking Evasive steering Evasive acceleration No
action
25 mph
136
  • What would be the appropriate response for this
    situation?

The actions that can be taken include Emergency
braking Evasive steering Evasive acceleration No
action
137
What would be the appropriate response for this
situation?
The actions that can be taken include Emergency
braking Evasive steering Evasive acceleration No
action
138
  • What would be the appropriate response for this
    situation?

The actions that can be taken include Emergency
braking Evasive steering Evasive acceleration No
action
139
If you must pull off the road--
  • Due to adverse weather, a contingency situation,
    or an emergency response, park so as to protect
    the scene.
  • This enables you to
  • Get the emergency vehicle off the road.
  • Limit access to the scene to police officers and
    firefighters.
  • Provide visible early warning to surrounding
    traffic.

140
Park so as to protect the scene
  • Use warning devices -- choose the most effective
    for the situation.
  • Most effective Triangular reflectors, flares,
    fuses, reflectorized traffic cones, etc. Use
    caution when employing flares make certain no
    flammable liquids are present.
  • Okay Overhead beacon, four-way flashers, cab
    lights.
  • Poor Headlights, parking lights.

141
Night Driving
  • Use caution it is harder for both you and
    others to see at night.

142
Night Driving - High Potential for Fatal Incidents
143
Night Driving Fatalities
  • Nearly 1/2 (47) of all fatalities occur at
    night, but less than one third of all collisions
    occur at night. Thus, a much higher proportion
    of night time collisions result in fatalities.

144
Night Driving and Drunk Drivers
  • Be on guard against drunk drivers.
  • Indicators include
  • Time of day especially 2300-0300
  • Weaving across lanes
  • Delayed start at a stop sign or traffic light
  • Erratic speed

145
Night Driving and Use of High Beams
  • Use headlights and high beams appropriately.
  • It is recommended headlights be on at all times.
    (Headlights are required to be on and operating
    as part of the emergency lights while responding
    in a code red response.)
  • Dim high beams within 500 feet of approaching
    vehicles.
  • Dim high beams within 300 feet of overtaking or
    following other vehicles.

146
Lesson Five
  • Operating ApparatusVehicle Control Tasks

147
To Review
  • Lights and sirens are used to inform traffic and
    pedestrians of an emergency vehicles presence
    and thus, to aid in clearing a path for the
    emergency vehicle.

148
To Review
  • Due regard must always be exercised, even during
    the most serious of emergencies.
  • State law requires the emergency vehicle to use
    emergency lights whenever any of the exemptions
    are exercised.
  • Use of signaling equipment does not guarantee an
    operator safety, nor does it free him/her from
    the possibility of civil or criminal liability if
    an incident occurs.

149
Sirens - Limitations on Effectiveness
  • Usually siren sound travels forward from the
    vehicle in a cone shape.
  • The higher the sound frequency, the narrower the
    cone and the greater the distance the siren can
    be heard (ex electronic sirens).
  • The lower the frequency, the wider the cone of
    sound (ex mechanical or growler type sirens).

150
Sirens - Limitations on Effectiveness
  • Siren sounds do not travel well around buildings
    or corners.
  • A study has shown that existing sirens are
    effective only to vehicles traveling in the same
    direction ahead of the emergency vehicle and to
    pedestrians.
  • Even at fairly close range, the siren may not be
    heard by motorists with windows up, air
    conditioning on, or radio on.

151
Keys to Successful Urban Driving
  • Keep alert watch for
  • Children
  • Alleys
  • Exhaust from parked cars
  • Crosswalks

152
Keys to Successful Urban Driving
  • Be cautious of other motorists actions, they
    may
  • Signal turns or lane changes without doing so.
  • Turn or change lanes without signaling.
  • Try to beat a light, going through as it changes.

153
NOTE
  • In spite of the way motorists signal, look at the
    direction they are looking, the way the vehicle
    is pointing, if they are slowing accordingly, and
    if their actions agree with their signaled
    intentions.

