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Title: 7th Grade Science Opening Questions

1
2
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
• 23 mutliple choice
• 2 short response

3
• The items listed below were found in a science
classroom. a heart made of plastic with many
of its parts labeled clay formed to look like
Earth and other planets a giant plastic plant
cell with removable cell parts
• 1. These items are all examples of (A) models
(B) experiments (C) variables (D) controls
• 2. Mr. Grindle placed all of the plastic items
together. What technique is he using?
• (A) Modeling
• (B) Inferencing
• (C) Classifying
• (D) Predicting
• 3. The Fire alarm rings, at the same time Mr.
Grindle then thinks that everybody will get up
quietly and line up at the door. What technique
is he using?
• (A) Modeling
• (B) Inferencing
• (C) Classifying
• (D) Predicting

4
Question Hypothesis Design
experiment Analyze the data Conclusion
• Use the word box to match the term with the
example
• 1. How does wind speed affect the distance of a
football throw?
• 2. Based on the evidence, wind speed does affect
the distance a football is thrown.
• 3. If there are 20 mph winds, then a football
will travel less distance.

5
the graph below. The graph shows the results of
an experiment that tested the effect of time on
the growth of a plant. A student measured the
height of several plants for ten weeks and
determined the average height. The results are
shown in the graph below.
• What is the y axis label?
• Identify one variable that should be held
constant during this experiment.
• According to the graph, what will the average
height of the plants be at week 11 if growth
continues at the same rate as in weeks 8 through
10? _____________ cm

6
• A student set up the experiment below to learn
amount of water to four identical containers,
each containing four seeds in 100 cubic
centimeters of soil. All of the containers were
placed in the same sunny location.
• 1. State the manipulating variable being tested
in this experiment.
• 2. State the responding variable that is being
held constant in this experiment.
• Short Response Name a constant in the
experiment and explain why it needs to be the
same (constant) throughout the experiment.

7
• A student goes skateboarding a few times a week.
The student notices that she can go faster while
skating on some level surfaces than on others.
She hypothesizes that speed has something to do
with the surface she is skating on. The student
wants to design an experiment to test this
hypothesis.
• Identify the independent (manipulated) variable
in the experiment.
• Identify the dependent (responding) variable in
the experiment.
• Short Response Identify two factors that will
need to be held constant in the experiment.

8
Controls Variables Warm-up
• Problem How do Power-aid, Gatorade and Vitamin
Water affect running times
• Experimental design Each person will run 10
yards after drinking each liquid. Each person
will be timed for how fast he/she runs.
• (Hint Look at the problem. Which variable
affects which?)
• 1. Manipulating (Independent) variable?
• 2. Responding (Dependent) variable?
• 3.Control ?

9
Problem How does music affect test accuracy?
• Experimental Design Subjects will take a 25
question test while listening to rock, hip-hop
and classical music. Each subject will be scored
on number correct.
• Manipulating variable ?
• Responding variable ?
• Control ?
• Constants ?

10
•          Some species of bacteria are harmful.
Antibiotics are chemicals that kill bacteria.
Some bacteria are resistant to antibiotics and
are not killed by these chemicals. Over time, the
resistant bacteria can reproduce and create
populations that are not affected by antibiotics.
The graphs below show the results of a controlled
experiment that measured the population of one
species of bacteria that had been grown in four
containers under identical conditions. Different
antibiotics were added to three of the four
containers.
is best supported by the information in the
graphs?
• A. Antibiotic A continuously slowed the
growth. B. Antibiotic B was
least effective in controlling the growth.
C. Antibiotic C was most effective
in controlling the growth
• D. Antibiotics A and B slowed the growth.

11
• The graph below shows the number of known species
in the five kingdoms of living things.
• Based on the graph, which kingdom contains
approximately twice as many known species as the
Protista Kingdom?
• A. Animalia B. PlantaeC. Fungi

12
ECOLOGY UNIT
• 92 MC
• 11 SR

13
Biomes
• 8 Multiple Choice
• 1 Short Response

14
• The bottom layer of the forest
• (A) Understory
• (B) Canopy
• (C) Floor
• The middle layer of the forest with short
trees..
• (A) Understory
• (B) Canopy
• (C) Floor
• The upper layer of the forest with tall trees
• (A) Understory
• (B) Canopy
• (C) Floor

15
Name the Biome
• 1. Matt lives in a biome that has cold winters
and mild summers. This biome has large trees
that do not lose their leaves and receives 180cm
of rain per year.
• 2. Amy lives in a biome that has warm
temperatures all year round. The biome has large
trees that do not lose their leaves and receives
350cm of rain per year.
• 3.Tom lives in a biome that is very dry and has
rocky soil. There are very few trees.
Temperatures are very hot during the day and cool
to cold at night.

