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Energy Resources

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Energy Resources By Vaibhavi Apte Geothermal Energy Energy by Tapping the Earth s Internal Heat Geothermal heat pumps Hydrothermal reservoirs Steam Hot water Deep ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Energy Resources


1
Energy Resources
  • By
  • Vaibhavi Apte

2
Energy Resources A natural resource that can
be converted by humans into forms of energy in
order to do useful work!
3
Evaluating Energy Resources
  • About three-quarters of the worlds commercial
    energy comes from nonrenewable fossil fuels, and
    the rest comes from nonrenewable nuclear fuel and
    renewable sources.
  • Energy resources are classified as
  • NONRENEWABLE
  • RENEWABLE

4
Non Renewable Energy
  • These are energy resources that cannot be
    replaced after they have been used or need
    thousands to millions of years to be replaced.

5
Coal, Petroleum, And Natural Gas
  • Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are considered
    nonrenewable because they can not be replenished
    in a short period of time. These are called
    fossil fuels.

6
How Are Oil And Gas Made ???
7
How Is Coal Made ???
8
Coal facts.
  • Was formed 255-350 million years ago
  • 4 types of coal Anthracite ,Bituminous ,Lignite
    ,Peat
  • India has high coal deposits in Bokaro, Jharia,
    Raniganj, Singrauli, Godavari Valley, Chandrapur.
  • Coal Is in abundance But Dirty Fuel
  • Used in electricity production
  • Worlds most abundant fossil fuel
  • U.S. reserves should last about 250 years
  • Sulfur and particulate pollutants ,Mercury and
    radioactive pollutants

9
  • Heat produced by burning pulverized coal in a
    furnace boils water to produce steam that spins a
    turbine to produce electricity.
  • The steam is cooled, condensed, and returned to
    the boiler for reuse.
  • Waste heat can be transferred to the atmosphere
    or to a nearby source of water.
  • The largest coal-burning power plant in the
    United States, located in Indiana, burns three
    100-car trainloads of coal per day

10
Petroleum or Crude Oil
  • Also called light oil
  • Trapped underground or under ocean with natural
    gas
  • Crude oil is the single largest source of
    commercial energy in world and U.S.
  • Proven oil reserves
  • Can be extracted profitably at todays prices
    with modern technology
  • Its a mixture of
  • hydrocarbons needs
  • to be purified and
  • refined before use

11
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12
Natural gas
  • Natural Gas Is a Useful and Clean-burning Fossil
    Fuel
  • Compressed natural gas
  • Synthetic natural gas
  • Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
  • Less carbon dioxide emitted per unit of energy
    than with crude oil, tar sand, shale oil
  • World supply of conventional natural gas 62-125
    years

13
Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclear fission uses uranium to create energy.
  • Nuclear energy is a nonrenewable resource because
    once the uranium is used, it is gone!

14
NUCLEAR FISSION AND NUCLEAR FUSION
15
Facts
  • Tremendous potential
  • Disaster if leakage happens
  • Energy potential high but not highly exploited in
    India
  • 4 plants currently Capacity 2005 MW
  • Tarapur
  • Kota
  • Kalpakkam
  • Narora

16
Renewable Energy
  • Renewable resources are natural resources that
    can be replenished in a short period of time.
  • Solar
  • Geothermal
  • Wind
  • Biomass
  • Hydro-power
  • Tidal energy

17
Solar Energy
  • Sustainability mostly depends on solar
    energyDirect form from the sun
  • Nuclear fusion reactions occur inside the sun and
    release tremendous energy
  • 1.4 kilojoules second/m2

18
Solar devices
  • Solar heat collectors
  • Solar cells
  • Solar cooker
  • Solar water heater
  • Solar furnace and Solar power plants

19
Using Solar Energy to Heat Buildings and Water
  • Passive solar heating system
  • Active solar heating system

20
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23
Photovoltaic (PV) or solar cells can provide
electricity for a house or building using solar
cell roof shingles, as shown in this house in
Richmond Surrey, England. Solar-cell roof systems
that look like a metal roof are also available.
In addition, new thin-film solar cells can be
applied to windows and outside walls.
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26
Wind Energy
  • Freely available source of energy
  • Minimum wind speed required 15 km/hr
  • Worlds second fastest-growing source of energy
  • Indias Potential is
  • 20,000 MW
  • Vast potential
  • Land
  • Offshore

27
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30
Hydro Power Producing Electricity from Flowing
Water
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32
Facts..
  • Hydropower
  • Leading renewable energy source
  • Much unused capacity
  • Dams and reservoirs
  • Turbines generate electricity
  • Eventually fill with silt
  • Micro-hydro generators
  • Potential of India 4 X 10 11KW-hours

33
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34
Geothermal Energy
  • Energy by Tapping the Earths Internal Heat
  • Geothermal heat pumps
  • Hydrothermal reservoirs
  • Steam
  • Hot water
  • Deep geothermal energy
  • New Zealand, U.S.A have successful working plants

35
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37
Tidal Energy
  • Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form
    of hydropower that converts the energy of tides
    into useful forms of power - mainly electricity.
  • Although not yet widely used, tidal power has
    potential for future electricity generation.
  • Tidal stream generators (or TSGs) make use of the
    kinetic energy of moving water to power turbines,
    in a similar way to wind turbines that use wind
    to power turbines.

38
Tidal barrages make use of the potential energy
in the difference in height (or head) between
high and low tides. Barrages are essentially dams
across the full width of a tidal estuary.
39
Ocean Thermal Energy
40
Biomass Energy
  • Biomass
  • Wood
  • Agricultural waste
  • Plantations
  • Charcoal
  • Animal manure
  • Common in developing countries
  • Carbon dioxide increase in atmosphere

41
Converting Plant Matter to Liquid Biofuel
  • Biofuels
  • Ethanol and biodiesel
  • Crops can be grown in most countries
  • Sustainability

42
Liquid fuel from Corn
43
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44
Biogas
  • Mixture of Methane, Carbon dioxide, hydrogen etc
  • Produced by anaerobic degradation of animal waste
    in presence of water
  • Non polluting, clean and low cost fuel
  • Two types of biogas plants
  • Floating dome type
  • Fixed dome type

45
Process
46
Types of Biogas Plant
47
Installed float type
48
Hydrogen as Fuel
  • Hydrogen is environmentally friendly
  • Thermal dissociation, photolysis or electrolysis
    of water
  • Problems
  • Net energy yield is negative
  • Fuel is expensive
  • Air pollution depends on production method
  • Storage

49
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51
  • A Fact

Recycling just one aluminum can saves enough
energy to run a television set for four hours!
52
REDUCE , REUSE, RECYCLE
53
Transition to a More Sustainable Energy Future?
54
Solutions
  • Decentralized power system in which electricity
    is produced by a large number of dispersed,
    small-scale micropower systems.
  • Some would produce power on site others would
    feed the power they produce into a modern
    electrical distribution system.
  • Over the next few decades, many energy and
    financial analysts expect a shift to this type of
    power system, largely based on locally available
    renewable energy resources.

55
THANK YOU
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