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Year 8 Geography Revision


Title: Slide 1 Author: Lorna Last modified by: HLGC Created Date: 5/31/2012 6:58:14 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Company: St Mary's Catholic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Year 8 Geography Revision

Year 8 Geography Revision
Extreme Environments Its difficult to live
in some areas of the World. Like Goldilocks and
the three bears, some places are too hot, some
are too cold, and some seem to be just right. To
understand why this is, we first saw that there
are two things which might affect locations
weather and climate. Weather is what happens to
the temperature, rain and wind on a day to day
basis. Climate is the average weather seen over
many years. Four things which help decide the
climate are a. Relief - how high a place is b.
Latitude - how near a place is to the Equator c.
Prevailing wind - where does the main come
from d. Closeness to the sea - different in
Winter and Summer Hot Deserts are found on the
Tropics - the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of
Capricorn. They are hot during the day, and very
cold at night when the heat escapes without
clouds to trap it, and almost always dry. Plants
and animals have had to adapt (change)to live
here, trying to collect and store water and food.
People who travel here must use their knowledge
and skill to be able to survive. either taking
everything they need including suitable clothing,
or by using the plants and animals they find.
Tropical rainforests are hot, wet and each day
is like the day before, the same. They are found
on the Equator. To live here, the plants and
animals adapt to the high humidity (the large
amount of water in the air). The plants grow in
layers the emergents, the canopy, the under
canopy, and the little undergrowth. People do
live here and explore here, but it is difficult.
Unfortunately, more and more of it is being cut
down (deforestation). Most people believe this is
wrong, but some have a different opinion.
What is an ecosystem? An ecosystem is a
community of living organisms (plants and
animals) sharing an environment. The largest
ecosystems are called biomes. What is a biome?
A biome is a very large ecosystem e.g. Tropical
25 of the ingredients in today's cancer-fighting
drugs come from organisms found only in the
The tropical rainforests are known as the lungs
of the world. They provide over 20 of the
worlds oxygen.
50 of the Earths plant and animal species live
in tropical rainforests.
An area of tropical rainforest the size of a
football pitch is lost every second.
Tropical rainforests used to cover 14 of the
Earths surface. Now they only cover 2.
Around 100 plant and animal species are lost each
day due to deforestation.
At the current rate of deforestation, all the
worlds tropical rainforests will have
disappeared in 40 years time.
At least 80 of MEDCs diet originated in the
tropical rainforest.
2.5 acres of tropical rainforest can contain over
750 different species of tree.
Long eyelashes to protect eyes from dust
Humps to store fat can be broken down into water
Tough mouth so can eat spiky plants
Fur for the cold nights
Can close nose and ears
Big flat feet so does not sink into the sand
They provide a habitat for many plants and animals
They help control the worlds climate. Carbon
Dioxide levels.
They are interesting places to visit.
The worlds rainforests are important because
They help prevent flooding, drought and erosion.
They support tribal communities
They are a source of medicine and food.
Subsistence Farming (slash and burn)
Causes of deforestation Mining, cattle ranches,
Dams, highways
Cutting and burning of areas of rainforest
Local people realised they were damaging the
Sometimes called Shifting Cultivation.
When soil has been overused, they move to a new
patch of land.
This allows vegetation to recover and grow
Leads to soil Infertility (loss of topsoil
Eco-tourism in Lapland Impact of tourism In 1993,
UK visitors spent 145,381 bed nights in Finland.
By 2007, that figure had risen four fold to
515,554. Tourism in Finnish Lapland has become
the main source of employment and income
replacing traditional industries such as
forestry. In 1950 the largest part of Laplands
inhabitants lived in rural areas and more than
half the workforce worked in forestry and
agriculture. Approximately a quarter of Laplands
100 000 strong workforce was unemployed in 1997.
Today 65 of the workforce is in the service
industry, 22 in processing and 10 in primary
production. This huge growth in tourism and
service provision has been developed in line with
a long-term sustainable tourism plan with one of
the aims being to maintain nature in its natural
state while guaranteeing the traditional way of
life. Visitors Many of these visits are for a
few hours only. A wintery race ensues from the
airport. There's a reindeer, here's a Christmas
bun, that bloke in the distance is Santa, no time
for a toilet visit we're behind schedule. Such
visits have become finely tuned exercises in
maximizing profits for the tour operator while
minimizing the benefits to the host country. The
visitor has little chance to spend money while in
the country. According to Finlands Border
Interview Survey (Winter 06/07) British leisure
visitors spent an average of 165 per trip but
those on one-day trips spent a meagre 34.
United Kingdom
Where on earth is China?
One Child Policy With a population of 1.2
billion, China's population grows by 14 million
people every year three-quarters of Australia's
entire population! Up until the 1970s the Chinese
government regarded a growing population as a
benefit in bringing about economic development.
By 1963, the average number of children born to a
Chinese woman was 7.5. In recent decades,
China's government has viewed population growth
differently. With one-fifth of the world's
population, but only 7 per cent of the world's
farm land, continuing strong population growth
would bring about great hardships, extreme
poverty and famine. The Chinese government
decided in the 1970s to control population
growth. This has proved a very complex task. The
main strategy the government introduced in 1982
was a radical family planning program to
encourage couples to restrict their family size
to just one child. This has become known as the
'One Child Policy'. Since 1982, detailed annual
population plans have been drawn up for all
provinces and cities. Birth targets or quotas
have been set and controlled and all pregnancies
are supposed to be planned and authorised.
Because the One Child Policy is implemented and
monitored by local authorities, it has been
applied differently across the nation. For
example, there has been stricter enforcement of
the policy in urban areas than in rural areas.
The policy is attempting a huge shift in the
values of most Chinese people. Government
campaigns are still achieving only limited
success. Policy incentives salary bonus
(urban) bigger land allocation (rural)
extended maternity leave paid medical and
hospital expenses priority access to housing,
employment and schooling for the child
Disobeying the policy withdrawal of family
allowance and medical benefits fines (even
against everyone in the village or town)
demotion or discharge from a government job
Exceptions to the rule membership of a
minority ethnic group (can be allowed two or even
more children) having a first child with a
disability that is likely to result in inability
to work pregnancy after adopting a child
risk of 'losing the family line' without a second
child (the first child being a girl) rural
families with 'real difficulties' (all children
so far being girls)
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Rich people should share their wealth with the
less fortunate.

