7th Grade Science Opening Questions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: 7th Grade Science Opening Questions


1
7th Grade Science Opening Questions
2
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  • 23 mutliple choice
  • 2 short response

3
  • The items listed below were found in a science
    classroom. a heart made of plastic with many
    of its parts labeled clay formed to look like
    Earth and other planets a giant plastic plant
    cell with removable cell parts
  • 1. These items are all examples of (A) models
    (B) experiments (C) variables (D) controls
  • 2. Mr. Grindle placed all of the plastic items
    together. What technique is he using?
  • (A) Modeling
  • (B) Inferencing
  • (C) Classifying
  • (D) Predicting
  • 3. The Fire alarm rings, at the same time Mr.
    Grindle then thinks that everybody will get up
    quietly and line up at the door. What technique
    is he using?
  • (A) Modeling
  • (B) Inferencing
  • (C) Classifying
  • (D) Predicting

4
Question Hypothesis Design
experiment Analyze the data Conclusion
  • Use the word box to match the term with the
    example
  • 1. How does wind speed affect the distance of a
    football throw?
  • 2. Based on the evidence, wind speed does affect
    the distance a football is thrown.
  • 3. If there are 20 mph winds, then a football
    will travel less distance.

5
  • Base your answers to the following questions on
    the graph below. The graph shows the results of
    an experiment that tested the effect of time on
    the growth of a plant. A student measured the
    height of several plants for ten weeks and
    determined the average height. The results are
    shown in the graph below.
  • What is the y axis label?
  • Identify one variable that should be held
    constant during this experiment.
  • According to the graph, what will the average
    height of the plants be at week 11 if growth
    continues at the same rate as in weeks 8 through
    10? _____________ cm

6
  • A student set up the experiment below to learn
    about plant growth. The student added a different
    amount of water to four identical containers,
    each containing four seeds in 100 cubic
    centimeters of soil. All of the containers were
    placed in the same sunny location.
  • 1. State the manipulating variable being tested
    in this experiment.
  • 2. State the responding variable that is being
    held constant in this experiment.
  • Short Response Name a constant in the
    experiment and explain why it needs to be the
    same (constant) throughout the experiment.

7
  • A student goes skateboarding a few times a week.
    The student notices that she can go faster while
    skating on some level surfaces than on others.
    She hypothesizes that speed has something to do
    with the surface she is skating on. The student
    wants to design an experiment to test this
    hypothesis.
  • Identify the independent (manipulated) variable
    in the experiment.
  • Identify the dependent (responding) variable in
    the experiment.
  • Short Response Identify two factors that will
    need to be held constant in the experiment.

8
Controls Variables Warm-up
  • Problem How do Power-aid, Gatorade and Vitamin
    Water affect running times
  • Experimental design Each person will run 10
    yards after drinking each liquid. Each person
    will be timed for how fast he/she runs.
  • (Hint Look at the problem. Which variable
    affects which?)
  • 1. Manipulating (Independent) variable?
  • 2. Responding (Dependent) variable?
  • 3.Control ?

9
Problem How does music affect test accuracy?
  • Experimental Design Subjects will take a 25
    question test while listening to rock, hip-hop
    and classical music. Each subject will be scored
    on number correct.
  • Manipulating variable ?
  • Responding variable ?
  • Control ?
  • Constants ?

10
  •          Some species of bacteria are harmful.
    Antibiotics are chemicals that kill bacteria.
    Some bacteria are resistant to antibiotics and
    are not killed by these chemicals. Over time, the
    resistant bacteria can reproduce and create
    populations that are not affected by antibiotics.
    The graphs below show the results of a controlled
    experiment that measured the population of one
    species of bacteria that had been grown in four
    containers under identical conditions. Different
    antibiotics were added to three of the four
    containers.
  • Which conclusion about this species of bacteria
    is best supported by the information in the
    graphs?
  • A. Antibiotic A continuously slowed the
    growth. B. Antibiotic B was
    least effective in controlling the growth.
    C. Antibiotic C was most effective
    in controlling the growth
  • D. Antibiotics A and B slowed the growth.

11
  • The graph below shows the number of known species
    in the five kingdoms of living things.
  • Based on the graph, which kingdom contains
    approximately twice as many known species as the
    Protista Kingdom?
  • A. Animalia B. PlantaeC. Fungi

12
ECOLOGY UNIT
  • 92 MC
  • 11 SR

13
Biomes
  • 8 Multiple Choice
  • 1 Short Response

14
  • The bottom layer of the forest
  • (A) Understory
  • (B) Canopy
  • (C) Floor
  • The middle layer of the forest with short
    trees..
  • (A) Understory
  • (B) Canopy
  • (C) Floor
  • The upper layer of the forest with tall trees
  • (A) Understory
  • (B) Canopy
  • (C) Floor

15
Name the Biome
  • 1. Matt lives in a biome that has cold winters
    and mild summers. This biome has large trees
    that do not lose their leaves and receives 180cm
    of rain per year.
  • 2. Amy lives in a biome that has warm
    temperatures all year round. The biome has large
    trees that do not lose their leaves and receives
    350cm of rain per year.
  • 3.Tom lives in a biome that is very dry and has
    rocky soil. There are very few trees.
    Temperatures are very hot during the day and cool
    to cold at night.

16
  • Name the Biome
  • 1. Ryan lives in a biome that has extremely cold
    winters, is windy and has only low-growing plants
  • 2. Amy lives in a biome with warm summers and
    cold winters tress shed their leaves and grow
    new ones each year.
  • 3. Heather lives in a biome with 25-75cm of rain
    per year and is populated by grasses and many
    large herbivores.
  • Which biome do we live in?

17
Biomes summarizer(Textbook pages 58-66)
  • Group 1 Figure 13 (pg 59)
  • Group 2 Figure 15 (pg 61)
  • Group 3 Lab zone activity (pg 61)
  • Group 4 Figure 17 (pg 63)
  • Group 5 Lab zone skills activity (pg 64)
  • Group 6 Figure 19 (pg 65)
  • Group 7 Figure 20 (pg 66)

18
  • Short Response What is the best biome to live
    in as a human?
  • State the biome and two reasons based on what we
    know about biomes.

19
Ecosystems
  • 8 MC
  • 2 SR

20
Just the letter (A,B,C,D) for 1-3 and remember
the short response
  • 1. Water and sunlight are..
  • (A) Abiotic
  • (B) Biotic
  • 2. Would all the different kinds of organisms
    in a forest be considered a
  • (A) Individual
  • (B) Population
  • (C) Community
  • (D) Ecosystem
  • 3. All the ABIOTIC and BIOTIC factors are
    a(n)..
  • (A) Individual
  • (B) Population
  • (C) Community
  • (D) Ecosystem
  • Short Response What does an ecologist do?

21
  • 1. Which of the four terms below includes the
    other three terms? (A) community (B) ecosystem
    (C) population (D) individual
  • 2. Different populations living in one place form
    a
  • (A) community (B) system (C) habitat(D)
    species

22
1. Write the symbol that represents a population
in this model
  • 2. Write the symbol below that shows a community
    in this model.
  • 3. What is the source of energy for this
    ecosystem?
  • 4. Write the symbol below that represents an
    ecosystem.

23
Natural Cycles
  • 15 MC
  • 2 SR

24
Use the word box to help you
Precipitation Condensation Evaporation Infiltratio
n Groundwater Surface water Transpiration Oxygen
Carbon Dioxide Run-off
  • The term for water that is soaked into the ground
    or in the roots of trees.
  • The term for pockets of water in the ground
  • The term for water that passes into the
    atmosphere from leaves of trees.

25
  • 1. Which title best describes the processes shown
    in the diagram below?
  • (A) The Rock Cycle
  • (B) The Water Cycle
  • (C) Plate Tectonics
  • (D) Chemical Changes
  • The diagram below uses letters A, B, C, and D to
    represent processes occurring in a water cycle.
  • In the chart below, identify the process that is
    occurring at each letter in the diagram. Select
    the process from the list below.
  • 2.Condensation
  • 3.Evaporation
  • 4.Precipitation
  • 5. runoff
  • Short response Explain why A
  • resembles evaporation.

26
  • What is the name of the process represented in
    this diagram that produces the oxygen? (A)
    photosynthesis (B) metamorphosis (C)
    respiration (D) fertilization

27

  • Which statement best explains the relationships
    shown? (A) Water changes over time to a
    nonrenewable resource. (B) Living things
    exchange materials with their environment. (C)
    Minerals recycle the dead materials in the
    environment. (D) Living things produce other
    living things.
  • Which process produces oxygen that is released
    into the atmosphere? (A) respiration (B)
    locomotion (C) excretion (D) photosynthesis

28
The diagram below shows a deer and green plants.
  • 1. Which statement best describes the
    relationship between the deer and the plants?
  • A. The deer supplies food and oxygen to the
    green plants. B. The deer supplies food and
    carbon dioxide to the green plants. C. The
    green plants supply food and carbon dioxide to
    the deer. D. The green plants supply food and
    oxygen to the deer.

29
  • In which process is oxygen used to release the
    energy stored in food? (A) photosynthesis (B)
    respiration (C) digestion (D) reproduction
  • When a person breathes, the lungs absorb oxygen,
    which is used by cells to carry out the process
    of (A) respiration (B) secretion (C)
    photosynthesis (D) excretion
  • Short Response Why is the nitrogen cycle
    important to plants?

30
Use the short response for this question
  • Write a statement on how oxygen, temperature and
    biotic factors are related.

31
Food Chains and Food Webs
  • 36 MC
  • 4 SR

32
  • 1. Why are the fish able to survive in the pond?
    (A) The fish use carbon dioxide produced by the
    plants. (B) The fish use oxygen produced by the
    plants. (C) The plants use oxygen produced by
    the fish. (D) The plants use chlorophyll
    produced by the fish.
  • 2. The main source of energy for this pond
    community is the (A) plants (B) Sun (C) pond
    water (D) animals

33
  • 1. In the past, Native American Indians buried
    dead fish along with corn seeds. This technique
    was used because the decomposing dead fish would
    (A) provide nutrients for the growing corn
    plant (B) eliminate the need for weeding around
    the corn plant (C) release oxygen for use by the
    corn plant (D) supply all the water needed by
    the corn plant
  • 2. As the population of small fish in a lake
    decreases, the population of large fish that
    depend on the small fish for food will (A)
    reproduce faster (B) begin to produce their own
    food (C) decrease in number (D) increase in
    number

34
  • Give an example of a carnivore, a producer, and
    an herbivore shown in this food web.
  • 1 Carnivore ________________________________
  • 2 Producer ________________________________
  • 3 Herbivore________________________________
  • Short Response How are the feeding
    relationships of the mice different from the
    feeding relationships of the other organisms in
    this food web?

35
  • If the plants die during a summer drought, the
    cricket population would most likely (A)
    decrease
  • (B) increase (C) remain the same
  • If the number of frogs increases, the snake
    population would most likely (A) decrease (B)
    increase (C) remain the same
  • Short Response State one difference between
    what food chains and energy pyramids represent
    regarding energy flow

36
  • What is the role of the foxes in this food web?
    (a) carnivore (b) decomposer (c) herbivore
    (d) producer
  • Which organisms in this food web are omnivores?
    (a) birds (b) carrots (c) grasshoppers (d)
    rabbits
  • Which statement would be true if the owl
    population disappeared? (a) The mouse
    population would increase. (b) The carrot
    population would increase. (c) The fox
    population would decrease. (d) The rabbit
    population would decrease.