154
Urban Driving in the Emergency Mode
  • Speeds in excess of limit are rarely justified.
  • Reasonable speed allows more time to react.
  • Use lights and siren effectively.

155
Keys to Successful Rural Driving
  • Control your speed
  • Know your response area
  • Be aware of upcoming turns
  • Watch for vehicles pulling on to roads from side
    streets and driveways
  • Emergency vehicles in a rural setting can roll
    over easily due to a high center of gravity and
    shifting loads. Store equipment low if possible
    and WATCH YOUR SPEED!!!

156
Motorists Reactions to Lights and Sirens
  • Generally, they will try to pull to their right
    and slow down or stop.
  • Some motorists, however, will do senseless,
    unexpected things.

157
Handling Confused Motorists
  • Discontinue the use of the siren, give them a
    chance to think.
  • Tap horn or flash lights to try to establish eye
    contact.
  • Once eye contact has been established, give hand
    or verbal signal indicating what action motorist
    should take.

158
Handling Unaware Motorists
  • Beware of startling unsuspecting motorists.
  • Vary siren pitch and duration.
  • Use headlights, horn, or spotlight to get
    attention.
  • Be patient, keep signaling.
  • Never pass on the right.
  • In extreme cases, it may be necessary for a crew
    member to get out and direct traffic.

159
Handling Blocked Traffic
  • Try to plan ahead if possible, during rush
    hours, construction and special events, use
    alternate routes.
  • Slow down before reaching blockage.
  • Use siren intermittently.
  • Be patient.
  • Do not travel in opposing lanes unless you see
    traffic is cleared for at least one block.

160
Negotiating Intersections
  • Intersections are the most likely areas for fatal
    incidents.
  • Before crossing an intersection, you must make
    sure there is an adequate gap in traffic.

161
Crossing an Intersection
  • From a full stop, most vehicles require about
    four (4) seconds to cross a two (2) lane
    intersection that is 30 feet wide.
  • For larger vehicles, time varies depending on
    size, weight, and the ability to accelerate.
  • The operator should look left, then right, then
    left again before crossing.
  • Cars approaching from either direction should be
    at least six seconds from the intersection.

162
Cars approaching from either direction should be
at least six seconds from the intersection.
6 Second Gap
30 feet
6 Second Gap
STOP
163
Right Turns from an Intersection
  • From a stop, it takes about six seconds to turn
    right and accelerate to 30 mph.
  • When the operator begins the turn, any vehicle
    approaching from the left should be at least
    seven to eight seconds away from the
    intersection.
  • In faster traffic, a larger gap is required for
    safety.

164
When the operator begins the right hand turn, any
vehicle approaching from the left should be 7-8
seconds away from the intersection.
8 second gap
STOP
2 second following distance
34
STOP
In faster traffic, a larger gap is required.
165
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166
1. What are the hazards in the following
situation?
167
2. What are the effects of following too
closely when approaching an intersection?
168
By dropping back to a safer following distance,
the emergency vehicle driver can see all the
potential hazards and one of the stop signs.
169
3. What are the hazards in this situation?
170
  • Vehicle B does not see or hear emergency
    vehicle. (The building blocks most of the siren
    sound.)
  • If the emergency vehicle does not slow down
    almost to a stop at the intersection, a collision
    is probable.
  • One useful trick is for the emergency vehicle
    operator to look under the wheels of truck A.
    He/she might see B in time to take appropriate
    action.

171
4. What are the hazards in this situation?
172
Driver A looks left before turning right.
Driver A does not expect any oncoming traffic
from the right. How can the emergency vehicle
driver avoid such problems?
173
  • Sirens help here.
  • Never pull into an oncoming lane at an
    intersection.
  • Stay far enough behind the vehicle in front of
    the emergency vehicle (B) to permit a good view
    of the intersection.

174
Passing Other Vehicles
  • First ask yourself if passing is necessary.
  • How long does it take to pass?
  • At highway speeds, a safe pass can be completed
    in 10 seconds.
  • A 10-second pass requires 1/6 mile at 60 mph.
  • Due to the possibility of an oncoming vehicle,
    operator must allow 1/3 mile of visible roadway
    before initiating a pass.