16
• Name the Biome
• 1. Ryan lives in a biome that has extremely cold
winters, is windy and has only low-growing plants
• 2. Amy lives in a biome with warm summers and
cold winters tress shed their leaves and grow
new ones each year.
• 3. Heather lives in a biome with 25-75cm of rain
per year and is populated by grasses and many
large herbivores.
• Which biome do we live in?

17
Biomes summarizer(Textbook pages 58-66)
• Group 1 Figure 13 (pg 59)
• Group 2 Figure 15 (pg 61)
• Group 3 Lab zone activity (pg 61)
• Group 4 Figure 17 (pg 63)
• Group 5 Lab zone skills activity (pg 64)
• Group 6 Figure 19 (pg 65)
• Group 7 Figure 20 (pg 66)

18
• Short Response What is the best biome to live
in as a human?
• State the biome and two reasons based on what we

19
Ecosystems
• 8 MC
• 2 SR

20
Just the letter (A,B,C,D) for 1-3 and remember
the short response
• 1. Water and sunlight are..
• (A) Abiotic
• (B) Biotic
• 2. Would all the different kinds of organisms
in a forest be considered a
• (A) Individual
• (B) Population
• (C) Community
• (D) Ecosystem
• 3. All the ABIOTIC and BIOTIC factors are
a(n)..
• (A) Individual
• (B) Population
• (C) Community
• (D) Ecosystem
• Short Response What does an ecologist do?

21
• 1. Which of the four terms below includes the
other three terms? (A) community (B) ecosystem
(C) population (D) individual
• 2. Different populations living in one place form
a
• (A) community (B) system (C) habitat(D)
species

22
1. Write the symbol that represents a population
in this model
• 2. Write the symbol below that shows a community
in this model.
• 3. What is the source of energy for this
ecosystem?
• 4. Write the symbol below that represents an
ecosystem.

23
Natural Cycles
• 15 MC
• 2 SR

24
Precipitation Condensation Evaporation Infiltratio
n Groundwater Surface water Transpiration Oxygen
Carbon Dioxide Run-off
• The term for water that is soaked into the ground
or in the roots of trees.
• The term for pockets of water in the ground
• The term for water that passes into the
atmosphere from leaves of trees.

25
• 1. Which title best describes the processes shown
in the diagram below?
• (A) The Rock Cycle
• (B) The Water Cycle
• (C) Plate Tectonics
• (D) Chemical Changes
• The diagram below uses letters A, B, C, and D to
represent processes occurring in a water cycle.
• In the chart below, identify the process that is
occurring at each letter in the diagram. Select
the process from the list below.
• 2.Condensation
• 3.Evaporation
• 4.Precipitation
• 5. runoff
• Short response Explain why A
• resembles evaporation.

26
• What is the name of the process represented in
this diagram that produces the oxygen? (A)
photosynthesis (B) metamorphosis (C)
respiration (D) fertilization

27

• Which statement best explains the relationships
shown? (A) Water changes over time to a
nonrenewable resource. (B) Living things
exchange materials with their environment. (C)
Minerals recycle the dead materials in the
environment. (D) Living things produce other
living things.
• Which process produces oxygen that is released
into the atmosphere? (A) respiration (B)
locomotion (C) excretion (D) photosynthesis

28
The diagram below shows a deer and green plants.
• 1. Which statement best describes the
relationship between the deer and the plants?
• A. The deer supplies food and oxygen to the
green plants. B. The deer supplies food and
carbon dioxide to the green plants. C. The
green plants supply food and carbon dioxide to
the deer. D. The green plants supply food and
oxygen to the deer.

29
• In which process is oxygen used to release the
energy stored in food? (A) photosynthesis (B)
respiration (C) digestion (D) reproduction
• When a person breathes, the lungs absorb oxygen,
which is used by cells to carry out the process
of (A) respiration (B) secretion (C)
photosynthesis (D) excretion
• Short Response Why is the nitrogen cycle
important to plants?

30
Use the short response for this question
• Write a statement on how oxygen, temperature and
biotic factors are related.

31
Food Chains and Food Webs
• 36 MC
• 4 SR

32
• 1. Why are the fish able to survive in the pond?
(A) The fish use carbon dioxide produced by the
plants. (B) The fish use oxygen produced by the
plants. (C) The plants use oxygen produced by
the fish. (D) The plants use chlorophyll
produced by the fish.
• 2. The main source of energy for this pond
community is the (A) plants (B) Sun (C) pond
water (D) animals

33
• 1. In the past, Native American Indians buried
dead fish along with corn seeds. This technique
was used because the decomposing dead fish would
(A) provide nutrients for the growing corn
plant (B) eliminate the need for weeding around
the corn plant (C) release oxygen for use by the
corn plant (D) supply all the water needed by
the corn plant
• 2. As the population of small fish in a lake
decreases, the population of large fish that
depend on the small fish for food will (A)
reproduce faster (B) begin to produce their own
food (C) decrease in number (D) increase in
number

34
• Give an example of a carnivore, a producer, and
an herbivore shown in this food web.
• 1 Carnivore ________________________________
• 2 Producer ________________________________
• 3 Herbivore________________________________
• Short Response How are the feeding
relationships of the mice different from the
feeding relationships of the other organisms in
this food web?