37
The diagram below shows a food web for a
community.
  • Which organisms in the diagram are carnivores?
  • A. rabbits and birds B. carrots and grasses
    C. grasshoppers and miceD. foxes and owls
  • Short Response Explain this statement The
    energy for all the organisms in this food web can
    be traced back to the Sun.

38
  • One type of organism in this web that represents
    a producer is (A) rabbits (B) grasses (C)
    trout (D) snakes
  • Which organisms obtain energy for growth and
    development directly from the Sun? (A)
    caterpillars (B) hawks (C) frogs (D) bean
    plants
  • According to this food web, which organisms are
    herbivores? (A) caterpillars (B) foxes (C)
    hawks (D) snakes
  • Which organism correctly completes the food web
    at A? (A) horses (B) mice (C) bacteria (D)
    trees

39
  • What does the x axis tell us?
  • What does the y axis tell us?
  • Which animal is the consumer 1?
  • Why did the coyote population increase in 2003
    2004?
  • Short ResponseWhat does this data tell us about
    coyotes and rabbits
  • in the food chain?

40
The table below shows the deer population in
Arizona for a 30-year period.
  • What is the most likely reason that the deer
    population decreased from 1920 to 1935?
  • A. There was less air pollution.B. More water
    was available.C. Fewer hunting licenses were
    issued.D. There was increased competition for
    food.

41
complete this warm-up
  • Coyote
  • Deer Fox
  • Rabbit
  • Turkey Vulture
  • Grass Clover
  • What is the D/S?
  • What are the Producers?
  • How many C2s are there?
  • If the deer population decreased, what would
    happen to the Grass population?
  • If the deer population decreased, what would
    happen to the coyote population?

42
  • Identify one consumer shown in this ecosystem.
  • What is the primary source of energy for this
    ecosystem?

43
Food Webs
  • Base your answers to the following questions on
    the diagram below, which shows a partial food
    web.
  • How many organisms in this food web feed on the
    mice?
  • (A) 5
  • (B) 2
  • (C) 3
  • (D) 4
  • Which group of organisms is missing from this
    food web?
  • (A) carnivores
  • (B) herbivores
  • (C) omnivores
  • (D) decomposers

44
  • Which three organisms in the food web are
    competing for the same food resource?(A)
    carrot, rabbit, and fox (B) grain, bird, and owl
    (C) fox, owl, and rabbit (D) bird, mouse, and
    grasshopper

45
  • 1. What is the main source of energy for these
    ecosystems?
  • 2. Identify a consumer in these ecosystems.
  • 3. Which organism has the most energy?

46
Interactions between Organisms
  • 7 MC
  • 1 SR

47
  • The term for the close relationship between two
    species is called a.
  • (A) Mutalism
  • (B) Parasitism
  • (C) Commensalism
  • (D) Symbiosis
  • The term for one organism living on or inside
    another and harming it is called a.
  • (A) Mutalism
  • (B) Parasitism
  • (C) Commensalism
  • (D) Symbiosis
  • The term for both organisms gaining benefit in a
    close relationship is called
  • (A) Mutalism
  • (B) Parasitism
  • (C) Commensalism
  • (D) Symbiosis

48
  • What level of ecosystem is at the top of the
    energy pyramid ?
  • (A) Producer
  • (B) Consumer 1
  • (C) Consumer 2
  • 2. The term for one organism living on or
    inside another and harming it is called a.
  • (A) Mutalism
  • (B) Parasitism
  • (C) Commensalism
  • (D) Symbiosis
  • 3. Many populations living together at one time
    is called a.
  • (A) Community
  • (B) Ecosystem

49
  • Which organism is most likely a parasite?
  • (A) Deer
  • (B) Rabbit
  • (C) Tick
  • (D) Oak Tree
  • My dog is cute is cute, cuddly and provides a
    friendship for me. I give my dog food, water and
    a home to live in. What kind of relationship do
    we have?
  • (A) Mutalism
  • (B) Parasitism
  • (C) Commensalism
  • (D) Symbiosis
  • A remora fish attaches itself to the underside of
    a shark without harming the shark, and eats left
    over bits of food from the sharks meals. What
    type of relationship do they have?
  • (A) Mutalism
  • (B) Parasitism
  • (C) Commensalism
  • (D) Symbiosis

50
Photosynthesis
  • 9 MC
  • 1 SR

51
Write Ingredients, Products or Both for
each part of the photosynthesis equation.
  • 1. Carbon Dioxide
  • 2. Green plants
  • 3. Oxygen

52
  • Grasses, shrubs, and trees are called producers
    because they make
  • A. water B. carbon dioxide C. mineralsD. food
  • All living organisms are dependent on plants
    because plants
  • A. produce carbon dioxideB. remove oxygen
    from the airC. are producersD. are consumers

53
  • What do all organisms need to survive? (A)
    energy (B) blood (C) carbon dioxide (D) soil
  • Which observation of a plant supports the
    inference that photosynthesis can take place?
  • (A) a strong, sweet smell(B) a dry, rough
    texture(C) a green color(D) a smooth stem
  • Short Response Why is the release of oxygen
    during photosynthesis for important for the
    ecosystem?

54
WATERSHEDS AND WETLANDS UNIT
  • 44 MC
  • 5 SR

55
Watersheds
  • 3 MC
  • 1 SR

56
  • Oceans, glaciers, lakes, and rivers are part of
    Earths (A) atmosphere (B) hemisphere (C)
    hydrosphere (D) lithosphere
  • Which is FALSE about watersheds?
  • (A) they are areas of land with rivers
    and streams
  • (B) they have many tributaries
  • (C) the Chesapeake Bay is a watershed
  • (D) All the water flows into the smallest
    tributary
  • Which is NOT a watershed in PA?
  • (A) Ohio
  • (B) New Jersey
  • (C) Potomac
  • (D) Delaware
  • Short Response Why is it important that we know
    where the water flows after it pours out of the
    Oil Creek?

57
Lotic Waters
  • 8 MC
  • 1 SR

58
  • 1What is the term for bends in a stream or river?
  • (A) Rapids
  • (B) Meanders
  • (C) Pools
  • (D) Lotic
  • 2. What is the term for narrow, rocky, fast
    water?
  • (A) Rapids
  • (B) Meanders
  • (C) Pools
  • (D) Lotic
  • \3. What is the term for water that is moving
    such as a river or stream?
  • (A) Rapids
  • (B) Meanders
  • (C) Pools
  • (D) Lotic
  • 4. What is the term for deep, wide and slow
    moving water?

59
  • Oil Creek is the first stream that connects into
    my other streams. What stream order is Oil
    Creek?
  • (A) 1st
  • (B) 2nd
  • (C) 3rd
  • Turtle Creek is 2nd order stream. Swan Creek is
    also a 2nd order stream. Both streams come
    together and form Turtleswan Creek. What stream
    order is Turtleswan Creek
  • (A) 2nd
  • (B) 3rd
  • (C) 4th
  • Sunfish Creek is a 2nd order stream. It
    meets up with Trout Creek which is a 1st order
    stream. Sunfish Creek then continues after the
    intersection point. Sunfish creek after the
    intersection point would be considered under
    which stream order?
  • (A) 2nd
  • (B) 3rd
  • (C) 4th

60
Stream Order1st, 2nd, 3rd
  • C
  • A
  • B

61
Warm-up
  • Short Response The Fall section found average
    speed for rapids. Their average time for the
    class was 2 seconds. If the distance measured
    was 1 meter, how do you find velocity and what is
    the velocity?
  • Velocity Distance meter
  • --------------
    -----------
  • Time seconds

62
Lentic Waters
  • 12 MC
  • 1 SR

63
  • Which is NOT a type of wetland ?
  • A. Hidden Pond
  • B. Oxbow Lake
  • C. Atlantic Ocean
  • Non-moving water is
  • A. Lentic
  • B. Lotic
  • Which IS a characteristic of a LENTIC habitat?
  • A. Rocky bottom
  • B. Cooler water
  • C. Less plants
  • D. More food
  • Which is NOT a zone of a pond?
  • A. Littoral
  • B. Profundal
  • C. Longitudinal
  • D. Limnetic

64
  • 1. Lakes ponds are examples of what type of
    water habitat?
  • Lentic or Lotic
  • 2. What has more oxygen in the water? Lentic
    or Lotic
  • 3. Which zone of a pond is the shallow water area
    that has lots of plants? Littoral
    Limnetic Profundal

65
Pond Zones
Littoral Limnetic Profundal
  • 1
  • 3
  • 2

66
Label A, B, and C as a 1st, 2nd, 3rd order
stream
C
A
Current?
B
67
Pond Zones
5. LITTORAL ZONE
4. LIMNETIC ZONE
6. PROFUNDAL ZONE
68
  • 1. How many times a year does pond overturn?
  • A. 1
  • B. 2
  • C. 3
  • D. 4
  • 2. When does the pond overturn?
  • A. Spring and Summer
  • B. Winter and Spring
  • C. Spring and Fall
  • D. Winter and Fall
  • 3. What causes the pond to overturn?
  • A. Precipitation
  • B. Oxygen content
  • C. Temperature changes
  • D. Carbon dioxide

69
Light, Oxygen, Current
  • Match the word to the following statements.
  • 1. This abiotic factor helps determine bottom
    composition and temperature
  • 2. This abiotic factor is taken in by animals
    for respiration.
  • 3. This abiotic factor is an ingredient for
    photosynthesis and helps animals see where they
    are going

70
(No Transcript)
71
  • 1. Pond overturn occurs how many times a year?
  • 2. Which abiotic factor protects against pH
    change?
  • 3. Which abiotic factor is dirt or sediment in
    the water?
  • 4. Which piece of equipment am I holding

72
Producer and Consumer Identification
  • 10 MC
  • 0 SR

73
  • Living things are classified as producers or
    consumers according to
  • A. their speed of movement B. the size of their
    communities C. how they obtain food D. how they
    reproduce

74
Duckweed, Parrot-feather and Bulrush
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. What is the green pigment in
    photosynthesis? (it is an ingredient )
  • 5. Which zone of producers has autumn olive and
    pine trees?

75
1
76
2
77
3
78
4
79
Dorsal Caudal Tail Pelvic Pectoral
80
Wetlands
  • 6 MC
  • 1 SR

81
Swamp, Marsh or Bog?
  • This wetland has many oak trees and brush.
  • This wetland has many grasses and has a high
    and low tide.
  • This wetland has peat, sphagnum moss and acidic
    water.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ------

82
Swamp, Marsh or Bog?

83

84
Short Response What is the main difference
between these wetlands?
85
Water Quality
  • 5 MC
  • 1 SR

86
Take out Macroinvertebrate Feeding Frenzy
  • Grazers and shredders eat algea, needles and
    leaves. They would be considered
  • A. Primary Consumers
  • B. Secondary Consumers
  • C. Scavengers
  • A species of algae lives on hydra. Because of
    this the algae has a safe place to live. The
    hydra receives food and oxygen from the alga.
    What type of relationship is this?
  • A. Parasitism
  • B. Commensalism
  • C. Mutalism
  • Diving Beetles, Water striders and dragonfly
    nymphs are Predacious. They would be
    considered
  • A. Primary Consumer
  • B. Secondary Consumer
  • C. Scavenger

87
  • 1. Turtle Creek has a water quality index of 31.
    Snail Creek has a water quality index of 17.
    Which creek is cleaner?
  • 2. Sunbury Creek is beside a city. Penn creek is
    primary in a forest. Which creek would be
    cleaner?
  • 3. Short Response Hanover Creek has
    salamanders, fish, stonefly nymphs, dragonfly
    nymphs and damselfly nymphs (all class 2 or 3
    organisms). Would this stream be polluted,
    slightly polluted, or clean? Give reasoning for
    your answer.