175
Passing Other Vehicles
  • Learn to judge distances.
  • Know the characteristics of your vehicle.
  • Its accelerative capacity
  • Its steering precision
  • Its braking capability

176
Passing Other Vehicles
  • Informational signs
  • Bad weather/visibility
  • Road markings
  • Presence of roadways or driveways
  • Road configuration--hills, blind curves
  • Know your area
  • Never pass a stopped car (or line of cars)
    without first determining why it is stopped.
  • Know indicators of unsafe conditions for passing.

177
Passing in the Emergency Mode
  • Since motorists will attempt to pull over, the
    need to pass may be reduced.
  • If conditions are questionable for passing,
    consider
  • How important is saving time?
  • Are you responding to an out-of-control fire in
    an apt. building or a brush fire in an isolated
    field?
  • How much time will really be saved by passing?
  • If passing is delayed for a few moments, might
    conditions improve?
  • Lane markings may change.
  • Traffic may thin out.
  • Road configuration may improve (e.g. from curves
    to straight).

178
Backing Up
  • Backing-up mishaps account for a large proportion
    of emergency vehicle incidents.
  • Park so backing is minimized or eliminated.

179
When the vehicle must be backed
  • Crew members shall be stationed in such a
    position as to assist the driver.
  • At night, use backup or rear-deck lights to
    illuminate the rear area behind the vehicle.
  • Back up person should use appropriate hand
    signals.

180
When the vehicle must be backed
  • Roll down the drivers window to allow direct
    communication w/backup person.
  • Check for pedestrians and obstacles.
  • Back SLOWLY (as if you are expecting to hit
    something).
  • Constantly check mirrors for changes in the
    traffic situations or obstacles.

181
Vehicle Clearances
  • Know the height, width and length of the vehicle.
  • (L I Vertical Standard 305 requires the height
    of the vehicle to be posted on the dash.)
  • Know the turning radius, and length of front and
    rear overhangs.
  • Maximum length 40, maximum width 86, maximum
    height 14

182
Know Normal Stopping Distances
  • Assume 3/4 second driver reaction time.
  • Stopping distances on hard, dry surface, from 60
    mph
  • Sedans - about 355 feet
  • Light trucks - about 426 feet
  • Heavy 2 axle - about 436 feet
  • 3 axle - about 531 feet

Stopping Distance in Feet From 60 MPH
183
60 MPH
60 MPH
1/6 Mile in 10 Seconds
1/6 Mile in 10 Seconds
1/3 Mile
Total distance used in 10 seconds by vehicles
approaching each other at 60 mph.
184
Lesson 6
  • Traffic Safety
  • Protecting People While
  • Stabilizing The Incident


185
Lesson Objectives
  • Upon Completion of this lesson, the student will
    be able to
  • Perform an incident scene safety Risk Assessment
  • Develop a Risk Management plan to address scene
    safety
  • Identify stopping distances for various sizes of
    vehicles
  • Identify components of a Temporary Traffic
    Control Zone
  • Establish a safe working environment using
    effective traffic control devices
  • Identify safety procedures when working in or
    near moving traffic


186
Identifying, Assessing Managing Risk
  • Upon approaching the scene
  • Identify hazards and develop a plan to protect
    the scene


187
Identifying, Assessing Managing Risk
  • Expect other drivers to make mistakes
  • Consider the type of roadway you will be working
    on
  • (i.e. freeway vs. city street)
  • Weather conditions
  • (dry vs. wet road or good vs. poor visibility)
  • Time of day (or night)
  • (scene and personal visibility and proper use of
    lighting)


188
Identifying, Assessing Managing Risk
  • What is Risk Assessment?
  • Assessing or determining the possibility of
    suffering harm or loss, and to what extent
  • This is the first step in determining your plan
    of action