35
• If the plants die during a summer drought, the
cricket population would most likely (A)
decrease
• (B) increase (C) remain the same
• If the number of frogs increases, the snake
population would most likely (A) decrease (B)
increase (C) remain the same
• Short Response State one difference between
what food chains and energy pyramids represent
regarding energy flow

36
• What is the role of the foxes in this food web?
(a) carnivore (b) decomposer (c) herbivore
(d) producer
• Which organisms in this food web are omnivores?
(a) birds (b) carrots (c) grasshoppers (d)
rabbits
• Which statement would be true if the owl
population disappeared? (a) The mouse
population would increase. (b) The carrot
population would increase. (c) The fox
population would decrease. (d) The rabbit
population would decrease.

37
The diagram below shows a food web for a
community.
• Which organisms in the diagram are carnivores?
• A. rabbits and birds B. carrots and grasses
C. grasshoppers and miceD. foxes and owls
• Short Response Explain this statement The
energy for all the organisms in this food web can
be traced back to the Sun.

38
• One type of organism in this web that represents
a producer is (A) rabbits (B) grasses (C)
trout (D) snakes
• Which organisms obtain energy for growth and
development directly from the Sun? (A)
caterpillars (B) hawks (C) frogs (D) bean
plants
• According to this food web, which organisms are
herbivores? (A) caterpillars (B) foxes (C)
hawks (D) snakes
• Which organism correctly completes the food web
at A? (A) horses (B) mice (C) bacteria (D)
trees

39
• What does the x axis tell us?
• What does the y axis tell us?
• Which animal is the consumer 1?
• Why did the coyote population increase in 2003
2004?
• Short ResponseWhat does this data tell us about
coyotes and rabbits
• in the food chain?

40
The table below shows the deer population in
Arizona for a 30-year period.
• What is the most likely reason that the deer
population decreased from 1920 to 1935?
• A. There was less air pollution.B. More water
was available.C. Fewer hunting licenses were
issued.D. There was increased competition for
food.

41
complete this warm-up
• Coyote
• Deer Fox
• Rabbit
• Turkey Vulture
• Grass Clover
• What is the D/S?
• What are the Producers?
• How many C2s are there?
• If the deer population decreased, what would
happen to the Grass population?
• If the deer population decreased, what would
happen to the coyote population?

42
• Identify one consumer shown in this ecosystem.
• What is the primary source of energy for this
ecosystem?

43
Food Webs
the diagram below, which shows a partial food
web.
• How many organisms in this food web feed on the
mice?
• (A) 5
• (B) 2
• (C) 3
• (D) 4
• Which group of organisms is missing from this
food web?
• (A) carnivores
• (B) herbivores
• (C) omnivores
• (D) decomposers

44
• Which three organisms in the food web are
competing for the same food resource?(A)
carrot, rabbit, and fox (B) grain, bird, and owl
(C) fox, owl, and rabbit (D) bird, mouse, and
grasshopper

45
• 1. What is the main source of energy for these
ecosystems?
• 2. Identify a consumer in these ecosystems.
• 3. Which organism has the most energy?

46
Interactions between Organisms
• 7 MC
• 1 SR

47
• The term for the close relationship between two
species is called a.
• (A) Mutalism
• (B) Parasitism
• (C) Commensalism
• (D) Symbiosis
• The term for one organism living on or inside
another and harming it is called a.
• (A) Mutalism
• (B) Parasitism
• (C) Commensalism
• (D) Symbiosis
• The term for both organisms gaining benefit in a
close relationship is called
• (A) Mutalism
• (B) Parasitism
• (C) Commensalism
• (D) Symbiosis

48
• What level of ecosystem is at the top of the
energy pyramid ?
• (A) Producer
• (B) Consumer 1
• (C) Consumer 2
• 2. The term for one organism living on or
inside another and harming it is called a.
• (A) Mutalism
• (B) Parasitism
• (C) Commensalism
• (D) Symbiosis
• 3. Many populations living together at one time
is called a.
• (A) Community
• (B) Ecosystem