88
BIODIVERSITY UNIT
  • 53 MC
  • 10 SR

89
Ecological Succession
  • 7 MC
  • 1 SR

90
  • A brand new ecosystem forms. This would be an
    example of primary or secondary succession?
  • What is one likely cause of secondary succession?
  • What is the name of the first species to inhabit
    a new ecosystem?
  • Which order of succession of natural communities
    would most likely occur in Pennsylvania?
  • grasses ? trees ? bushes
  • trees ? bushes ? grasses
  • bushes ? grasses ? trees
  • D. grasses ? bushes ? trees

91
  • The diagrams below show changes in a natural
    community over a period of 200 years.
  • Which process is illustrated in the diagrams?
  • A. ozone depletion B. global warmingC.
    recycling resourcesD. ecological succession
  • Short Response Natural forest fires are not
    always bad. Explain why a forest fire could
    benefit an ecosystem.

92

The diagrams below show the plant communities
present in the same area at different times over
a 200-year period following a forest fire.
  • What is the correct sequence of these plant
    communities following the forest fire? (1) B ?
    A ? D ? C (2) B ? C ? D ? A (3) B ? D ? C ? A
    (4) B ? A ? C ? D
  • What type of succession is called by a forest
    fire?
  • (1) Primary
  • (2) Secondary
  • (3) Climax

93
  • Which situation is the best example of ecological
    succession?
  • (A) An organism survives a difficult winter.(B)
    The populations in an area remain the same.(C)
    One species replaces another species in an
    ecosystem.(D) Each of several species uses the
    same amount of resources.

94
Adaptations
  • 18 MC
  • 5 SR

95
Warm-up Can you find the frog?
  • What is the adaptation the frog is using?
  • This is an example of which adaptation purpose?
  • This frog lives in a warm, rainy biome with a
    lot of trees. In which biome does this frog
    live?

Picture taken at the National Aquarium in
Baltimore
96
Adaptation?
Picture taken at the National Aquarium in
Baltimore
  • What is the adaptation purpose?

97
  • Feathers, wings, and the hollow bones of birds
    are examples of
  • A. adaptations for flightB. responses to
    stimuliC. unnecessary body partsD. reproductive
    structures
  • Beaver dams can cause floods. This statement
    shows how (A) animal growth is affected by
    environmental conditions (B) animal behavior may
    affect the environment (C) an animals health
    depends on its environment (D) an animals
    development depends on its environment

98
  • The fur of a snowshoe rabbit changes to white
    during the winter. This change is an example of
    (A) adaptation (B) competition (C)
    metamorphosis (D) metabolism
  • Some kinds of fish live most of their lives in
    salt water but lay their eggs in freshwater.
    Their ability to survive in different
    environments is an example of
  • (A) adaptation
  • (B) developmental stages
  • (C) a habit
  • (D) selective breeding
  • Young frogs do not resemble adult frogs. Which
    term is given to this pattern of development in
    frogs? (A) asexual reproduction (B) cloning
    (C) metamorphosis (D) biological adaptation

99
  • The eyes of the owl and the rabbit shown in the
    diagram below give each animal a different
    advantage. The front-facing owl eyes allow the
    bird to accurately judge distance when swooping
    in on prey. The side-facing rabbit eyes allow the
    animal to detect the motion of possible
    predators.
  • 1. The specialized eye types of these animals
    are examples of(A) disruptions of the natural
    balance(B) the interdependence of living
    things(C) adaptations for survival under certain
    conditions(D) involuntary responses to stimuli
  • 2. An animal with front eyes would NOT be located
    .
  • In a forest
  • In an open field
  • In the Mojave dessert
  • Underground

100
  • Bird B is correctly identified as (A) a
    cormorant (B) a duck (C) an eagle (D) a jacana
  • What is a common feature of both the eagle and
    the kingfisher? (A) claws large (B) claws
    curved (C) three toes webbed together (D) four
    toes webbed together

101
  • The diagram below shows two different-colored
    moths resting on a tree trunk.
  • Short Response How does this difference in
    pattern and color affect the moths' ability to
    survive in the environment?

102
  • Base your answers to the following questions on
    the diagrams below, which show a system in a
    human and a system in a plant. Select one
    structure labeled in the human system above and
    explain how it contributes to the way the human
    system functions.
  • Short Response Human Structure and explanation
    of how it contributes
  • Short Response Plant Structure and explanation
    of how it contributes   

103
  • Base your answers to the following questions on
    the information below and on your knowledge of
    science. Maintaining a constant body
    temperature, no matter what the temperature of
    its surroundings, is a condition that needs to be
    balanced in many organisms. This ability is
    important to the organisms survival. These
    organisms have many different body structures and
    behaviors that help maintain a constant body
    temperature. Short Response Foxes living in
    different parts of the world have different-sized
    ears. The arctic fox, which lives in cold
    climates, has small ears. The desert fox, which
    lives in hot climates, has large ears. How does
    ear size help each of these foxes to maintain a
    constant body temperature?

104
  • Walleye caught in spring 2007-2008 at Pymatuning
    state park
  • Number collected 798 Size range13-28 in.
  • Which biome do walleye live in?
  • Which year were more walleye caught in the 18
    inch size group?
  • As a generalization, did walleye get bigger or
    smaller in 2008?
  • Short Response Walleye are dark on the top side
    and lighter on the bottom? Why?

105
  • What is the role of an organism in an ecosystem?
    (the way it finds food, water shelter and space)
  • A. Niche
  • B. Adaptation
  • What is another name for an animal with a
    backbone
  • A. Vertebrae
  • B. Vertebrate
  • What is the struggle between two individuals for
    a resource?
  • A. Natural Selection
  • B. Competition

106
Ecological Niches
107
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108
Life Cycles
  • 11 MC
  • 1 SR

109
  • The above process is called
  • (A) natural selection (B) mutation (C)
    metamorphosis (D) photosynthesis
  • An immature stage that looks different than an
    adult is a.
  • (A) Nymph
  • (B) Larva
  • (C) Pupa
  • An immature stage that does look like an adult
    without wings is a
  • (A) Nymph
  • (B) Larva
  • (C) Pupa

110
  • Short Response Describe one difference in the
    pattern of development of the grasshopper and the
    pattern of development of the butterfly shown in
    the diagrams.

111
Base your answer to the question on the diagram
below and on your knowledge of science.The
diagram shows the life cycle of the common
housefly.
  • Which process is shown by this diagram?
  • A. competition B. metabolism C.
    metamorphosisD. migration
  • A life cycle is best described as the
  • A. series of changes in the development
    of an organismB. movement of an organism from
    place to placeC. ability of an organism to adapt
    to its environmentD. flow of energy through an
    organism's community

112
  • The diagram below shows changes that a butterfly
    undergoes as it develops from an egg into an
    adult.
  • What stage is the larva stage?
  • What stage is the pupa
  • stage?

B
A
113
  • The diagram below shows the development of a
    certain type of insect.
  • 1. Almost all animals have which two stages of
    life cycles?
  • 2. Which stage here is the dormant or resting
    stage?

114
  • The diagram below shows how a frog develops. A
    fertilized egg hatches into a tadpole with gills.
    The tadpole develops legs and lungs and becomes
    an adult frog.
  • What is the term for this series of changes
    during the life cycle of the frog?(A)
    fertilization (B) reproduction (C) mutation(D)
    metamorphosis
  • Which animal would have a similar life cycle?
  • Lion
  • Deer
  • Worm
  • Salamander

115
Natural Selection
  • 11 MC
  • 2 SR

116
  • 1. True/False Two organisms in
    competitionoccupying the same niche
  • Owls live in trees, eat mice in the forest and
    feed late at night
  • Snakes live on the ground eat mice in fields and
    feed late at night
  • 2. Do these two organisms occupy the same niche?
  • 3. Which event is the best example of competition
    between species in a pond environment?A.
    dragonflies landing on lily padsB. frogs and
    toads eating fliesC. lizards and snakes lying in
    the sunD. hawks eating mice

117
  • If a species is no longer able to reproduce, it
    will (A) adapt to its environment (B) become
    immune to disease (C) become extinct (D)
    increase its population
  • The effects of natural selection are generally
    seen most quickly in which organisms? (A)
    bacteria (B) corn plants (C) humans (D) cats

118
  • The diagram below shows the head structure of
    four different birds.
  • The birds beaks show how the birds
  • A. compete for the same food in their community
    B. require different amounts of food for
    survival C. store food for the winter months D.
    are adapted to get food from different sources
  • Do these birds occupy the same niche?

119
  • The drawing below shows a woodpecker using its
    long, sharp beak to obtain insects.
  • 1. What factor might contribute to the extinction
    of this species of woodpecker? (A) a new source
    of food (B) an overabundance of trees (C) the
    use of pesticides in the forest (D) an increase
    in the population of insects
  • 2. Another animals that lives in trees and eats
    the same food as the woodpecker at the same
    place. Are they occupying the same niche?
  • 3. IN the above question, are they in
    competition?

120
  • Manatees are mammals that live in the warm, clear
    water environment of Floridas shallow rivers.
    They are large, peaceful, gentle, curious
    creatures and slow-moving swimmers. They spend
    many hours each day feeding on water plants.
    Manatees must surface to breathe every 15
    minutes.
  • The manatees environment is changing because of
    hotels and homes being built along Floridas
    rivers, and the change is affecting them in a
    negative way. Noise and activity from people and
    boats scare them. Manatees can be seriously
    injured by powerboat propellers because the
    manatees cannot tell the direction from which the
    boats are coming. The water plants the manatees
    use for food are being destroyed. As a result of
    these and other changes in their surroundings,
    manatees are on the endangered species list and
    may one day be gone from Floridas rivers.
  • Short Response List two environmental conditions
    that might lead to the disappearance of manatees
    from Floridas rivers.
  • Short Response Why is the manatee classified as
    an herbivore?
  • Identify one external feature of the manatee that
    allows it to live in water.

121
Genes and Endangered Species
  • 6 MC
  • 1 SR

122
Write your answers in the short response section
  • What is the difference between threatened and
    endangered?
  • What is the difference between keystone species
    and exotic species?

123
  • Which area is more gentically diverse Hanover
    Pond with 10 species of salamanders or Spring
    Pond with 2 species of salmanders?
  • Which animal is more likely to go extinct A
    sewer rat or a Bengal tiger?
  • What is the 1 reason for extinction?
  • Which process gives rise to a variety of traits
    within a species? (1) sexual reproduction (2)
    dynamic equilibrium (3) cellular respiration
    (4) internal regulation

124
  • Which is more likely to be a threatened species?
  • (A) Blue Salamander (350 individuals)
  • (B) Green Salamander (8000 individuals)
  • (C) Red Salamander (50 individuals)
  • Which group is most diverse
  • (A) Apples
  • (B) Kiwi fruit
  • (C) Wild red raspberries
  • Short response A recent hurricane on a remote
    island wiped out an entire population of seagulls
    except for 10 individuals. What will happen to
    the population? If a new population of seagulls
    with different adaptations fly in, what will
    happen to the old seagull population?

