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Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach


Title: The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach for Limited English Proficient Students Author: Juan Nunez Last modified by: admin Created Date – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach

Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
  • The Cognitive Academic Language Learning
    Approach (CALLA) is an instructional model that
    was developed to meet the academic needs of
    students learning English as a second language in
    American schools. Based largely on findings of
    studies on cognition, the model integrates
    academic language development, content area
    instruction and explicit instruction in learning
    strategies for both content and language

Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
  • Model for an instructional program for ELL
    students at intermediate level.
  • Designed to assist ELL students by providing
    English instruction through the mainstream

CALLA is design to
  • Meet the academic language development needs in
  • Provide a program of content-based instruction.
    Bridge between ESL or bilingual education and
    mainstream education.
  • Develop a curricular and instructional approach
    for ELL students based on a cognitive model of

CALLA Activities to develop Academic Language
  • Develop academic and technical vocabulary.
  • Practice in listening.
  • Oral language development through hands-on
  • Practice academic speaking skills.

CALLA Activities to develop Academic Language
  • Develop reading comprehension skills.
  • Practice writing.
  • Practice language functions.
  • Develop thinking.

Learning Strategies
  • Metacognitive thinking about the learning
    process, planning, monitoring, and evaluating.
  • Cognitive interacting with the material to be
    learned, manipulating or applying.
  • Social and affective interacting with other
    person to assist learning.

Metacognitive Strategies
  • Advance Organization.
  • Selective Attention.
  • Organizational Planning.
  • Self-monitoring.
  • Self-evaluation.
  • Self-management.

Cognitive Strategies
  • Resourcing.
  • Grouping.
  • Note-taking.
  • Summarizing.
  • Deduction
  • Imagery
  • Auditory Representation.
  • Elaboration
  • Transfer
  • Inferencing

Social and Affective Strategies
  • Questioning for clarification.
  • Cooperation.
  • Self-task.

How to Teach Content?
  • Content should be taught as experiences rather
    than merely as facts. Instead of being drilled on
    content vocabulary and facts, students should be
    provided with opportunities to understand new
    information and practice new skills within
    meaningful contexts, and then to apply the
    information and skills to their own experiences.
    Cooperative learning and other types of hands-on
    group activities are particularly effective in
    providing experiential learning opportunities.

Prior Knowledge
  • The link between what students already know and
    what they are to learn should be made explicit so
    that students understand that they are building
    on knowledge frameworks acquired through prior
    schooling and life experiences, even if these
    were acquired through another language and a
    different cultural context. Teachers can help
    students activate their prior knowledge through
    brainstorming discussions about the lesson topic,
    semantic mapping or other graphic organizers, or
    a cooperative activity in which they have to
    draw on their prior knowledge.

Technical Vocabulary
  • Technical vocabulary is important because in
    many cases a word represents an important concept
    or relationship. When presenting and explaining
    new information teachers should use appropriate
    technical vocabulary, providing paraphrases,
    definitions, and examples to clarify meaning

Learning styles
  • Students learn in different ways. Some students
    learn best by seeing the information visually,
    whether as a written text, pictures, or diagrams.
    Other students learn best by listening to the
    teacher or to other students. Many students learn
    best through concrete experiences, such as
    manipulating objects or equipment, building
    models, or representing information through art
    drama. The teacher should make use of visual,
    auditor, and kinesthetic means of presenting new
    content and whenever possible, these different
    types of input should be combined so that
    students have multisensory experiences with the
    new content

  • Overviews provide students with a general
    understanding of major points that they will be
    studying and how these points are interrelated.
    However, do not present large chunks of
    information at a time. Intersperse practice
    activities with the presentation of information
    so that students have an opportunity to use and
    think about the new information. For example
    students can work in groups to answer questions
    write summaries, or make diagrams about the new
    information after each presentation of new
    content. This allows them to select and organize
    major concepts to be remembered

  • Model higher-order thinking skills. Teachers can
    show students how to ask and answer higher-level
    questions about the content being studied.
    Higher-level questions ask students to speculate,
    predict, synthesize, and make judgments about the
    content material they are learning, rather than
    merely recall facts. These types of questions
    require students to use their prior knowledge and
    understanding of what is being studied in the
    unit to express their thoughts and insights about
    important issues and problems. Teachers not only
    ask higher-level questions, but also model
    higher-order thinking, thus making their own
    thinking visible.

Teacher Monitoring
  • Constantly monitor students' comprehension of
    the content. The teacher can monitor
    comprehension with oral and written questions,
    exercises, checklists, observation scales, and
    performance measures.

Student Monitoring
  • Teach students to monitor their own
    comprehension. When students monitor their
    comprehension, they know when they are not
    understanding and can ask questions to resolve
    their comprehension difficulties. In monitoring
    their own learning, students should compare new
    information with their prior knowledge and
    correct any misconceptions they may have had at
    the beginning of the lesson or unit. Students
    should set learning goals and monitor whether or
    not their efforts at learning are successful.

Student Monitoring
  • Various techniques can be used to help students
    restructure their knowledge in this way. An
    example of a knowledge-restructuring technique is
    K-W-L. In this technique, students first list
    what they already know and what they want to find
    out about a topic. After completing their study
    of the topic, students document what they have
    learned, which provides them with an opportunity
    to compare their new knowledge with their prior

Graphic Organizers
  • Graphic organizers, or schematic representations
    of information, can help students understand and
    remember content information. Types of graphic
    organizers are semantic webs, spider maps, Venn
    diagrams, timelines, T-Lists, flow charts, story
    maps, and charts of various kinds. Graphic
    organizers can be used by students to record
    their prior knowledge about a topic and later add
    to or revise that knowledge as they encounter new

Graphic Organizers
  • When students are listening or reading for
    information, they can write down the main ideas
    on a graphic organizer. When completed, the
    graphic organizer becomes an integrated summary
    of the content presented in the lesson or unit,
    and can then be used as a study guide. Graphic
    organizers can also be used by students to
    reflect on and evaluate what they have learned.
    Similarly, graphic organizers can be used to
    organize ideas and information that are to be
    written about or presented orally.

  • Give students access to a variety of content
    resources in your classroom. Gradelevel
    textbooks, library books, articles, pictures,
    software, and realia can be used as reference
    tools by students as they work on projects and
    reports. Students should be shown how to locate
    specific information in such resource materials
    even if their ability to comprehend the entire
    text is limited. Using resource materials helps
    students develop and extend their knowledge.