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Business English

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Title: Business English Subject: Chapter 19 Author: Mary Ellen Guffey Last modified by: George R. Guffey Created Date: 3/22/1998 4:13:16 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Business English


1
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2
Capitalization
  • Objectives
  • Distinguish between common and proper nouns for
    purposes of capitalization.
  • Decide when to capitalize proper adjectives and
    when not to capitalize them.

3
Capitalization
  • Understand when to capitalize personal titles,
    numbered items, and points of the compass.
  • Capitalize departments, divisions, committees,
    government terms, product names, and literary
    titles correctly.

4
Capitalization
  • Capitalize beginning words, celestial bodies, and
    ethnic references.
  • Apply special rules in capitalizing personal
    titles and terms.

5
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Proper Nouns
  • Capitalize proper nouns, including the specific
    names of persons places
    schools streets parks buildings
    religions holidays months nick
    names agreements

6
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Proper Nouns
  • Palm Beach Community College
  • Gulf gasoline
  • The Consumer Protection Act

7
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Proper Nouns
  • Do not capitalize common nouns that make general
    reference.
  • consumer protection laws
  • a community college
  • government office

8
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Proper Adjectives
  • Capitalize most adjectives that are derived from
    proper nouns.
  • Japanese imports Victorian attitudes British
    rock Boston baked beans Russian
    dressing French doors

9
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Proper Adjectives
  • Do not capitalize the adjectives that originally
    derived from proper nouns but have become common
    adjectives through usage.
  • french fries china dishes india
    ink manila envelope charley horse arabic
    numeral

10
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Beginning of a Sentence
  • Capitalize the first letter of a word beginning a
    sentence.
  • Computerized inventory has increased
    efficiency.

11
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Geographic Locations
  • Capitalize the names of the following specific
    geographic locations.
  • states cities mountains valleys lakes rivers
    oceans geographic regions

12
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Geographic Locations
  • Our new plant will be located in Los Angeles
    County.
  • The team will move its headquarters to Kansas
    City.
  • Climbing Mt. St. Helens is not recommended.

13
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Geographic Locations
  • Capitalize county and state only when they
    immediately follow proper nouns.
  • Our tour will include New York State, and it
    will end in the state of Maine.

14
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Principal Words
  • Capitalize the principal words in organization
    names.
  • the League of Women Voters
  • College of the Canyons
  • the Department of Health and Human Services

15
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Principal Words
  • Generally, do not capitalize company,
    association, board, and other shortened forms
    when they replace full organization names.
  • If these shortened names are preceded by the word
    the in legal or formal documents, they may be
    capitalized.

16
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Principal Words
  • It appears that our company is making a
    profit.
  • Informal document
  • As legal agent of the Company, I am authorized
    to make purchases.
  • Formal document

17
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Academic Courses
  • Capitalize names of numbered courses and specific
    course titles.
  • Paige Baker, who holds a masters degree,
    teaches Business 101.

18
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Academic Courses
  • Do not capitalize names of academic subject areas
    unless they contain a proper noun.
  • Sonja Eng teaches French, German, and biology.

19
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Academic Degrees
  • Capitalize abbreviations of academic degrees that
    stand alone or follow an individuals name.
  • Janet G. Adams, Ed.D., is a business professor
    at Minnesota State University.

20
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Academic Degrees
  • Do not capitalize general references to degrees.
  • Morehead State University offers bachelors and
    masters degrees.

21
Basic Capitalization Rules
  • Seasons
  • Do not capitalize the names of seasons.
  • We hire clerks in the fall and winter only.

22
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 1. We visited chicagos sears tower during
    easter break.

23
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 1. We visited Chicagos Sears Tower during
    Easter break.

24
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 2. Please bring a danish pastry for morning
    coffee.

25
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 2. Please bring a Danish pastry for morning
    coffee.

26
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 3. We use india ink to mark all manila folders.

27
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 3. We use india ink to mark all manila folders.
  • Correct

28
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 4. The city of lexington is located in fayette
    county.

29
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 4. The city of Lexington is located in Fayette
    County.

30
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 5. Contributions were made to the sudden infant
    death syndrome foundation.

31
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 5. Contributions were made to the Sudden Infant
    Death Syndrome Foundation.

32
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 6. All business majors must take english and
    college algebra.

33
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 6. All business majors must take English and
    college algebra.

34
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 7. the first snow storm of the winter occurred
    on november 20.

35
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 7. The first snow storm of the winter occurred
    on November 20.

36
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Titles of People
  • Capitalize courtesy titles when they precede
    names.
  • Mr. Mrs. Ms. Miss Dr.

37
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Titles of People
  • When they precede names, capitalize other
    personal titles that replace courtesy titles.
  • The speaker is ASB President Max Leids.
  • Last year Assistant Manager Roth joined our
    firm.
  • Did you invite Aunt Ruth and Uncle Ned?

38
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Titles of People
  • Do not capitalize personal titles followed by an
    appositive.
  • Our general manager, Mr. Harrison, reported on
    income.

39
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Titles of People
  • Do not capitalize personal titles or office
    titles following names.
  • We have asked Ginger Guzman, president, Guzman
    Enterprises, to address the training seminar.