125
NATURAL RESOURCES UNIT
  • 26 MC
  • 2 SR

126
Natural Resources
  • Renewable and Non-Renewable
  • 10 MC
  • 2 SR

127
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128
  • Identify one activity in the diagram that
    requires the use of fossil fuels.
  • Identify one renewable resource shown in the
    diagram.
  • An energy transformation occurs when one form of
    energy is changed to another. Fill in the spaces
    below to describe an energy transformation that
    occurs as the children play baseball. 1
    ________________________________ is changed to
    ___________________________
  • What is the original source of energy for all
    these activities?

129
  • Which energy source is renewable? (A) oil (B)
    solar (C) coal (D) natural gas
  • Which energy source is considered a nonrenewable
    resource? (A) solar (B)wind (C) moving water
    (D)fossil fuel
  • Moving water in a river is considered a renewable
    resource because it
  • A. carries dissolved oxygenB. easily erodes
    sedimentsC. is made of natural gasD. can be
    recycled by nature over time

130
  • Which energy resource is renewable?
  • (A) fuel oil
  • (B ) natural gas
  • (C) wind
  • (D) coal

131

132
  • The pie chart below compares the amounts of
    energy from different sources used in the United
    States each year.
  • Which two energy sources together provide more
    than 50 of the energy needs of the United
    States? (1) nuclear and natural gas (2)
    hydropower and oil (3) oil and coal (4) natural
    gas and coal

133
  • The diagram shows the steps necessary to produce
    the energy needed to run a hair dryer.
  • As it moves from location A to location D in the
    diagram, the energy stored in the coal (1) is
    converted to solar energy (2) reduces the
    friction in the hair dryer (3) is recycled (4)
    is transformed

134
  • The usage of electricity in the United States has
    increased dramatically over the past 20 years.
    Most of this electricity is currently produced by
    burning fossil fuels. a State one reason for
    this increased usage of electricity. b Describe
    a strategy to reduce the amount of fossil fuels
    people use in the United States.

135
Natural Resources
  • Wildlife Management

136
Natural Resources
  • Populations
  • 7 MC

137
Warm-up
  • Ten (10) bird boxes for bluebirds are placed
    around Codorus State Park. We know both the
    mother and father bluebird stay in each bird box
    with their young. The average young for each
    group of parents is 2 bluebirds.
  • 1. What method of observing wildlife would we use
    to find the number of bluebirds?
  • (Direct, Indirect, Random Sampling or Mark and
    Recapture?)
  • 2. What is the estimate of TOTAL bluebirds at
    Codorus State Park? (Show your work)

138
Below is a graph representing a population of
field daisies. Each x represents one field
daisy
WARM -UP
  • 1. If you count every daisy in the field, you
    are using which method of counting populations?
  • 2. How many daisies are in A2?
  • 3. Using just the amount of daisies in square
    A2, what is the estimated daisy count for all 16
    squares?
  • 4. How many daisies are in the field total?
  • 5. What is the advantage of taking many samples
    of a population?

A B C D
1 x x x x x x x x x
2 x x x x x x x
3 X x x x x x
4 x x X X x
139
Natural Resources
  • Population Dynamics
  • 9 MC

140
  • 1. Which animal is the primary consumer?
  • 2. In what year was the rabbit population
    highest?
  • 3. What is the carrying capacity of the coyotes?
  • 4. What population curve is represented by the
    coyote population in 2003-2004?

141
Warm-up
  • 1. A foxs den is an example of which cover?
  • A. Escape
  • B. Home
  • C. Bridge
  • 2. A sharp decrease in a population is
  • A. Explosion
  • B. Crash
  • C. Worthy to be considered for WM practices
  • D. Both B and C
  • 3. Pine trees are an example of which cover
  • A. Food
  • B. Protection
  • C. Home
  • 4. Which is a limiting (reducing) factor
  • A. Disease
  • B. Immigration

142
  • 1. Arrow A represents what type of curve?
  • 2. Arrow B represents what type of curve?
  • 3. What do we call Line C?
  • 4. True/False
  • The yellow line will likely increase, then
    decrease and increase again.

Line C
B
A
Word Box Crash Curve
Overpopulation Normal Curve Explosion Curve
Carrying Capacity
B
143
BAY UNIT
  • 46 MC
  • 2 SR

144
Chesapeake Bay
  • Geography and Economics
  • 3 MC

145
3-2-1
  • 3 What are three states in the Chesapeake Bay
    watershed?
  • 2 What are two rivers in Virginia?
  • 1 - Name one problem that occurs from nutrient
    pollution.

146
Soil and Erosion
  • 1 MC

147
  • The diagrams below show a natural process that
    weathers rock.
  • Which statement best explains why this process
    results in weathering? (1) Frozen water acts as
    a solute. (2) Water expands when it freezes.
    (3) The mass of water increases when it freezes.
    (4) Frozen water dissolves most types of rocks.

148
Water Pollution
  • 23 MC

149
3-2-1 Exit
  • 3 things that can cause erosion
  • 2 ways we use the Codorus Creek
  • 1 difference between topsoil and subsoil

150
3 facts and a fibPick out the fib.(incorrect
statement). Write the letter on your whiteboard.
  • A. Sediment is a form of water pollution
  • B. Nutrient pollution comes from nitrogen and
    phosphorus
  • C. Non-Point pollution comes from one specific
    area or point
  • D. Pesticides are a type of chemical pollution

151
Warm-up
  • 1. List 3 main fossil fuels
  • 2. Sewage treatment plants
  • A. Point Pollution
  • B. Non-Point Pollution
  • C. Both
  • 3. Acid Rain
  • A. Point Pollution
  • B. Non-Point Pollution
  • C. Both
  • 4. The bays major problem is
  • A. Meanders
  • B. Run-off
  • C. Water is too acidic for plant life
  • 5. Name two of the substances found in
    fertilizers that farmers use and create problems
    for the bay.
  • A. Nitrogen and Oxygen
  • B. Nitrogen and Hydrogen
  • C. Nitrogen and Phosphorus

152
Nutrient Sediment Chemical
  • 1. Source Pesticides
  • 2. Problem Algae bloom
  • 3. Source Fertilizer (Scat !)
  • 4. Problem Blocks sunlight and covers organisms
  • 5. Source Oil
  • 6. Problem Affects reproduction in large
    animals
  • 7. Source Dirt

153
How does water go from Southwestern to the
Chesapeake Bay?
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. Chesapeake Bay

154
  • The diagram below shows some ways in which
    groundwater can be affected by humans.
  • 1. Which statement is best supported by the
    diagram? (A) Chemicals applied by farmers lower
    the level of pollution in drinking water. (B)
    Drinking water can become polluted from
    unsuspected sources. (C) Human activities do not
    affect groundwater. (D) Toxic waste is safe if
    buried below the level of the basements of nearby
    homes.
  • 2. What type of water pollution is the farmer
    creating in this picture ?
  • 3. What problems could this pollution create?

155
Three Facts and a FibWrite the of the fib out
of the four statements below.
  • 1. The Susquehanna River dumps 50 of the water
    into the Chesapeake Bay
  • 2. The Rappahannock and James are two rivers in
    the Chesapeake Bay watershed.
  • 3. Maryland and New Jersey are states in the
    Chesapeake Bay watershed
  • 4. Plankton are microscopic drifters in the
    Chesapeake Bay

156
  • 1. The York River is in Virginia.
  • 2. The Potomac River runs through Washington
    D.C.
  • 3. The James River is the most southern river in
    the Bay watershed.
  • 4. The Patuxent River runs through PA.

157
  • 1. Sediment is the only type of water pollution.
  • 2. Baltimore is a major economic center for the
    Bay.
  • 3. Crabs and Rockfish are two resources in the
    Bay.
  • 4. The Codorus Creek runs into the Susquehanna
    River

158
3. MD
1PA.
  • 2.W. VA

4. DE
159
Air Pollution
  • 6 MC

160
Acid Rain RadonCarbon Monoxide Smog
  • 1. Caused by car exhaust and combines with water
    droplets to form a brown dust cloud
  • 2. Hazardous gas that comes from the ground.
    Long-term exposure can have negative effects on
    the body.
  • 3. Factory smoke combines with precipitation.
    When it falls it drops the pH of the water.
  • 4. Comes from exhaust and burning fuel. Very
    harmful and fatal if large amounts of these are
    in your house.

161
  • City administrators can encourage energy
    conservation by (1) lowering parking fees (2)
    building larger parking lots (3) decreasing the
    cost of gasoline (4) lowering the cost of bus
    and subway fares

162
Read the story below and answer the questions
  • A pipe broke at the Emory Factory releasing a
    large amount of oil into the Codorus Creek.
    Scientists were able to trace the oil back to
    this specific location.
  • 1. What kind of pollution is this?
  • A. Sediment
  • B. Nutrient
  • C. Chemical
  • 2. Is this point or non-point?
  • A. Point
  • B. NonPoint
  • 3. What kind of air pollution may a factory
    create?
  • A. Acid Rain
  • B. Radon
  • C. Smog

163
  • Which graph best represents the relationship
    between the amount of pollutants in the air and
    the quality of the air?

164
Global Issues
  • Greenhouse Effect, Global Warming
  • 5 MC
  • 2 SR

165
Warm-up
  • 1. The ozone layer protects us from
  • A. Smog
  • B. Infrared Radiation
  • C. Ultraviolet radiation
  • 2. Which statement is FALSE
  • A. CFCs contribute to the ozone hole
  • B. New laws ban the use of CFCs
  • C. The ozone hole is not getting any bigger
  • 3. In one or two sentences, how does carbon
    dioxide affect the greenhouse effect and the
    theory of global warming?

166
  • Base your answers to the following questions on
    the graph below, which shows average yearly
    temperatures for Earth from 1900 to 1990.
  • Describe what happened to the average yearly
    temperature on Earth from 1970 to 1990. Give one
    possible reason why this change occurred.
  • What was the lowest average yearly temperature in
    the period of time shown?
  • In which 10-year time interval did the average
    yearly temperature show both an increase and a
    decrease? 1       19151925       19251935  
        19451955       19751985

167
  • Which factor contributes to global warming? (1)
    increased use of solar-powered cars (2)
    increased burning of fossil fuels (3) better
    long-term weather forecasts (4) changing
    distance between Earth and the Sun

168
Waste Disposal and Recycling
  • 3 MC

169
Waste
  • 1. What are the 3 methods of waste disposal?
  • 2. Name 2 materials other than paper and plastic
    that can be recycled
  • 1. Name the 1 non-hazardous waste out of the
    following group
  • Nitroglycerin , Sour Milk, Hydrochloric acid,
    Blood,

170
Agriculture
  • 6 MC

171
  • 1. With a partner, draw TWO best management
    practices without writing down the answer. Label
    them 1 and 2.
  • After 5 minutes you will switch with another
    group.
  • (USE 6 Soil and Nutrient Run-off Conservation
    Practices to help you !!!!!)