189
Identifying, Assessing Managing Risk
  • What is Risk Management?
  • The development of strategy and tactical plans
    based on an accurate risk assessment taking into
    consideration current and potentially changing
    scene conditions


190
Driver Reaction Time
  • Components of reaction time
  • Mental Processing Time
  • Sensation
  • Perception / Recognition
  • Situational Awareness
  • Response Selection


191
Driver Reaction Time
  • Components of reaction time
  • Movement Time
  • The time required to perform the selected action


192
Driver Reaction Time
  • Components of reaction time
  • Device Response Time
  • The functional time of a mechanical device to
    activate


193
Stopping Distances
  • Dry Pavement
  • Passenger Vehicle

MPH Ft. / Sec. Braking Deceleration Distance Perception Reaction Distance Total Stopping Distance
30 44 43 66 109
40 59 76 88 164
50 73.3 119 110 229
60 88 172 132 303
70 102.7 234 154 388
80 117.3 305 176 481

194
Stopping Distances
  • Dry Pavement
  • Passenger Vehicle Car

MPH Ft. / Sec. Braking Deceleration Distance Perception Reaction Distance Total Stopping Distance
60 Passenger Vehicle 303
60 Light Truck 426
60 Heavy 2 Axle 436
60 3 Axle 531

195
Stopping Distances
  • The preceding charts do not take into
    consideration any
  • Human factors Or Vehicle Maintenance factors
  • That may increase total stopping distance


196
Stopping Distances
  • Adverse weather and night time driving may also
    increase total stopping distance


197
Temporary Traffic Control Zone
  • Provides reasonably safe and efficient movement
    of traffic.
  • Reasonably protects workers, responders to
    traffic incidents, and their equipment.


198
Temporary Traffic Control Zone
  • Components of a TTC Zone
  • Advance Warning Area
  • Transition Area
  • Activity Area
  • Buffer Space
  • Termination Area


199
Temporary Traffic Control Zone
  • Advance Warning Area
  • Tells drivers what to expect ahead.
  • Typical distances for placement of advance
    warning signs on high speed roadways should be
    longer because drivers are conditioned to
    uninterrupted flow.

200
Temporary Traffic Control Zone
  • Transition Area
  • Moves traffic out of its normal path and away
    from the activity area.

201
Temporary Traffic Control Zone
  • Activity Area
  • This is where the work takes place.
  • This also includes your Buffer Space

202
Temporary Traffic Control Zone
  • Buffer Space
  • Separates traffic from your work area.
  • Also provides some recovery area for an errant
    vehicle.
  • Neither work nor equipment storage should occur
    in the Buffer Space.

203
Temporary Traffic Control Zone
  • Termination Area
  • Returns traffic back to their normal path beyond
    the incident scene.
  • Should include its own Buffer Space.

204
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205
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207
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208
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209
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212
Traffic Control Devices
  • Used to warn or guide road users
  • Provides for the orderly movement of traffic

213
Traffic Control Devices
  • Should meet 5 basic requirements
  • Fulfill a need
  • Command attention
  • Convey a clear, simple meaning
  • Command respect from road users
  • Give adequate time for proper response

214
Channelizing Devices
Traffic Cones
215
Channelizing Devices
  • Minimize the possibility of the cones being blown
    over
  • Double up on the cones to increase their weight
    if needed

216
Channelizing Devices
  • Traffic cones should have a retro reflective band
    that is no less than 4 inches in height

217
Channelizing Devices
  • Minimum traffic cone height of 28 inches

218
Channelizing Devices
  • Placing a flare in front of the cone at night
    increases the visibility of the cone

219
Placement of Traffic Control Devices
  • The road user should have adequate time to make a
    proper response in both day and night conditions

220
Placement of Traffic Control Devices
  • Should be in a uniform and consistent manner

221
Placement of Traffic Control Devices
222
Placement of Traffic Control Devices
  • Your apparatus is also a traffic control device

223
Placement of Apparatus
  • Place within the Activity Area
  • Uniform and consistent with other traffic control
    devices