40
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Titles of People
  • Do not capitalize a title or office that replaces
    a persons name.
  • The president conferred with the governor of
    New York and the attorney general.

41
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Titles of People
  • Capitalize titles in addresses and closing lines.
  • Mr. Larry D. Detmers
  • Dean of Students
  • 3488 North Jennings
  • Flint, MI 48433
  • Very truly yours,
  • Esther M. Conway
  • Purchasing Agent

42
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Titles of People
  • Do not capitalize family titles used with
    possessive pronouns.
  • Capitalize titles of close relatives when they
    are used without possessive pronouns.
  • My mother and my aunt will visit Father next
    week.

43
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Numbered and Lettered Items
  • Capitalize nouns followed by numbers or letters
    except in page, paragraph, line, and verse
    references.
  • The meeting is in Room 102, Building 11, at 9
    a.m.
  • Please consult page 15 in Volume II of
    Appendix C.

44
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Points of the Compass
  • Capitalize points of the compass and their
    derivatives when they refer to specific regions.
  • Before you came to the West Coast, did you
    spend much time in the East?
  • In the winter many Midwesterners travel
    south to Florida.

45
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Departments, Divisions, Committees
  • Capitalize the names of departments, divisions,
    or committees within your own organization.
  • Our Quality Control Department inspects every
    product.

46
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Departments, Divisions, Committees
  • Outside your organization capitalize only
    specific department, division, or committee
    names.
  • Have you written to their employment division?

47
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Departments, Divisions, Committees
  • The Committee on Equal Opportunities meets on
    Tuesday.
  • An investigation committee may be appointed.

48
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Government Terms
  • Do not capitalize the words federal, government,
    national, or state unless they are part of a
    specific title.
  • The federal government administers the
    National Defense Act.

49
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Product Names
  • Capitalize product names only when they represent
    trademarked items.
  • Except in advertising, common names following
    manufacturers names are not capitalized.
  • Coca Cola drink
  • Big Mac hamburger

50
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Product Names
  • DuPont Teflon pan
  • Range Rover truck
  • Whirlpool washer
  • Vaseline skin care

51
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Literary and Artistic Titles
  • Capitalize the principal words in titles of
    books, magazines, newspapers, articles, etc.
  • Do not capitalize articles (a, an, the),
    conjunctions (and, but, or, nor), and
    prepositions of fewer than four letters (in, to,
    by, for) unless they begin or end a title.

52
Special Capitalization Rules
  • Literary and Artistic Titles
  • Book The Last of the Mohicans
  • Article English as It Is Spoken
  • Movie From Russia With Love
  • Poem Something to Hope For

53
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 1. Both father and uncle dan helped with the
    construction of the boat.

54
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 1. Both Father and Uncle Dan helped with the
    construction of the boat.

55
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 2. Scott Newman, president of the american heart
    association, will be the guest speaker.

56
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 2. Scott Newman, president of the American Heart
    Association, will be the guest speaker.

57
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 3. Our accountant, Karen Gehrke, became the
    company president.

58
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 3. Our accountant, Karen Gehrke, became the
    company president.
  • Correct

59
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 4. Please deliver the package to building 49.

60
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 4. Please deliver the package to Building 49.

61
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 5. The Langholtzes moved to the west edge of
    minneapolis.

62
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 5. The Langholtzes moved to the west edge of
    Minneapolis.

63
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 6. A hiring committee member has not yet been
    selected from our payroll department.

64
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 6. A hiring committee member has not yet been
    selected from our Payroll Department.

65
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 7. The package return address was david bagne,
    director of marketing, king corporation, p. o.
    box 993, houston, texas 77089.

66
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 7. The package return address was David Bagne,
    Director of Marketing, King Corporation, P. O.
    Box 993, Houston, Texas 77089.

67
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 8. For dinner I went to burger king and ordered
    a whopper and a pepsi.

68
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 8. For dinner I went to Burger King and ordered
    a Whopper and a Pepsi.

69
Additional Capitalization Rules
  • Beginning Words
  • Capitalize the first word of a complete sentence.
  • Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence or
    of an independent phrase.
  • Did you write, The cautious seldom make
    mistakes? No, not I.

70
Additional Capitalization Rules
  • Beginning Words
  • Capitalize the first words in enumerated items
    and formal rules or principles following colons.
  • Depreciation on real estate may be calculated
    using the following
    1. Cost-to-cure method
    2. Straight-line
    method
    3. Combination method

71
Additional Capitalization Rules
  • Beginning Words
  • The supervisor often gives this advice
    Consult a dictionary when in doubt.

72
Additional Capitalization Rules
  • Celestial Bodies
  • Capitalize the names of celestial bodies.
  • Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars have short
    periods of revolution and long periods of
    rotation.

73
Additional Capitalization Rules
  • Celestial Bodies
  • Do not capitalize the terms earth, sun, or moon
    unless they appear with other celestial bodies.
  • The flower closes when the sun shines, but at
    night it opens in the light of the moon.