172
1
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour Plowing
173
2
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour
Plowing
174
3
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour
Plowing
175
4
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour
Plowing
176
5
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour
Plowing
177
Integrated Pest Management
  • IPM
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Title: 7th Grade Science Opening Questions


1
7th Grade Science Opening Questions
2
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  • 23 mutliple choice
  • 2 short response

3
  • The items listed below were found in a science
    classroom. a heart made of plastic with many
    of its parts labeled clay formed to look like
    Earth and other planets a giant plastic plant
    cell with removable cell parts
  • 1. These items are all examples of (A) models
    (B) experiments (C) variables (D) controls
  • 2. Mr. Grindle placed all of the plastic items
    together. What technique is he using?
  • (A) Modeling
  • (B) Inferencing
  • (C) Classifying
  • (D) Predicting
  • 3. The Fire alarm rings, at the same time Mr.
    Grindle then thinks that everybody will get up
    quietly and line up at the door. What technique
    is he using?
  • (A) Modeling
  • (B) Inferencing
  • (C) Classifying
  • (D) Predicting

4
Question Hypothesis Design
experiment Analyze the data Conclusion
  • Use the word box to match the term with the
    example
  • 1. How does wind speed affect the distance of a
    football throw?
  • 2. Based on the evidence, wind speed does affect
    the distance a football is thrown.
  • 3. If there are 20 mph winds, then a football
    will travel less distance.

5
  • Base your answers to the following questions on
    the graph below. The graph shows the results of
    an experiment that tested the effect of time on
    the growth of a plant. A student measured the
    height of several plants for ten weeks and
    determined the average height. The results are
    shown in the graph below.
  • What is the y axis label?
  • Identify one variable that should be held
    constant during this experiment.
  • According to the graph, what will the average
    height of the plants be at week 11 if growth
    continues at the same rate as in weeks 8 through
    10? _____________ cm

6
  • A student set up the experiment below to learn
    about plant growth. The student added a different
    amount of water to four identical containers,
    each containing four seeds in 100 cubic
    centimeters of soil. All of the containers were
    placed in the same sunny location.
  • 1. State the manipulating variable being tested
    in this experiment.
  • 2. State the responding variable that is being
    held constant in this experiment.
  • Short Response Name a constant in the
    experiment and explain why it needs to be the
    same (constant) throughout the experiment.

7
  • A student goes skateboarding a few times a week.
    The student notices that she can go faster while
    skating on some level surfaces than on others.
    She hypothesizes that speed has something to do
    with the surface she is skating on. The student
    wants to design an experiment to test this
    hypothesis.
  • Identify the independent (manipulated) variable
    in the experiment.
  • Identify the dependent (responding) variable in
    the experiment.
  • Short Response Identify two factors that will
    need to be held constant in the experiment.

8
Controls Variables Warm-up
  • Problem How do Power-aid, Gatorade and Vitamin
    Water affect running times
  • Experimental design Each person will run 10
    yards after drinking each liquid. Each person
    will be timed for how fast he/she runs.
  • (Hint Look at the problem. Which variable
    affects which?)
  • 1. Manipulating (Independent) variable?
  • 2. Responding (Dependent) variable?
  • 3.Control ?

9
Problem How does music affect test accuracy?
  • Experimental Design Subjects will take a 25
    question test while listening to rock, hip-hop
    and classical music. Each subject will be scored
    on number correct.
  • Manipulating variable ?
  • Responding variable ?
  • Control ?
  • Constants ?

10
  •          Some species of bacteria are harmful.
    Antibiotics are chemicals that kill bacteria.
    Some bacteria are resistant to antibiotics and
    are not killed by these chemicals. Over time, the
    resistant bacteria can reproduce and create
    populations that are not affected by antibiotics.
    The graphs below show the results of a controlled
    experiment that measured the population of one
    species of bacteria that had been grown in four
    containers under identical conditions. Different
    antibiotics were added to three of the four
    containers.
  • Which conclusion about this species of bacteria
    is best supported by the information in the
    graphs?
  • A. Antibiotic A continuously slowed the
    growth. B. Antibiotic B was
    least effective in controlling the growth.
    C. Antibiotic C was most effective
    in controlling the growth
  • D. Antibiotics A and B slowed the growth.

11
  • The graph below shows the number of known species
    in the five kingdoms of living things.
  • Based on the graph, which kingdom contains
    approximately twice as many known species as the
    Protista Kingdom?
  • A. Animalia B. PlantaeC. Fungi

12
ECOLOGY UNIT
  • 92 MC
  • 11 SR

13
Biomes
  • 8 Multiple Choice
  • 1 Short Response

14
  • The bottom layer of the forest
  • (A) Understory
  • (B) Canopy
  • (C) Floor
  • The middle layer of the forest with short
    trees..
  • (A) Understory
  • (B) Canopy
  • (C) Floor
  • The upper layer of the forest with tall trees
  • (A) Understory
  • (B) Canopy
  • (C) Floor

15
Name the Biome
  • 1. Matt lives in a biome that has cold winters
    and mild summers. This biome has large trees
    that do not lose their leaves and receives 180cm
    of rain per year.
  • 2. Amy lives in a biome that has warm
    temperatures all year round. The biome has large
    trees that do not lose their leaves and receives
    350cm of rain per year.
  • 3.Tom lives in a biome that is very dry and has
    rocky soil. There are very few trees.
    Temperatures are very hot during the day and cool
    to cold at night.

16
  • Name the Biome
  • 1. Ryan lives in a biome that has extremely cold
    winters, is windy and has only low-growing plants
  • 2. Amy lives in a biome with warm summers and
    cold winters tress shed their leaves and grow
    new ones each year.
  • 3. Heather lives in a biome with 25-75cm of rain
    per year and is populated by grasses and many
    large herbivores.
  • Which biome do we live in?

17
Biomes summarizer(Textbook pages 58-66)
  • Group 1 Figure 13 (pg 59)
  • Group 2 Figure 15 (pg 61)
  • Group 3 Lab zone activity (pg 61)
  • Group 4 Figure 17 (pg 63)
  • Group 5 Lab zone skills activity (pg 64)
  • Group 6 Figure 19 (pg 65)
  • Group 7 Figure 20 (pg 66)

18
  • Short Response What is the best biome to live
    in as a human?
  • State the biome and two reasons based on what we
    know about biomes.

19
Ecosystems
  • 8 MC
  • 2 SR

20
Just the letter (A,B,C,D) for 1-3 and remember
the short response
  • 1. Water and sunlight are..
  • (A) Abiotic
  • (B) Biotic
  • 2. Would all the different kinds of organisms
    in a forest be considered a
  • (A) Individual
  • (B) Population
  • (C) Community
  • (D) Ecosystem
  • 3. All the ABIOTIC and BIOTIC factors are
    a(n)..
  • (A) Individual
  • (B) Population
  • (C) Community
  • (D) Ecosystem
  • Short Response What does an ecologist do?

21
  • 1. Which of the four terms below includes the
    other three terms? (A) community (B) ecosystem
    (C) population (D) individual
  • 2. Different populations living in one place form
    a
  • (A) community (B) system (C) habitat(D)
    species

22
1. Write the symbol that represents a population
in this model
  • 2. Write the symbol below that shows a community
    in this model.
  • 3. What is the source of energy for this
    ecosystem?
  • 4. Write the symbol below that represents an
    ecosystem.

23
Natural Cycles
  • 15 MC
  • 2 SR

24
Use the word box to help you
Precipitation Condensation Evaporation Infiltratio
n Groundwater Surface water Transpiration Oxygen
Carbon Dioxide Run-off
  • The term for water that is soaked into the ground
    or in the roots of trees.
  • The term for pockets of water in the ground
  • The term for water that passes into the
    atmosphere from leaves of trees.

25
  • 1. Which title best describes the processes shown
    in the diagram below?
  • (A) The Rock Cycle
  • (B) The Water Cycle
  • (C) Plate Tectonics
  • (D) Chemical Changes
  • The diagram below uses letters A, B, C, and D to
    represent processes occurring in a water cycle.
  • In the chart below, identify the process that is
    occurring at each letter in the diagram. Select
    the process from the list below.
  • 2.Condensation
  • 3.Evaporation
  • 4.Precipitation
  • 5. runoff
  • Short response Explain why A
  • resembles evaporation.

26
  • What is the name of the process represented in
    this diagram that produces the oxygen? (A)
    photosynthesis (B) metamorphosis (C)
    respiration (D) fertilization

27

  • Which statement best explains the relationships
    shown? (A) Water changes over time to a
    nonrenewable resource. (B) Living things
    exchange materials with their environment. (C)
    Minerals recycle the dead materials in the
    environment. (D) Living things produce other
    living things.
  • Which process produces oxygen that is released
    into the atmosphere? (A) respiration (B)
    locomotion (C) excretion (D) photosynthesis

28
The diagram below shows a deer and green plants.
  • 1. Which statement best describes the
    relationship between the deer and the plants?
  • A. The deer supplies food and oxygen to the
    green plants. B. The deer supplies food and
    carbon dioxide to the green plants. C. The
    green plants supply food and carbon dioxide to
    the deer. D. The green plants supply food and
    oxygen to the deer.

29
  • In which process is oxygen used to release the
    energy stored in food? (A) photosynthesis (B)
    respiration (C) digestion (D) reproduction
  • When a person breathes, the lungs absorb oxygen,
    which is used by cells to carry out the process
    of (A) respiration (B) secretion (C)
    photosynthesis (D) excretion
  • Short Response Why is the nitrogen cycle
    important to plants?

30
Use the short response for this question
  • Write a statement on how oxygen, temperature and
    biotic factors are related.

31
Food Chains and Food Webs
  • 36 MC
  • 4 SR

32
  • 1. Why are the fish able to survive in the pond?
    (A) The fish use carbon dioxide produced by the
    plants. (B) The fish use oxygen produced by the
    plants. (C) The plants use oxygen produced by
    the fish. (D) The plants use chlorophyll
    produced by the fish.
  • 2. The main source of energy for this pond
    community is the (A) plants (B) Sun (C) pond
    water (D) animals

33
  • 1. In the past, Native American Indians buried
    dead fish along with corn seeds. This technique
    was used because the decomposing dead fish would
    (A) provide nutrients for the growing corn
    plant (B) eliminate the need for weeding around
    the corn plant (C) release oxygen for use by the
    corn plant (D) supply all the water needed by
    the corn plant
  • 2. As the population of small fish in a lake
    decreases, the population of large fish that
    depend on the small fish for food will (A)
    reproduce faster (B) begin to produce their own
    food (C) decrease in number (D) increase in
    number

34
  • Give an example of a carnivore, a producer, and
    an herbivore shown in this food web.
  • 1 Carnivore ________________________________
  • 2 Producer ________________________________
  • 3 Herbivore________________________________
  • Short Response How are the feeding
    relationships of the mice different from the
    feeding relationships of the other organisms in
    this food web?

35
  • If the plants die during a summer drought, the
    cricket population would most likely (A)
    decrease
  • (B) increase (C) remain the same
  • If the number of frogs increases, the snake
    population would most likely (A) decrease (B)
    increase (C) remain the same
  • Short Response State one difference between
    what food chains and energy pyramids represent
    regarding energy flow

36
  • What is the role of the foxes in this food web?
    (a) carnivore (b) decomposer (c) herbivore
    (d) producer
  • Which organisms in this food web are omnivores?
    (a) birds (b) carrots (c) grasshoppers (d)
    rabbits
  • Which statement would be true if the owl
    population disappeared? (a) The mouse
    population would increase. (b) The carrot
    population would increase. (c) The fox
    population would decrease. (d) The rabbit
    population would decrease.