49
• Which organism is most likely a parasite?
• (A) Deer
• (B) Rabbit
• (C) Tick
• (D) Oak Tree
• My dog is cute is cute, cuddly and provides a
friendship for me. I give my dog food, water and
a home to live in. What kind of relationship do
we have?
• (A) Mutalism
• (B) Parasitism
• (C) Commensalism
• (D) Symbiosis
• A remora fish attaches itself to the underside of
a shark without harming the shark, and eats left
over bits of food from the sharks meals. What
type of relationship do they have?
• (A) Mutalism
• (B) Parasitism
• (C) Commensalism
• (D) Symbiosis

50
Photosynthesis
• 9 MC
• 1 SR

51
Write Ingredients, Products or Both for
each part of the photosynthesis equation.
• 1. Carbon Dioxide
• 2. Green plants
• 3. Oxygen

52
• Grasses, shrubs, and trees are called producers
because they make
• A. water B. carbon dioxide C. mineralsD. food
• All living organisms are dependent on plants
because plants
• A. produce carbon dioxideB. remove oxygen
from the airC. are producersD. are consumers

53
• What do all organisms need to survive? (A)
energy (B) blood (C) carbon dioxide (D) soil
• Which observation of a plant supports the
inference that photosynthesis can take place?
• (A) a strong, sweet smell(B) a dry, rough
texture(C) a green color(D) a smooth stem
• Short Response Why is the release of oxygen
during photosynthesis for important for the
ecosystem?

54
WATERSHEDS AND WETLANDS UNIT
• 44 MC
• 5 SR

55
Watersheds
• 3 MC
• 1 SR

56
• Oceans, glaciers, lakes, and rivers are part of
Earths (A) atmosphere (B) hemisphere (C)
hydrosphere (D) lithosphere
• Which is FALSE about watersheds?
• (A) they are areas of land with rivers
and streams
• (B) they have many tributaries
• (C) the Chesapeake Bay is a watershed
• (D) All the water flows into the smallest
tributary
• Which is NOT a watershed in PA?
• (A) Ohio
• (B) New Jersey
• (C) Potomac
• (D) Delaware
• Short Response Why is it important that we know
where the water flows after it pours out of the
Oil Creek?

57
Lotic Waters
• 8 MC
• 1 SR

58
• 1What is the term for bends in a stream or river?
• (A) Rapids
• (B) Meanders
• (C) Pools
• (D) Lotic
• 2. What is the term for narrow, rocky, fast
water?
• (A) Rapids
• (B) Meanders
• (C) Pools
• (D) Lotic
• \3. What is the term for water that is moving
such as a river or stream?
• (A) Rapids
• (B) Meanders
• (C) Pools
• (D) Lotic
• 4. What is the term for deep, wide and slow
moving water?

59
• Oil Creek is the first stream that connects into
my other streams. What stream order is Oil
Creek?
• (A) 1st
• (B) 2nd
• (C) 3rd
• Turtle Creek is 2nd order stream. Swan Creek is
also a 2nd order stream. Both streams come
together and form Turtleswan Creek. What stream
order is Turtleswan Creek
• (A) 2nd
• (B) 3rd
• (C) 4th
• Sunfish Creek is a 2nd order stream. It
meets up with Trout Creek which is a 1st order
stream. Sunfish Creek then continues after the
intersection point. Sunfish creek after the
intersection point would be considered under
which stream order?
• (A) 2nd
• (B) 3rd
• (C) 4th

60
Stream Order1st, 2nd, 3rd
• C
• A
• B

61
Warm-up
• Short Response The Fall section found average
speed for rapids. Their average time for the
class was 2 seconds. If the distance measured
was 1 meter, how do you find velocity and what is
the velocity?
• Velocity Distance meter
• --------------
-----------
• Time seconds

62
Lentic Waters
• 12 MC
• 1 SR

63
• Which is NOT a type of wetland ?
• A. Hidden Pond
• B. Oxbow Lake
• C. Atlantic Ocean
• Non-moving water is
• A. Lentic
• B. Lotic
• Which IS a characteristic of a LENTIC habitat?
• A. Rocky bottom
• B. Cooler water
• C. Less plants
• D. More food
• Which is NOT a zone of a pond?
• A. Littoral
• B. Profundal
• C. Longitudinal
• D. Limnetic

64
• 1. Lakes ponds are examples of what type of
water habitat?
• Lentic or Lotic
• 2. What has more oxygen in the water? Lentic
or Lotic
• 3. Which zone of a pond is the shallow water area
that has lots of plants? Littoral
Limnetic Profundal