Communist countries provide free education,
health services and subsidised food to millions
of people who were denied these under the old
Capitalist system.

Churches and religion may be banned.
In communism everybody is guaranteed a job, so
there is no unemployment.
Transport was cheap, rents were cheap, housing
was cheap, and most people had a job.
In a communist society workers had to work very
hard, for long hours, without much rewards.
In a communist society. The state controls all
news-papers, books, films and radio programmes.
Communism did bring certain things - a sense of
community, and a sense of society.
Although Capitalism is good at manufacturing
products. It is unsuccessful at distributing
products. Only if you can afford the product, you
can have it. In America, only the rich can afford
the best health care, schools and universities.
Think about the way our country is heading?? High
university bills? Private healthcare?
Basic Communist Principles One Party
Dictatorship Industries and farms owned and run
by the state No individual ownership of
property Individuals lives tightly controlled.
Capitalism Democracy
Capitalism is seen to make "Considerable
progress" on ending poverty.
Factories and companies should be owned by
individuals because People should be free to
earn as much (or little) money as they want.
In a Capitalist society you a free to vote for
whatever party you want.
Capitalism encourages people to invent, improve
and advance technology.
Capitalism and Democracy are usually linked, A
democracy is a form of government in which the
people, either directly or indirectly, take part
in governing. The word democracy originates from
Greek, and means rule of the people.
Capitalism - An economic system that features
private ownership of the means of production
(such as factories, offices, and shipping
enterprises). Market forces determine the way in
which goods are produced and the means by which
income and profit are distributed is called
capitalism. Work for profit and wages which are
not equal
The government may set few controls on the
economy to ensure it runs successfully (tax,
interest rates)
Working in Shenzhen
Foxcann is the worlds largest electronics
Apple promised to check whether the factory was
safe and whether it should continue to make
products for them.
Foxcann is owned by a Taiwanese company, it makes
iPads, iPhones and iPods for Apple.
An investigation occurred in 2010 after 10 people
committed suicide, the investigation show that
rules were be broken on working hours and the
safety of workers.
It employs over 300,000 people and they get paid
30p an hour.
In 6 months 10 people under the age of 25 jumped
from the roofs to their death.
The reasons why the workers had jumped was due to
the 12 hour shifts they worked and strict working
Most workers live in dorms next to the factory
The factory has tried to stop the suicides by
hiring 2000 singers, dancers and gym
trainers. Also it is putting up nets to catch
the jumpers. It promisd to rise wages and move
workers closer to their homes.
Workers have to repeat their tasks at high speed,
under military style supervision every day. It
may be so small as to put one screw in a certain
Workers say they get beaten with an iron bar and
Some complaints of the factory include not being
able to sit, take toilet breaks, not being paid
for overtime and poor living conditions.
Is there poverty in China?
The government have said by 2020 no-one in China
would need to worry about food and clothing.
The gap between rich and poor is already too
Girls are also more at risk than boys of becoming
Some 27 million people were classified as rural
poor last year by the government, earning less
than 55 cents a day (30p)
90 of those in poverty are in rural areas
China now has more billionaires than any other
country except the USA.
There are over 18 million rural people living
on less than 1 a day (70p)
Those classified as poor are entitled to
government help such as subsidies, job training,
discounted loans and employment opportunities
The poverty rate has fallen from 85 in 1981 to
16 in 2005
Development is the process of change for the
What is a Dam? A dam is any barrier that holds
back water dams are primarily used to save,
manage, and/or prevent the flow of excess water
into specific regions. In addition, some dams are
used to generate hydropower. Another term often
used when discussing dams is reservoir. A
reservoir is a man-made lake that is primarily
used for storing water.
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