37
The diagram below shows a food web for a
community.
  • Which organisms in the diagram are carnivores?
  • A. rabbits and birds B. carrots and grasses
    C. grasshoppers and miceD. foxes and owls
  • Short Response Explain this statement The
    energy for all the organisms in this food web can
    be traced back to the Sun.

38
  • One type of organism in this web that represents
    a producer is (A) rabbits (B) grasses (C)
    trout (D) snakes
  • Which organisms obtain energy for growth and
    development directly from the Sun? (A)
    caterpillars (B) hawks (C) frogs (D) bean
    plants
  • According to this food web, which organisms are
    herbivores? (A) caterpillars (B) foxes (C)
    hawks (D) snakes
  • Which organism correctly completes the food web
    at A? (A) horses (B) mice (C) bacteria (D)
    trees

39
  • What does the x axis tell us?
  • What does the y axis tell us?
  • Which animal is the consumer 1?
  • Why did the coyote population increase in 2003
    2004?
  • Short ResponseWhat does this data tell us about
    coyotes and rabbits
  • in the food chain?

40
The table below shows the deer population in
Arizona for a 30-year period.
  • What is the most likely reason that the deer
    population decreased from 1920 to 1935?
  • A. There was less air pollution.B. More water
    was available.C. Fewer hunting licenses were
    issued.D. There was increased competition for
    food.

41
complete this warm-up
  • Coyote
  • Deer Fox
  • Rabbit
  • Turkey Vulture
  • Grass Clover
  • What is the D/S?
  • What are the Producers?
  • How many C2s are there?
  • If the deer population decreased, what would
    happen to the Grass population?
  • If the deer population decreased, what would
    happen to the coyote population?

42
  • Identify one consumer shown in this ecosystem.
  • What is the primary source of energy for this
    ecosystem?

43
Food Webs
  • Base your answers to the following questions on
    the diagram below, which shows a partial food
    web.
  • How many organisms in this food web feed on the
    mice?
  • (A) 5
  • (B) 2
  • (C) 3
  • (D) 4
  • Which group of organisms is missing from this
    food web?
  • (A) carnivores
  • (B) herbivores
  • (C) omnivores
  • (D) decomposers

44
  • Which three organisms in the food web are
    competing for the same food resource?(A)
    carrot, rabbit, and fox (B) grain, bird, and owl
    (C) fox, owl, and rabbit (D) bird, mouse, and
    grasshopper

45
  • 1. What is the main source of energy for these
    ecosystems?
  • 2. Identify a consumer in these ecosystems.
  • 3. Which organism has the most energy?

46
Interactions between Organisms
  • 7 MC
  • 1 SR

47
  • The term for the close relationship between two
    species is called a.
  • (A) Mutalism
  • (B) Parasitism
  • (C) Commensalism
  • (D) Symbiosis
  • The term for one organism living on or inside
    another and harming it is called a.
  • (A) Mutalism
  • (B) Parasitism
  • (C) Commensalism
  • (D) Symbiosis
  • The term for both organisms gaining benefit in a
    close relationship is called
  • (A) Mutalism
  • (B) Parasitism
  • (C) Commensalism
  • (D) Symbiosis

48
  • What level of ecosystem is at the top of the
    energy pyramid ?
  • (A) Producer
  • (B) Consumer 1
  • (C) Consumer 2
  • 2. The term for one organism living on or
    inside another and harming it is called a.
  • (A) Mutalism
  • (B) Parasitism
  • (C) Commensalism
  • (D) Symbiosis
  • 3. Many populations living together at one time
    is called a.
  • (A) Community
  • (B) Ecosystem

49
  • Which organism is most likely a parasite?
  • (A) Deer
  • (B) Rabbit
  • (C) Tick
  • (D) Oak Tree
  • My dog is cute is cute, cuddly and provides a
    friendship for me. I give my dog food, water and
    a home to live in. What kind of relationship do
    we have?
  • (A) Mutalism
  • (B) Parasitism
  • (C) Commensalism
  • (D) Symbiosis
  • A remora fish attaches itself to the underside of
    a shark without harming the shark, and eats left
    over bits of food from the sharks meals. What
    type of relationship do they have?
  • (A) Mutalism
  • (B) Parasitism
  • (C) Commensalism
  • (D) Symbiosis

50
Photosynthesis
  • 9 MC
  • 1 SR

51
Write Ingredients, Products or Both for
each part of the photosynthesis equation.
  • 1. Carbon Dioxide
  • 2. Green plants
  • 3. Oxygen

52
  • Grasses, shrubs, and trees are called producers
    because they make
  • A. water B. carbon dioxide C. mineralsD. food
  • All living organisms are dependent on plants
    because plants
  • A. produce carbon dioxideB. remove oxygen
    from the airC. are producersD. are consumers

53
  • What do all organisms need to survive? (A)
    energy (B) blood (C) carbon dioxide (D) soil
  • Which observation of a plant supports the
    inference that photosynthesis can take place?
  • (A) a strong, sweet smell(B) a dry, rough
    texture(C) a green color(D) a smooth stem
  • Short Response Why is the release of oxygen
    during photosynthesis for important for the
    ecosystem?

54
WATERSHEDS AND WETLANDS UNIT
  • 44 MC
  • 5 SR

55
Watersheds
  • 3 MC
  • 1 SR

56
  • Oceans, glaciers, lakes, and rivers are part of
    Earths (A) atmosphere (B) hemisphere (C)
    hydrosphere (D) lithosphere
  • Which is FALSE about watersheds?
  • (A) they are areas of land with rivers
    and streams
  • (B) they have many tributaries
  • (C) the Chesapeake Bay is a watershed
  • (D) All the water flows into the smallest
    tributary
  • Which is NOT a watershed in PA?
  • (A) Ohio
  • (B) New Jersey
  • (C) Potomac
  • (D) Delaware
  • Short Response Why is it important that we know
    where the water flows after it pours out of the
    Oil Creek?

57
Lotic Waters
  • 8 MC
  • 1 SR

58
  • 1What is the term for bends in a stream or river?
  • (A) Rapids
  • (B) Meanders
  • (C) Pools
  • (D) Lotic
  • 2. What is the term for narrow, rocky, fast
    water?
  • (A) Rapids
  • (B) Meanders
  • (C) Pools
  • (D) Lotic
  • \3. What is the term for water that is moving
    such as a river or stream?
  • (A) Rapids
  • (B) Meanders
  • (C) Pools
  • (D) Lotic
  • 4. What is the term for deep, wide and slow
    moving water?

59
  • Oil Creek is the first stream that connects into
    my other streams. What stream order is Oil
    Creek?
  • (A) 1st
  • (B) 2nd
  • (C) 3rd
  • Turtle Creek is 2nd order stream. Swan Creek is
    also a 2nd order stream. Both streams come
    together and form Turtleswan Creek. What stream
    order is Turtleswan Creek
  • (A) 2nd
  • (B) 3rd
  • (C) 4th
  • Sunfish Creek is a 2nd order stream. It
    meets up with Trout Creek which is a 1st order
    stream. Sunfish Creek then continues after the
    intersection point. Sunfish creek after the
    intersection point would be considered under
    which stream order?
  • (A) 2nd
  • (B) 3rd
  • (C) 4th

60
Stream Order1st, 2nd, 3rd
  • C
  • A
  • B

61
Warm-up
  • Short Response The Fall section found average
    speed for rapids. Their average time for the
    class was 2 seconds. If the distance measured
    was 1 meter, how do you find velocity and what is
    the velocity?
  • Velocity Distance meter
  • --------------
    -----------
  • Time seconds

62
Lentic Waters
  • 12 MC
  • 1 SR

63
  • Which is NOT a type of wetland ?
  • A. Hidden Pond
  • B. Oxbow Lake
  • C. Atlantic Ocean
  • Non-moving water is
  • A. Lentic
  • B. Lotic
  • Which IS a characteristic of a LENTIC habitat?
  • A. Rocky bottom
  • B. Cooler water
  • C. Less plants
  • D. More food
  • Which is NOT a zone of a pond?
  • A. Littoral
  • B. Profundal
  • C. Longitudinal
  • D. Limnetic

64
  • 1. Lakes ponds are examples of what type of
    water habitat?
  • Lentic or Lotic
  • 2. What has more oxygen in the water? Lentic
    or Lotic
  • 3. Which zone of a pond is the shallow water area
    that has lots of plants? Littoral
    Limnetic Profundal

65
Pond Zones
Littoral Limnetic Profundal
  • 1
  • 3
  • 2

66
Label A, B, and C as a 1st, 2nd, 3rd order
stream
C
A
Current?
B
67
Pond Zones
5. LITTORAL ZONE
4. LIMNETIC ZONE
6. PROFUNDAL ZONE
68
  • 1. How many times a year does pond overturn?
  • A. 1
  • B. 2
  • C. 3
  • D. 4
  • 2. When does the pond overturn?
  • A. Spring and Summer
  • B. Winter and Spring
  • C. Spring and Fall
  • D. Winter and Fall
  • 3. What causes the pond to overturn?
  • A. Precipitation
  • B. Oxygen content
  • C. Temperature changes
  • D. Carbon dioxide

69
Light, Oxygen, Current
  • Match the word to the following statements.
  • 1. This abiotic factor helps determine bottom
    composition and temperature
  • 2. This abiotic factor is taken in by animals
    for respiration.
  • 3. This abiotic factor is an ingredient for
    photosynthesis and helps animals see where they
    are going

70
(No Transcript)
71
  • 1. Pond overturn occurs how many times a year?
  • 2. Which abiotic factor protects against pH
    change?
  • 3. Which abiotic factor is dirt or sediment in
    the water?
  • 4. Which piece of equipment am I holding

72
Producer and Consumer Identification
  • 10 MC
  • 0 SR

73
  • Living things are classified as producers or
    consumers according to
  • A. their speed of movement B. the size of their
    communities C. how they obtain food D. how they
    reproduce

74
Duckweed, Parrot-feather and Bulrush
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. What is the green pigment in
    photosynthesis? (it is an ingredient )
  • 5. Which zone of producers has autumn olive and
    pine trees?

75
1
76
2
77
3
78
4
79
Dorsal Caudal Tail Pelvic Pectoral
80
Wetlands
  • 6 MC
  • 1 SR

81
Swamp, Marsh or Bog?
  • This wetland has many oak trees and brush.
  • This wetland has many grasses and has a high
    and low tide.
  • This wetland has peat, sphagnum moss and acidic
    water.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ------

82
Swamp, Marsh or Bog?

83

84
Short Response What is the main difference
between these wetlands?
85
Water Quality
  • 5 MC
  • 1 SR

86
Take out Macroinvertebrate Feeding Frenzy
  • Grazers and shredders eat algea, needles and
    leaves. They would be considered
  • A. Primary Consumers
  • B. Secondary Consumers
  • C. Scavengers
  • A species of algae lives on hydra. Because of
    this the algae has a safe place to live. The
    hydra receives food and oxygen from the alga.
    What type of relationship is this?
  • A. Parasitism
  • B. Commensalism
  • C. Mutalism
  • Diving Beetles, Water striders and dragonfly
    nymphs are Predacious. They would be
    considered
  • A. Primary Consumer
  • B. Secondary Consumer
  • C. Scavenger

87
  • 1. Turtle Creek has a water quality index of 31.
    Snail Creek has a water quality index of 17.
    Which creek is cleaner?
  • 2. Sunbury Creek is beside a city. Penn creek is
    primary in a forest. Which creek would be
    cleaner?
  • 3. Short Response Hanover Creek has
    salamanders, fish, stonefly nymphs, dragonfly
    nymphs and damselfly nymphs (all class 2 or 3
    organisms). Would this stream be polluted,
    slightly polluted, or clean? Give reasoning for
    your answer.