65
Pond Zones
Littoral Limnetic Profundal
• 1
• 3
• 2

66
Label A, B, and C as a 1st, 2nd, 3rd order
stream
C
A
Current?
B
67
Pond Zones
5. LITTORAL ZONE
4. LIMNETIC ZONE
6. PROFUNDAL ZONE
68
• 1. How many times a year does pond overturn?
• A. 1
• B. 2
• C. 3
• D. 4
• 2. When does the pond overturn?
• A. Spring and Summer
• B. Winter and Spring
• C. Spring and Fall
• D. Winter and Fall
• 3. What causes the pond to overturn?
• A. Precipitation
• B. Oxygen content
• C. Temperature changes
• D. Carbon dioxide

69
Light, Oxygen, Current
• Match the word to the following statements.
• 1. This abiotic factor helps determine bottom
composition and temperature
• 2. This abiotic factor is taken in by animals
for respiration.
• 3. This abiotic factor is an ingredient for
photosynthesis and helps animals see where they
are going

70
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71
• 1. Pond overturn occurs how many times a year?
• 2. Which abiotic factor protects against pH
change?
• 3. Which abiotic factor is dirt or sediment in
the water?
• 4. Which piece of equipment am I holding

72
Producer and Consumer Identification
• 10 MC
• 0 SR

73
• Living things are classified as producers or
consumers according to
• A. their speed of movement B. the size of their
communities C. how they obtain food D. how they
reproduce

74
Duckweed, Parrot-feather and Bulrush
• 1.
• 2.
• 3.
• 4. What is the green pigment in
photosynthesis? (it is an ingredient )
• 5. Which zone of producers has autumn olive and
pine trees?

75
1
76
2
77
3
78
4
79
Dorsal Caudal Tail Pelvic Pectoral
80
Wetlands
• 6 MC
• 1 SR

81
Swamp, Marsh or Bog?
• This wetland has many oak trees and brush.
• This wetland has many grasses and has a high
and low tide.
• This wetland has peat, sphagnum moss and acidic
water.
• --------------------------------------------------
------

82
Swamp, Marsh or Bog?

83

84
Short Response What is the main difference
between these wetlands?
85
Water Quality
• 5 MC
• 1 SR

86
Take out Macroinvertebrate Feeding Frenzy
• Grazers and shredders eat algea, needles and
leaves. They would be considered
• A. Primary Consumers
• B. Secondary Consumers
• C. Scavengers
• A species of algae lives on hydra. Because of
this the algae has a safe place to live. The
hydra receives food and oxygen from the alga.
What type of relationship is this?
• A. Parasitism
• B. Commensalism
• C. Mutalism
• Diving Beetles, Water striders and dragonfly
nymphs are Predacious. They would be
considered
• A. Primary Consumer
• B. Secondary Consumer
• C. Scavenger

87
• 1. Turtle Creek has a water quality index of 31.
Snail Creek has a water quality index of 17.
Which creek is cleaner?
• 2. Sunbury Creek is beside a city. Penn creek is
primary in a forest. Which creek would be
cleaner?
• 3. Short Response Hanover Creek has
salamanders, fish, stonefly nymphs, dragonfly
nymphs and damselfly nymphs (all class 2 or 3
organisms). Would this stream be polluted,
slightly polluted, or clean? Give reasoning for

88
BIODIVERSITY UNIT
• 53 MC
• 10 SR

89
Ecological Succession
• 7 MC
• 1 SR

90
• A brand new ecosystem forms. This would be an
example of primary or secondary succession?
• What is one likely cause of secondary succession?
• What is the name of the first species to inhabit
a new ecosystem?
• Which order of succession of natural communities
would most likely occur in Pennsylvania?
• grasses ? trees ? bushes
• trees ? bushes ? grasses
• bushes ? grasses ? trees
• D. grasses ? bushes ? trees

91
• The diagrams below show changes in a natural
community over a period of 200 years.
• Which process is illustrated in the diagrams?
• A. ozone depletion B. global warmingC.
recycling resourcesD. ecological succession
• Short Response Natural forest fires are not
always bad. Explain why a forest fire could
benefit an ecosystem.

92

The diagrams below show the plant communities
present in the same area at different times over
a 200-year period following a forest fire.
• What is the correct sequence of these plant
communities following the forest fire? (1) B ?
A ? D ? C (2) B ? C ? D ? A (3) B ? D ? C ? A
(4) B ? A ? C ? D
• What type of succession is called by a forest
fire?
• (1) Primary
• (2) Secondary
• (3) Climax

93
• Which situation is the best example of ecological
succession?
• (A) An organism survives a difficult winter.(B)
The populations in an area remain the same.(C)
One species replaces another species in an
ecosystem.(D) Each of several species uses the
same amount of resources.

94
• 18 MC
• 5 SR

95
Warm-up Can you find the frog?
• What is the adaptation the frog is using?
• This is an example of which adaptation purpose?
• This frog lives in a warm, rainy biome with a
lot of trees. In which biome does this frog
live?