74
Additional Capitalization Rules
  • Ethnic References
  • Capitalize terms that relate to a particular
    culture, language, or race.
  • Both Persian and Hebrew traditions were
    respected.

75
Additional Capitalization Rules
  • Words Following
    Marked and Stamped
  • Capitalize words that follow marked and stamped.
  • The package was stamped Fragile.

76
Additional Capitalization Rules
  • Special Uses of Personal Titles and Terms
  • The title of an official may be capitalized if it
    appears within an organizations minutes, bylaws,
    or other official documents.

77
Additional Capitalization Rules
  • Special Uses of Personal Titles and Terms
  • The Director of Human Resources shall be our
    representative in collective bargaining.
  • Statement in company bylaws

78
Additional Capitalization Rules
  • Special Uses of Personal Titles and Terms
  • The prefix ex-, suffix -elect, and the words late
    and former are not capitalized when used with
    titles.
  • Documents were collected about ex- President
    Reagan.

79
Additional Capitalization Rules
  • Special Uses of Personal Titles and Terms
  • Senator-elect Hollings has been invited also.

80
Additional Capitalization Rules
  • Special Uses of Personal Titles and Terms
  • Titles other than sir, ladies, and gentlemen are
    capitalized when used in direct address.
  • I must ask, Professor, when the final exam is.

81
Additional Capitalization Rules
  • Special Uses of Personal Titles and Terms
  • It appears, sir, that your payment is overdue.

82
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 1. Please send the following items
    a. lease agreement with owner b.
    statement of income and expenses c. budget of
    projected income

83
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 1. Please send the following items
    a. Lease agreement with owner b.
    Statement of income and expenses c. Budget of
    projected income

84
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 2. She said she would move heaven and earth to
    meet the deadline.

85
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 2. She said she would move heaven and earth to
    meet the deadline.
  • Correct

86
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 3. The swedish and norwegian cultures were
    represented in the parade.

87
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 3. The Swedish and Norwegian cultures were
    represented in the parade.

88
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 4. I took the folder marked confidential to
    the vice presidents office.

89
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 4. I took the folder marked Confidential to
    the vice presidents office.

90
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 5. Mayor-Elect Torgerson and ex-councilman
    Miller ordered their lunches.

91
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 5. Mayor-elect Torgerson and ex-Councilman
    Miller ordered their lunches.

92
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 6. You, Sir, were to begin at 8 a.m.

93
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 6. You, sir, were to begin at 8 a.m.

94
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 7. Her english was spoken with a british accent.

95
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 7. Her English was spoken with a British accent.

96
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 8. The Minutes of the last meeting show the
    executive director requesting a final decision
    on the projected budget.

97
Check your skill . . .
  • Correct any capitalization errors you find in the
    following sentence. (The sentence may already be
    correct.)
  • 8. The minutes of the last meeting show the
    Executive Director requesting a final decision
    on the projected budget.

98
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 1. During the winter i will enroll in spanish,
    history, and computer science 32.

99
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 1. During the winter I will enroll in Spanish,
    history, and Computer Science 32.

100
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 2. The american association of certified public
    accountants will open its annual meeting at the
    hyatt regency hotel in san francisco.

101
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 2. The American Association of Certified Public
    Accountants will open its annual meeting at the
    Hyatt Regency Hotel in San Francisco.

102
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 3. Timothy p. green, engineering manager at
    custom composite materials, inc., graduated
    from georgia institute of technology.

103
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 3. Timothy P. Green, engineering manager at
    Custom Composite Materials, Inc., graduated
    from Georgia Institute of Technology.

104
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 4. Both the house of representatives and the
    senate will recess during the spring holidays.

105
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 4. Both the House of Representatives and the
    Senate will recess during the spring holidays.

106
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 5. All sales representatives of the company will
    meet in the california room of the red lion
    motor inn at 1p.m.

107
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 5. All sales representatives of the company will
    meet in the California Room of the Red Lion
    Motor Inn at 1p.m.

108
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 6. My uncle had worked for several county
    agencies before he became a member of the
    legal staff of the federal communications
    commission.

109
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 6. My uncle had worked for several county
    agencies before he became a member of the
    legal staff of the Federal Communications
    Commission.

110
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 7. To reach my home, proceed north on highway 1
    until you reach exit 10.

111
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 7. To reach my home, proceed north on Highway 1
    until you reach Exit 10.

112
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 8. Our national sales manager and the vice
    president are attending conventions in the
    east this summer.

113
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 8. Our national sales manager and the vice
    president are attending conventions in the
    East this summer.

114
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 9. I found references to oriental and caucasian
    cultures in volume 3 of a comprehensive study
    of the cultures of the world.

115
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 9. I found references to Oriental and Caucasian
    cultures in Volume 3 of A Comprehensive Study
    of the Cultures of the World.

116
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 10. David grabbed his apple computer and ran to
    catch flight 21 as it was about to leave for
    denver from gate 12.

117
Chapter 19 - Quiz
  • Capitalize words as needed.
  • 10. David grabbed his Apple computer and ran to
    catch Flight 21 as it was about to leave for
    Denver from Gate 12.

118
END
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