88
BIODIVERSITY UNIT
  • 53 MC
  • 10 SR

89
Ecological Succession
  • 7 MC
  • 1 SR

90
  • A brand new ecosystem forms. This would be an
    example of primary or secondary succession?
  • What is one likely cause of secondary succession?
  • What is the name of the first species to inhabit
    a new ecosystem?
  • Which order of succession of natural communities
    would most likely occur in Pennsylvania?
  • grasses ? trees ? bushes
  • trees ? bushes ? grasses
  • bushes ? grasses ? trees
  • D. grasses ? bushes ? trees

91
  • The diagrams below show changes in a natural
    community over a period of 200 years.
  • Which process is illustrated in the diagrams?
  • A. ozone depletion B. global warmingC.
    recycling resourcesD. ecological succession
  • Short Response Natural forest fires are not
    always bad. Explain why a forest fire could
    benefit an ecosystem.

92

The diagrams below show the plant communities
present in the same area at different times over
a 200-year period following a forest fire.
  • What is the correct sequence of these plant
    communities following the forest fire? (1) B ?
    A ? D ? C (2) B ? C ? D ? A (3) B ? D ? C ? A
    (4) B ? A ? C ? D
  • What type of succession is called by a forest
    fire?
  • (1) Primary
  • (2) Secondary
  • (3) Climax

93
  • Which situation is the best example of ecological
    succession?
  • (A) An organism survives a difficult winter.(B)
    The populations in an area remain the same.(C)
    One species replaces another species in an
    ecosystem.(D) Each of several species uses the
    same amount of resources.

94
Adaptations
  • 18 MC
  • 5 SR

95
Warm-up Can you find the frog?
  • What is the adaptation the frog is using?
  • This is an example of which adaptation purpose?
  • This frog lives in a warm, rainy biome with a
    lot of trees. In which biome does this frog
    live?

Picture taken at the National Aquarium in
Baltimore
96
Adaptation?
Picture taken at the National Aquarium in
Baltimore
  • What is the adaptation purpose?

97
  • Feathers, wings, and the hollow bones of birds
    are examples of
  • A. adaptations for flightB. responses to
    stimuliC. unnecessary body partsD. reproductive
    structures
  • Beaver dams can cause floods. This statement
    shows how (A) animal growth is affected by
    environmental conditions (B) animal behavior may
    affect the environment (C) an animals health
    depends on its environment (D) an animals
    development depends on its environment

98
  • The fur of a snowshoe rabbit changes to white
    during the winter. This change is an example of
    (A) adaptation (B) competition (C)
    metamorphosis (D) metabolism
  • Some kinds of fish live most of their lives in
    salt water but lay their eggs in freshwater.
    Their ability to survive in different
    environments is an example of
  • (A) adaptation
  • (B) developmental stages
  • (C) a habit
  • (D) selective breeding
  • Young frogs do not resemble adult frogs. Which
    term is given to this pattern of development in
    frogs? (A) asexual reproduction (B) cloning
    (C) metamorphosis (D) biological adaptation

99
  • The eyes of the owl and the rabbit shown in the
    diagram below give each animal a different
    advantage. The front-facing owl eyes allow the
    bird to accurately judge distance when swooping
    in on prey. The side-facing rabbit eyes allow the
    animal to detect the motion of possible
    predators.
  • 1. The specialized eye types of these animals
    are examples of(A) disruptions of the natural
    balance(B) the interdependence of living
    things(C) adaptations for survival under certain
    conditions(D) involuntary responses to stimuli
  • 2. An animal with front eyes would NOT be located
    .
  • In a forest
  • In an open field
  • In the Mojave dessert
  • Underground

100
  • Bird B is correctly identified as (A) a
    cormorant (B) a duck (C) an eagle (D) a jacana
  • What is a common feature of both the eagle and
    the kingfisher? (A) claws large (B) claws
    curved (C) three toes webbed together (D) four
    toes webbed together

101
  • The diagram below shows two different-colored
    moths resting on a tree trunk.
  • Short Response How does this difference in
    pattern and color affect the moths' ability to
    survive in the environment?

102
  • Base your answers to the following questions on
    the diagrams below, which show a system in a
    human and a system in a plant. Select one
    structure labeled in the human system above and
    explain how it contributes to the way the human
    system functions.
  • Short Response Human Structure and explanation
    of how it contributes
  • Short Response Plant Structure and explanation
    of how it contributes   

103
  • Base your answers to the following questions on
    the information below and on your knowledge of
    science. Maintaining a constant body
    temperature, no matter what the temperature of
    its surroundings, is a condition that needs to be
    balanced in many organisms. This ability is
    important to the organisms survival. These
    organisms have many different body structures and
    behaviors that help maintain a constant body
    temperature. Short Response Foxes living in
    different parts of the world have different-sized
    ears. The arctic fox, which lives in cold
    climates, has small ears. The desert fox, which
    lives in hot climates, has large ears. How does
    ear size help each of these foxes to maintain a
    constant body temperature?

104
  • Walleye caught in spring 2007-2008 at Pymatuning
    state park
  • Number collected 798 Size range13-28 in.
  • Which biome do walleye live in?
  • Which year were more walleye caught in the 18
    inch size group?
  • As a generalization, did walleye get bigger or
    smaller in 2008?
  • Short Response Walleye are dark on the top side
    and lighter on the bottom? Why?

105
  • What is the role of an organism in an ecosystem?
    (the way it finds food, water shelter and space)
  • A. Niche
  • B. Adaptation
  • What is another name for an animal with a
    backbone
  • A. Vertebrae
  • B. Vertebrate
  • What is the struggle between two individuals for
    a resource?
  • A. Natural Selection
  • B. Competition

106
Ecological Niches
107
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108
Life Cycles
  • 11 MC
  • 1 SR

109
  • The above process is called
  • (A) natural selection (B) mutation (C)
    metamorphosis (D) photosynthesis
  • An immature stage that looks different than an
    adult is a.
  • (A) Nymph
  • (B) Larva
  • (C) Pupa
  • An immature stage that does look like an adult
    without wings is a
  • (A) Nymph
  • (B) Larva
  • (C) Pupa

110
  • Short Response Describe one difference in the
    pattern of development of the grasshopper and the
    pattern of development of the butterfly shown in
    the diagrams.

111
Base your answer to the question on the diagram
below and on your knowledge of science.The
diagram shows the life cycle of the common
housefly.
  • Which process is shown by this diagram?
  • A. competition B. metabolism C.
    metamorphosisD. migration
  • A life cycle is best described as the
  • A. series of changes in the development
    of an organismB. movement of an organism from
    place to placeC. ability of an organism to adapt
    to its environmentD. flow of energy through an
    organism's community

112
  • The diagram below shows changes that a butterfly
    undergoes as it develops from an egg into an
    adult.
  • What stage is the larva stage?
  • What stage is the pupa
  • stage?

B
A
113
  • The diagram below shows the development of a
    certain type of insect.
  • 1. Almost all animals have which two stages of
    life cycles?
  • 2. Which stage here is the dormant or resting
    stage?

114
  • The diagram below shows how a frog develops. A
    fertilized egg hatches into a tadpole with gills.
    The tadpole develops legs and lungs and becomes
    an adult frog.
  • What is the term for this series of changes
    during the life cycle of the frog?(A)
    fertilization (B) reproduction (C) mutation(D)
    metamorphosis
  • Which animal would have a similar life cycle?
  • Lion
  • Deer
  • Worm
  • Salamander

115
Natural Selection
  • 11 MC
  • 2 SR

116
  • 1. True/False Two organisms in
    competitionoccupying the same niche
  • Owls live in trees, eat mice in the forest and
    feed late at night
  • Snakes live on the ground eat mice in fields and
    feed late at night
  • 2. Do these two organisms occupy the same niche?
  • 3. Which event is the best example of competition
    between species in a pond environment?A.
    dragonflies landing on lily padsB. frogs and
    toads eating fliesC. lizards and snakes lying in
    the sunD. hawks eating mice

117
  • If a species is no longer able to reproduce, it
    will (A) adapt to its environment (B) become
    immune to disease (C) become extinct (D)
    increase its population
  • The effects of natural selection are generally
    seen most quickly in which organisms? (A)
    bacteria (B) corn plants (C) humans (D) cats

118
  • The diagram below shows the head structure of
    four different birds.
  • The birds beaks show how the birds
  • A. compete for the same food in their community
    B. require different amounts of food for
    survival C. store food for the winter months D.
    are adapted to get food from different sources
  • Do these birds occupy the same niche?

119
  • The drawing below shows a woodpecker using its
    long, sharp beak to obtain insects.
  • 1. What factor might contribute to the extinction
    of this species of woodpecker? (A) a new source
    of food (B) an overabundance of trees (C) the
    use of pesticides in the forest (D) an increase
    in the population of insects
  • 2. Another animals that lives in trees and eats
    the same food as the woodpecker at the same
    place. Are they occupying the same niche?
  • 3. IN the above question, are they in
    competition?

120
  • Manatees are mammals that live in the warm, clear
    water environment of Floridas shallow rivers.
    They are large, peaceful, gentle, curious
    creatures and slow-moving swimmers. They spend
    many hours each day feeding on water plants.
    Manatees must surface to breathe every 15
    minutes.
  • The manatees environment is changing because of
    hotels and homes being built along Floridas
    rivers, and the change is affecting them in a
    negative way. Noise and activity from people and
    boats scare them. Manatees can be seriously
    injured by powerboat propellers because the
    manatees cannot tell the direction from which the
    boats are coming. The water plants the manatees
    use for food are being destroyed. As a result of
    these and other changes in their surroundings,
    manatees are on the endangered species list and
    may one day be gone from Floridas rivers.
  • Short Response List two environmental conditions
    that might lead to the disappearance of manatees
    from Floridas rivers.
  • Short Response Why is the manatee classified as
    an herbivore?
  • Identify one external feature of the manatee that
    allows it to live in water.

121
Genes and Endangered Species
  • 6 MC
  • 1 SR

122
Write your answers in the short response section
  • What is the difference between threatened and
    endangered?
  • What is the difference between keystone species
    and exotic species?

123
  • Which area is more gentically diverse Hanover
    Pond with 10 species of salamanders or Spring
    Pond with 2 species of salmanders?
  • Which animal is more likely to go extinct A
    sewer rat or a Bengal tiger?
  • What is the 1 reason for extinction?
  • Which process gives rise to a variety of traits
    within a species? (1) sexual reproduction (2)
    dynamic equilibrium (3) cellular respiration
    (4) internal regulation

124
  • Which is more likely to be a threatened species?
  • (A) Blue Salamander (350 individuals)
  • (B) Green Salamander (8000 individuals)
  • (C) Red Salamander (50 individuals)
  • Which group is most diverse
  • (A) Apples
  • (B) Kiwi fruit
  • (C) Wild red raspberries
  • Short response A recent hurricane on a remote
    island wiped out an entire population of seagulls
    except for 10 individuals. What will happen to
    the population? If a new population of seagulls
    with different adaptations fly in, what will
    happen to the old seagull population?