Picture taken at the National Aquarium in
Baltimore
96
Picture taken at the National Aquarium in
Baltimore
• What is the adaptation purpose?

97
• Feathers, wings, and the hollow bones of birds
are examples of
• A. adaptations for flightB. responses to
stimuliC. unnecessary body partsD. reproductive
structures
• Beaver dams can cause floods. This statement
shows how (A) animal growth is affected by
environmental conditions (B) animal behavior may
affect the environment (C) an animals health
depends on its environment (D) an animals
development depends on its environment

98
• The fur of a snowshoe rabbit changes to white
during the winter. This change is an example of
metamorphosis (D) metabolism
• Some kinds of fish live most of their lives in
salt water but lay their eggs in freshwater.
Their ability to survive in different
environments is an example of
• (B) developmental stages
• (C) a habit
• (D) selective breeding
• Young frogs do not resemble adult frogs. Which
term is given to this pattern of development in
frogs? (A) asexual reproduction (B) cloning

99
• The eyes of the owl and the rabbit shown in the
diagram below give each animal a different
advantage. The front-facing owl eyes allow the
bird to accurately judge distance when swooping
in on prey. The side-facing rabbit eyes allow the
animal to detect the motion of possible
predators.
• 1. The specialized eye types of these animals
are examples of(A) disruptions of the natural
balance(B) the interdependence of living
things(C) adaptations for survival under certain
conditions(D) involuntary responses to stimuli
• 2. An animal with front eyes would NOT be located
.
• In a forest
• In an open field
• In the Mojave dessert
• Underground

100
• Bird B is correctly identified as (A) a
cormorant (B) a duck (C) an eagle (D) a jacana
• What is a common feature of both the eagle and
the kingfisher? (A) claws large (B) claws
curved (C) three toes webbed together (D) four
toes webbed together

101
• The diagram below shows two different-colored
moths resting on a tree trunk.
• Short Response How does this difference in
pattern and color affect the moths' ability to
survive in the environment?

102
the diagrams below, which show a system in a
human and a system in a plant. Select one
structure labeled in the human system above and
explain how it contributes to the way the human
system functions.
• Short Response Human Structure and explanation
of how it contributes
• Short Response Plant Structure and explanation
of how it contributes

103
the information below and on your knowledge of
science. Maintaining a constant body
temperature, no matter what the temperature of
its surroundings, is a condition that needs to be
balanced in many organisms. This ability is
important to the organisms survival. These
organisms have many different body structures and
behaviors that help maintain a constant body
temperature. Short Response Foxes living in
different parts of the world have different-sized
ears. The arctic fox, which lives in cold
climates, has small ears. The desert fox, which
lives in hot climates, has large ears. How does
ear size help each of these foxes to maintain a
constant body temperature?

104
• Walleye caught in spring 2007-2008 at Pymatuning
state park
• Number collected 798 Size range13-28 in.
• Which biome do walleye live in?
• Which year were more walleye caught in the 18
inch size group?
• As a generalization, did walleye get bigger or
smaller in 2008?
• Short Response Walleye are dark on the top side
and lighter on the bottom? Why?

105
• What is the role of an organism in an ecosystem?
(the way it finds food, water shelter and space)
• A. Niche
• What is another name for an animal with a
backbone
• A. Vertebrae
• B. Vertebrate
• What is the struggle between two individuals for
a resource?
• A. Natural Selection
• B. Competition

106
Ecological Niches
107
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108
Life Cycles
• 11 MC
• 1 SR

109
• The above process is called
• (A) natural selection (B) mutation (C)
metamorphosis (D) photosynthesis
• An immature stage that looks different than an
• (A) Nymph
• (B) Larva
• (C) Pupa
• An immature stage that does look like an adult
without wings is a
• (A) Nymph
• (B) Larva
• (C) Pupa

110
• Short Response Describe one difference in the
pattern of development of the grasshopper and the
pattern of development of the butterfly shown in
the diagrams.

111
below and on your knowledge of science.The
diagram shows the life cycle of the common
housefly.
• Which process is shown by this diagram?
• A. competition B. metabolism C.
metamorphosisD. migration
• A life cycle is best described as the
• A. series of changes in the development
of an organismB. movement of an organism from
place to placeC. ability of an organism to adapt
to its environmentD. flow of energy through an
organism's community

112
• The diagram below shows changes that a butterfly
undergoes as it develops from an egg into an
• What stage is the larva stage?
• What stage is the pupa
• stage?

B
A
113
• The diagram below shows the development of a
certain type of insect.
• 1. Almost all animals have which two stages of
life cycles?
• 2. Which stage here is the dormant or resting
stage?

