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Energy

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Hydraulic power plant. ... The movement of the sea could be a huge energy source, but only around 20 sites in the world have been identified as possible tidal power ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Energy


1
Energy
  • Energy and Environment are linked together.

2
Power Stations in the Czech Republic
Coal Nuclear Hydro Solar Wind
3
Resources Renewable / Non renewable
  • Solar
  • Wind
  • Hydro
  • Wave
  • Tidal
  • Geothermal
  • Biomass
  • Fossil
  • Nuclear


Energy flow
4
Solar
The Sun is 150 million kilometres away, and
amazingly powerful.
  • How it works
  • solar cells (photovoltaic or photoelectric
    cells)
  • solar water heating
  • solar power station

5
Solar Power Station
Solar One Barstow, California
6
Solar Power Station (principle)
7
Solar Water Heating (principle)
Heat from the Sun is used to heat water in glass
panels on the roof.
8
Solar Water Heating - principle
Another principle a system of parabolic mirrors
(like a spout).
9
Solar map of the Czech Republic
Our town is situated in the area with best
insolation
10
Wind
We've used the wind as an energy source for a
long time.
  • How it works
  • windmill (used in the Middle Ages)
  • wind generator

11
Windmill
Historical windmills in the Czech Republic
12
Wind generator - principle
13
Sailing ship
Energy from wind
14
Windsurfing
15
Huriccane a destructive power
16
Hydro
We have used running water as an energy source
for thousands of years, mainly to grind corn.
  • How it works
  • watermill (used in the Middle Ages)
  • hydraulic power plant

17
Watermill
Historical watermill in Slup, near Znojmo
18
Make your watermill
What you need
How to do
19
Hydraulic power plant
A dam is built to trap water, usually in a valley
where there is an existing lake. Water is
allowed to flow through tunnels in the dam, to
turn turbines and thus drive generators.
20

Hydro powers in the Czech Republic
The most important series of dams in the Czech
Republic is called the Vltava Cascade,
consisting of nine water works Lipno I, Lipno
II, Hnevkovice, Korensko, Orlik, Kamyk, Slapy,
Stechovice and Vrane. 1900 MW in total
Slapy
21
Czech Water Power Plant "Orlik"
Vltava river Built in 1954 - 1961 - 720 millions
m3 of water - 4x91 MW
22
Lipno hydro power plant
23
Vranov hydro power plant 25 km far from our
town
24
The biggest hydro power in the world
Itaipu, Parana river, Brasil / Paraquay, 12600
MW
25
Wave
  • How it works
  • the waves arriving cause the water in the
    chamber to rise and fall

26
Wave Power Station
A company called Wavegen now operate a commercial
wave power station called "Limpet. The island of
Islay, Scotlands west coast
The Limpets design makes it easy to build and
install. Its low profile gives low visibility, so
it doesnt intrude on coastal landscapes or
views.
27
Wave Power Station
A company called Ocean Power Delivery are
developing a method of offshore wave energy
collection, using a floating tube called
"Pelamis".
28
Tidal
Tidal power - energy from the sea
The movement of the sea could be a huge energy
source, but only around 20 sites in the world
have been identified as possible tidal power
stations. These work rather like a
hydro-electric scheme, except that the dam is
much bigger.
  • How it works
  • Tidal barrages

29
Tidal power station example 1
Swanturbines Instead of wind driving the rotor, a
tidal stream turbine uses water. Swanturbines is
a consortium of 9 partners led by Swanturbines
Ltd. Swansea, Wales, UK
30
Tidal power station example 2
vertical-axis turbines
31
Tidal power station example 3
Another option is to use offshore turbines,
rather like an underwater wind farm.
32
Geothermal energy
Iceland
Diagram shows Icelandic geothermal power station
takes advantage of heat from magna chamber
relatively close to the surface.
33
Iceland
Hot water pipeline runs for 17 kms from
geothermal plant to Reykjavik. Water provides
most of citys space heating needs.
34
Geothermal
  • How it works
  • Hot rocks underground heat water to produce
    steam.

35
Biomass
energy from organic materials
Wood was once our main fuel. We burned it to heat
our homes and cook our food. "Bioconversion"
uses plant and animal wastes to produce fuels
such as methanol, natural gas, and oil. We can
use rubbish, animal manure, woodchips, seaweed,
corn stalks and other wastes.
36
Bioenergy Cycle
37
Bioenergy Cycle
38
Type of Biomass - Corn
http//www.geo.msu.edu/geo333/corn.html
39
Type of Biomass - Soybeans
http//agproducts.unl.edu/
40
Type of Biomass - Sorghum
http//www.okfarmbureau.org/press_pass/galleries/g
rainSorghum/
41
Type of Biomass - Sugar Cane Bagasse
http//www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
42
Type of Biomass - Switchgrass
http//www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
43
Type of Biomass - Hybrid Poplar
http//www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
44
Type of Biomass - Corn Stover
http//www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
45
Type of Biomass - Wood Chips Sawdust
http//www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
http//www.energytrust.org/RR/bio/
46
Type of Biomass - Tracy Biomass Plant
Truck unloading wood chips that will fuel the
Tracy Biomass Plant, Tracy, California.
http//www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page
/biomass/biomass.html
47
Type of Biomass - Municipal Solid Waste
http//www.eeingeorgia.org/eic/images/landfill.jpg
48
Biomass Direct Combustion
Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press
(2004)
49
Integrated Waste Plant
Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press
(2004)
50
Biomass Gasifier
  • 200 tons of wood chips daily
  • Forest thinnings wood pallets
  • Converted to gas
  • Combined cycle gas turbine
  • 8MW power output

McNeil Generating Station biomass gasifier 8MW
http//www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
51
Biodiesel Bus
http//www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
52
Fossil Fuel Energy
  • How it works
  • Coal is crushed to a fine dust and burnt.
  • Oil and gas can be burnt directly.

53
Fossil Fuel Energy
54
Coal mining
55
Coal Power Station
Melnik, Czech Republic
56
Oil
57
Crude-oil production A hole bored into the earth
Gas or water is injected back into the reservoir
usually to increase pressure and thereby
stimulate production.
58
Crude-oil production Deep Sea Exploration
59
Oil Power Station
60
Gas pipelines in Europe
61
Gas pipelines in the Czech Republic
  • Plynovod
  • see
  • Hostim (15km from Znojmo)

62
Gas Power Station
63
Nuclear Energy
64
Nuclear Power Station - principle
Reactor - separated cooling circuits
65
Nuclear Power Station Dukovany
It is 35 km from Znojmo
66
What to do with spent uranium
67
Energy Flow
  • Energy flows through the system.
  • It is not recyclable.
  • Matter is recycled over and over again.
  • Energy causes movement.
  • The most important matter cycles
  • The water cycle
  • The carbon cycle
  • The nitrogen cycle
  • The oxygen cycle

68
The Water Cycle
69
The Carbon Cycle
70
The Nitrogen Cycle
71
The Oxygen Cycle
72
Gymnazium a SOSPg, Pontassievska 3 Znojmo Czech
Republic
Main resources http//www.energyweb.cz http//hom
e.clara.net/darvill/altenerg/index.htm www.uwsp.ed
u
END
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