125
NATURAL RESOURCES UNIT
  • 26 MC
  • 2 SR

126
Natural Resources
  • Renewable and Non-Renewable
  • 10 MC
  • 2 SR

127
(No Transcript)
128
  • Identify one activity in the diagram that
    requires the use of fossil fuels.
  • Identify one renewable resource shown in the
    diagram.
  • An energy transformation occurs when one form of
    energy is changed to another. Fill in the spaces
    below to describe an energy transformation that
    occurs as the children play baseball. 1
    ________________________________ is changed to
    ___________________________
  • What is the original source of energy for all
    these activities?

129
  • Which energy source is renewable? (A) oil (B)
    solar (C) coal (D) natural gas
  • Which energy source is considered a nonrenewable
    resource? (A) solar (B)wind (C) moving water
    (D)fossil fuel
  • Moving water in a river is considered a renewable
    resource because it
  • A. carries dissolved oxygenB. easily erodes
    sedimentsC. is made of natural gasD. can be
    recycled by nature over time

130
  • Which energy resource is renewable?
  • (A) fuel oil
  • (B ) natural gas
  • (C) wind
  • (D) coal

131

132
  • The pie chart below compares the amounts of
    energy from different sources used in the United
    States each year.
  • Which two energy sources together provide more
    than 50 of the energy needs of the United
    States? (1) nuclear and natural gas (2)
    hydropower and oil (3) oil and coal (4) natural
    gas and coal

133
  • The diagram shows the steps necessary to produce
    the energy needed to run a hair dryer.
  • As it moves from location A to location D in the
    diagram, the energy stored in the coal (1) is
    converted to solar energy (2) reduces the
    friction in the hair dryer (3) is recycled (4)
    is transformed

134
  • The usage of electricity in the United States has
    increased dramatically over the past 20 years.
    Most of this electricity is currently produced by
    burning fossil fuels. a State one reason for
    this increased usage of electricity. b Describe
    a strategy to reduce the amount of fossil fuels
    people use in the United States.

135
Natural Resources
  • Wildlife Management

136
Natural Resources
  • Populations
  • 7 MC

137
Warm-up
  • Ten (10) bird boxes for bluebirds are placed
    around Codorus State Park. We know both the
    mother and father bluebird stay in each bird box
    with their young. The average young for each
    group of parents is 2 bluebirds.
  • 1. What method of observing wildlife would we use
    to find the number of bluebirds?
  • (Direct, Indirect, Random Sampling or Mark and
    Recapture?)
  • 2. What is the estimate of TOTAL bluebirds at
    Codorus State Park? (Show your work)

138
Below is a graph representing a population of
field daisies. Each x represents one field
daisy
WARM -UP
  • 1. If you count every daisy in the field, you
    are using which method of counting populations?
  • 2. How many daisies are in A2?
  • 3. Using just the amount of daisies in square
    A2, what is the estimated daisy count for all 16
    squares?
  • 4. How many daisies are in the field total?
  • 5. What is the advantage of taking many samples
    of a population?

A B C D
1 x x x x x x x x x
2 x x x x x x x
3 X x x x x x
4 x x X X x
139
Natural Resources
  • Population Dynamics
  • 9 MC

140
  • 1. Which animal is the primary consumer?
  • 2. In what year was the rabbit population
    highest?
  • 3. What is the carrying capacity of the coyotes?
  • 4. What population curve is represented by the
    coyote population in 2003-2004?

141
Warm-up
  • 1. A foxs den is an example of which cover?
  • A. Escape
  • B. Home
  • C. Bridge
  • 2. A sharp decrease in a population is
  • A. Explosion
  • B. Crash
  • C. Worthy to be considered for WM practices
  • D. Both B and C
  • 3. Pine trees are an example of which cover
  • A. Food
  • B. Protection
  • C. Home
  • 4. Which is a limiting (reducing) factor
  • A. Disease
  • B. Immigration

142
  • 1. Arrow A represents what type of curve?
  • 2. Arrow B represents what type of curve?
  • 3. What do we call Line C?
  • 4. True/False
  • The yellow line will likely increase, then
    decrease and increase again.

Line C
B
A
Word Box Crash Curve
Overpopulation Normal Curve Explosion Curve
Carrying Capacity
B
143
BAY UNIT
  • 46 MC
  • 2 SR

144
Chesapeake Bay
  • Geography and Economics
  • 3 MC

145
3-2-1
  • 3 What are three states in the Chesapeake Bay
    watershed?
  • 2 What are two rivers in Virginia?
  • 1 - Name one problem that occurs from nutrient
    pollution.

146
Soil and Erosion
  • 1 MC

147
  • The diagrams below show a natural process that
    weathers rock.
  • Which statement best explains why this process
    results in weathering? (1) Frozen water acts as
    a solute. (2) Water expands when it freezes.
    (3) The mass of water increases when it freezes.
    (4) Frozen water dissolves most types of rocks.

148
Water Pollution
  • 23 MC

149
3-2-1 Exit
  • 3 things that can cause erosion
  • 2 ways we use the Codorus Creek
  • 1 difference between topsoil and subsoil

150
3 facts and a fibPick out the fib.(incorrect
statement). Write the letter on your whiteboard.
  • A. Sediment is a form of water pollution
  • B. Nutrient pollution comes from nitrogen and
    phosphorus
  • C. Non-Point pollution comes from one specific
    area or point
  • D. Pesticides are a type of chemical pollution

151
Warm-up
  • 1. List 3 main fossil fuels
  • 2. Sewage treatment plants
  • A. Point Pollution
  • B. Non-Point Pollution
  • C. Both
  • 3. Acid Rain
  • A. Point Pollution
  • B. Non-Point Pollution
  • C. Both
  • 4. The bays major problem is
  • A. Meanders
  • B. Run-off
  • C. Water is too acidic for plant life
  • 5. Name two of the substances found in
    fertilizers that farmers use and create problems
    for the bay.
  • A. Nitrogen and Oxygen
  • B. Nitrogen and Hydrogen
  • C. Nitrogen and Phosphorus

152
Nutrient Sediment Chemical
  • 1. Source Pesticides
  • 2. Problem Algae bloom
  • 3. Source Fertilizer (Scat !)
  • 4. Problem Blocks sunlight and covers organisms
  • 5. Source Oil
  • 6. Problem Affects reproduction in large
    animals
  • 7. Source Dirt

153
How does water go from Southwestern to the
Chesapeake Bay?
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. Chesapeake Bay

154
  • The diagram below shows some ways in which
    groundwater can be affected by humans.
  • 1. Which statement is best supported by the
    diagram? (A) Chemicals applied by farmers lower
    the level of pollution in drinking water. (B)
    Drinking water can become polluted from
    unsuspected sources. (C) Human activities do not
    affect groundwater. (D) Toxic waste is safe if
    buried below the level of the basements of nearby
    homes.
  • 2. What type of water pollution is the farmer
    creating in this picture ?
  • 3. What problems could this pollution create?

155
Three Facts and a FibWrite the of the fib out
of the four statements below.
  • 1. The Susquehanna River dumps 50 of the water
    into the Chesapeake Bay
  • 2. The Rappahannock and James are two rivers in
    the Chesapeake Bay watershed.
  • 3. Maryland and New Jersey are states in the
    Chesapeake Bay watershed
  • 4. Plankton are microscopic drifters in the
    Chesapeake Bay

156
  • 1. The York River is in Virginia.
  • 2. The Potomac River runs through Washington
    D.C.
  • 3. The James River is the most southern river in
    the Bay watershed.
  • 4. The Patuxent River runs through PA.

157
  • 1. Sediment is the only type of water pollution.
  • 2. Baltimore is a major economic center for the
    Bay.
  • 3. Crabs and Rockfish are two resources in the
    Bay.
  • 4. The Codorus Creek runs into the Susquehanna
    River

158
3. MD
1PA.
  • 2.W. VA

4. DE
159
Air Pollution
  • 6 MC

160
Acid Rain RadonCarbon Monoxide Smog
  • 1. Caused by car exhaust and combines with water
    droplets to form a brown dust cloud
  • 2. Hazardous gas that comes from the ground.
    Long-term exposure can have negative effects on
    the body.
  • 3. Factory smoke combines with precipitation.
    When it falls it drops the pH of the water.
  • 4. Comes from exhaust and burning fuel. Very
    harmful and fatal if large amounts of these are
    in your house.

161
  • City administrators can encourage energy
    conservation by (1) lowering parking fees (2)
    building larger parking lots (3) decreasing the
    cost of gasoline (4) lowering the cost of bus
    and subway fares

162
Read the story below and answer the questions
  • A pipe broke at the Emory Factory releasing a
    large amount of oil into the Codorus Creek.
    Scientists were able to trace the oil back to
    this specific location.
  • 1. What kind of pollution is this?
  • A. Sediment
  • B. Nutrient
  • C. Chemical
  • 2. Is this point or non-point?
  • A. Point
  • B. NonPoint
  • 3. What kind of air pollution may a factory
    create?
  • A. Acid Rain
  • B. Radon
  • C. Smog

163
  • Which graph best represents the relationship
    between the amount of pollutants in the air and
    the quality of the air?

164
Global Issues
  • Greenhouse Effect, Global Warming
  • 5 MC
  • 2 SR

165
Warm-up
  • 1. The ozone layer protects us from
  • A. Smog
  • B. Infrared Radiation
  • C. Ultraviolet radiation
  • 2. Which statement is FALSE
  • A. CFCs contribute to the ozone hole
  • B. New laws ban the use of CFCs
  • C. The ozone hole is not getting any bigger
  • 3. In one or two sentences, how does carbon
    dioxide affect the greenhouse effect and the
    theory of global warming?

166
  • Base your answers to the following questions on
    the graph below, which shows average yearly
    temperatures for Earth from 1900 to 1990.
  • Describe what happened to the average yearly
    temperature on Earth from 1970 to 1990. Give one
    possible reason why this change occurred.
  • What was the lowest average yearly temperature in
    the period of time shown?
  • In which 10-year time interval did the average
    yearly temperature show both an increase and a
    decrease? 1       19151925       19251935  
        19451955       19751985

167
  • Which factor contributes to global warming? (1)
    increased use of solar-powered cars (2)
    increased burning of fossil fuels (3) better
    long-term weather forecasts (4) changing
    distance between Earth and the Sun

168
Waste Disposal and Recycling
  • 3 MC

169
Waste
  • 1. What are the 3 methods of waste disposal?
  • 2. Name 2 materials other than paper and plastic
    that can be recycled
  • 1. Name the 1 non-hazardous waste out of the
    following group
  • Nitroglycerin , Sour Milk, Hydrochloric acid,
    Blood,

170
Agriculture
  • 6 MC

171
  • 1. With a partner, draw TWO best management
    practices without writing down the answer. Label
    them 1 and 2.
  • After 5 minutes you will switch with another
    group.
  • (USE 6 Soil and Nutrient Run-off Conservation
    Practices to help you !!!!!)

172
1
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour Plowing
173
2
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour
Plowing
174
3
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour
Plowing
175
4
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour
Plowing
176
5
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour
Plowing
177
Integrated Pest Management
  • IPM
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