114
• The diagram below shows how a frog develops. A
fertilized egg hatches into a tadpole with gills.
The tadpole develops legs and lungs and becomes
• What is the term for this series of changes
during the life cycle of the frog?(A)
fertilization (B) reproduction (C) mutation(D)
metamorphosis
• Which animal would have a similar life cycle?
• Lion
• Deer
• Worm
• Salamander

115
Natural Selection
• 11 MC
• 2 SR

116
• 1. True/False Two organisms in
competitionoccupying the same niche
• Owls live in trees, eat mice in the forest and
feed late at night
• Snakes live on the ground eat mice in fields and
feed late at night
• 2. Do these two organisms occupy the same niche?
• 3. Which event is the best example of competition
between species in a pond environment?A.
dragonflies landing on lily padsB. frogs and
toads eating fliesC. lizards and snakes lying in
the sunD. hawks eating mice

117
• If a species is no longer able to reproduce, it
will (A) adapt to its environment (B) become
immune to disease (C) become extinct (D)
increase its population
• The effects of natural selection are generally
seen most quickly in which organisms? (A)
bacteria (B) corn plants (C) humans (D) cats

118
• The diagram below shows the head structure of
four different birds.
• The birds beaks show how the birds
• A. compete for the same food in their community
B. require different amounts of food for
survival C. store food for the winter months D.
are adapted to get food from different sources
• Do these birds occupy the same niche?

119
• The drawing below shows a woodpecker using its
long, sharp beak to obtain insects.
• 1. What factor might contribute to the extinction
of this species of woodpecker? (A) a new source
of food (B) an overabundance of trees (C) the
use of pesticides in the forest (D) an increase
in the population of insects
• 2. Another animals that lives in trees and eats
the same food as the woodpecker at the same
place. Are they occupying the same niche?
• 3. IN the above question, are they in
competition?

120
• Manatees are mammals that live in the warm, clear
water environment of Floridas shallow rivers.
They are large, peaceful, gentle, curious
creatures and slow-moving swimmers. They spend
many hours each day feeding on water plants.
Manatees must surface to breathe every 15
minutes.
• The manatees environment is changing because of
hotels and homes being built along Floridas
rivers, and the change is affecting them in a
negative way. Noise and activity from people and
boats scare them. Manatees can be seriously
injured by powerboat propellers because the
manatees cannot tell the direction from which the
boats are coming. The water plants the manatees
use for food are being destroyed. As a result of
these and other changes in their surroundings,
manatees are on the endangered species list and
may one day be gone from Floridas rivers.
• Short Response List two environmental conditions
that might lead to the disappearance of manatees
from Floridas rivers.
• Short Response Why is the manatee classified as
an herbivore?
• Identify one external feature of the manatee that
allows it to live in water.

121
Genes and Endangered Species
• 6 MC
• 1 SR

122
• What is the difference between threatened and
endangered?
• What is the difference between keystone species
and exotic species?

123
• Which area is more gentically diverse Hanover
Pond with 10 species of salamanders or Spring
Pond with 2 species of salmanders?
• Which animal is more likely to go extinct A
sewer rat or a Bengal tiger?
• What is the 1 reason for extinction?
• Which process gives rise to a variety of traits
within a species? (1) sexual reproduction (2)
dynamic equilibrium (3) cellular respiration
(4) internal regulation

124
• Which is more likely to be a threatened species?
• (A) Blue Salamander (350 individuals)
• (B) Green Salamander (8000 individuals)
• (C) Red Salamander (50 individuals)
• Which group is most diverse
• (A) Apples
• (B) Kiwi fruit
• (C) Wild red raspberries
• Short response A recent hurricane on a remote
island wiped out an entire population of seagulls
except for 10 individuals. What will happen to
the population? If a new population of seagulls
with different adaptations fly in, what will
happen to the old seagull population?

125
NATURAL RESOURCES UNIT
• 26 MC
• 2 SR

126
Natural Resources
• Renewable and Non-Renewable
• 10 MC
• 2 SR

127
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128
• Identify one activity in the diagram that
requires the use of fossil fuels.
• Identify one renewable resource shown in the
diagram.
• An energy transformation occurs when one form of
energy is changed to another. Fill in the spaces
below to describe an energy transformation that
occurs as the children play baseball. 1
________________________________ is changed to
___________________________
• What is the original source of energy for all
these activities?