224
Placement of Apparatus
  • Physical protection barrier to secondary
    collisions
  • Protection of the pump operator
  • Protection of the crews
  • Protection of the citizens

225
Placement of Apparatus
  • Fire engines and other large apparatus
  • Park at a 45 degree angle
  • Exposes more surface area to absorb an impact
    from an errant vehicle
  • Provides a wall of protection

226
Placement of Apparatus
Transport vehicles
  • Park within the Activity Area
  • Downstream or in the shadow of the fire engine

227
Placement of Apparatus
Transport vehicles
  • Downstream
  • Parallel with traffic
  • Ease of loading gurney into vehicle
  • Clear access to roadway when leaving for
    transport

228
Placement of Apparatus
When the fire engine is to be staffed with a pump
operator/engineer
  • Park at a 45 degree angle with the pump panel
    (drivers side) facing the Activity Area

229
Night Time Visibility
At the incident scene
  • Common misconception
  • The more warning lights that are flashing, the
    better we can be seen

230
Night Time Visibility
At the incident scene
  • The reality is
  • The warning lights can be seen very well
  • Drivers get drawn in to the lights
  • Personnel visibility is reduced when they are
    overcome by excessive emergency lights

231
Night Time Visibility
At the incident scene
  • Turn off all unnecessary warning lights
  • Excessive warning lights may
  • Cause a distraction to drivers
  • Act as a deadly attraction to drivers who are
    under the influence of drugs or alcohol

232
Night Time Visibility
At the incident scene
  • Turn off all unnecessary headlights
  • When parked at the scene
  • Excessive headlights may
  • Be blinding to oncoming traffic and
  • Cause personnel to be nearly invisible to
    oncoming
  • drivers when they stand or walk in-between the
    headlights and the oncoming traffic

233
Night Time Visibility
At the incident scene
Turn off all unnecessary headlights when parked
at the scene
234
Night Time Visibility
At the incident scene
  • Use vehicle mounted floodlights to light the
    scene
  • Provides a safer working environment
  • Reduces distraction to traffic drivers caused by
    warning lights
  • Do not aim the floodlights into the path of
    traffic drivers
  • Ensure the floodlighting does not produce a
    disabling glare to traffic

235
Night Time Visibility
At the incident scene
  • Use vehicle mounted floodlights to light the
    scene

236
Key ElementsofPersonnel Safety
  • Training
  • Practice traffic safety risk assessments
  • Establish safe working environments

237
Key ElementsofPersonnel Safety
  • Emergency Responder Safety Apparel
  • All personnel exposed to the risks of moving
    traffic shall wear a high visibility vest day or
    night

238
Key ElementsofPersonnel Safety
  • Emergency Responder Safety Apparel
  • Provides more retro-reflective area for better
    visibility than firefighting turnout gear
  • Visibility of personnel is increased during
    daylight hours with the use of a high visibility
    vest
  • Its the law!

239
Key ElementsofPersonnel Safety
  • Incident Scene Traffic Barriers
  • Should be appropriately placed giving
    consideration to
  • Clearance of personnel from moving traffic
  • Speed of traffic
  • Duration and type of operations
  • Time of day
  • Volume of traffic

240
Key ElementsofPersonnel Safety
  • Speed Reduction
  • Minimizes vulnerability of personnel and can be
    accomplished by
  • Lane reduction
  • Funneling traffic
  • Uniformed officers or flaggers to control traffic
  • Electronic signs
  • DOT incident response vehicles

241
Key ElementsofPersonnel Safety
  • The responsibility of safety is shared among all
    personnel from the moment the emergency brake is
    set until it is released to clear the scene after
    the incident

242
Expect drivers to make mistakesand prepare for
them
243
Lesson 7
  • Apparatus Inspections

244
  • A daily apparatus inspection should be performed
    in two stages.
  • The primary inspection is a basic safety
    inspection to determine if the vehicle is ready
    to drive.
  • The secondary inspection checks the readiness of
    the vehicle and identifies possible points of
    failure.

245
The Daily Inspection
  • Second
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