129
• Which energy source is renewable? (A) oil (B)
solar (C) coal (D) natural gas
• Which energy source is considered a nonrenewable
resource? (A) solar (B)wind (C) moving water
(D)fossil fuel
• Moving water in a river is considered a renewable
resource because it
• A. carries dissolved oxygenB. easily erodes
sedimentsC. is made of natural gasD. can be
recycled by nature over time

130
• Which energy resource is renewable?
• (A) fuel oil
• (B ) natural gas
• (C) wind
• (D) coal

131

132
• The pie chart below compares the amounts of
energy from different sources used in the United
States each year.
• Which two energy sources together provide more
than 50 of the energy needs of the United
States? (1) nuclear and natural gas (2)
hydropower and oil (3) oil and coal (4) natural
gas and coal

133
• The diagram shows the steps necessary to produce
the energy needed to run a hair dryer.
• As it moves from location A to location D in the
diagram, the energy stored in the coal (1) is
converted to solar energy (2) reduces the
friction in the hair dryer (3) is recycled (4)
is transformed

134
• The usage of electricity in the United States has
increased dramatically over the past 20 years.
Most of this electricity is currently produced by
burning fossil fuels. a State one reason for
this increased usage of electricity. b Describe
a strategy to reduce the amount of fossil fuels
people use in the United States.

135
Natural Resources
• Wildlife Management

136
Natural Resources
• Populations
• 7 MC

137
Warm-up
• Ten (10) bird boxes for bluebirds are placed
around Codorus State Park. We know both the
mother and father bluebird stay in each bird box
with their young. The average young for each
group of parents is 2 bluebirds.
• 1. What method of observing wildlife would we use
to find the number of bluebirds?
• (Direct, Indirect, Random Sampling or Mark and
Recapture?)
• 2. What is the estimate of TOTAL bluebirds at
Codorus State Park? (Show your work)

138
Below is a graph representing a population of
field daisies. Each x represents one field
daisy
WARM -UP
• 1. If you count every daisy in the field, you
are using which method of counting populations?
• 2. How many daisies are in A2?
• 3. Using just the amount of daisies in square
A2, what is the estimated daisy count for all 16
squares?
• 4. How many daisies are in the field total?
• 5. What is the advantage of taking many samples
of a population?

A B C D
1 x x x x x x x x x
2 x x x x x x x
3 X x x x x x
4 x x X X x
139
Natural Resources
• Population Dynamics
• 9 MC

140
• 1. Which animal is the primary consumer?
• 2. In what year was the rabbit population
highest?
• 3. What is the carrying capacity of the coyotes?
• 4. What population curve is represented by the
coyote population in 2003-2004?

141
Warm-up
• 1. A foxs den is an example of which cover?
• A. Escape
• B. Home
• C. Bridge
• 2. A sharp decrease in a population is
• A. Explosion
• B. Crash
• C. Worthy to be considered for WM practices
• D. Both B and C
• 3. Pine trees are an example of which cover
• A. Food
• B. Protection
• C. Home
• 4. Which is a limiting (reducing) factor
• A. Disease
• B. Immigration

142
• 1. Arrow A represents what type of curve?
• 2. Arrow B represents what type of curve?
• 3. What do we call Line C?
• 4. True/False
• The yellow line will likely increase, then
decrease and increase again.

Line C
B
A
Word Box Crash Curve
Overpopulation Normal Curve Explosion Curve
Carrying Capacity
B
143
BAY UNIT
• 46 MC
• 2 SR

144
Chesapeake Bay
• Geography and Economics
• 3 MC

145
3-2-1
• 3 What are three states in the Chesapeake Bay
watershed?
• 2 What are two rivers in Virginia?
• 1 - Name one problem that occurs from nutrient
pollution.

146
Soil and Erosion
• 1 MC

147
• The diagrams below show a natural process that
weathers rock.
• Which statement best explains why this process
results in weathering? (1) Frozen water acts as
a solute. (2) Water expands when it freezes.
(3) The mass of water increases when it freezes.
(4) Frozen water dissolves most types of rocks.

148
Water Pollution
• 23 MC

149
3-2-1 Exit
• 3 things that can cause erosion
• 2 ways we use the Codorus Creek
• 1 difference between topsoil and subsoil

150
3 facts and a fibPick out the fib.(incorrect
statement). Write the letter on your whiteboard.
• A. Sediment is a form of water pollution
• B. Nutrient pollution comes from nitrogen and
phosphorus
• C. Non-Point pollution comes from one specific
area or point
• D. Pesticides are a type of chemical pollution

151
Warm-up
• 1. List 3 main fossil fuels
• 2. Sewage treatment plants
• A. Point Pollution
• B. Non-Point Pollution
• C. Both
• 3. Acid Rain
• A. Point Pollution
• B. Non-Point Pollution
• C. Both
• 4. The bays major problem is
• A. Meanders
• B. Run-off
• C. Water is too acidic for plant life
• 5. Name two of the substances found in
fertilizers that farmers use and create problems
for the bay.
• A. Nitrogen and Oxygen
• B. Nitrogen and Hydrogen
• C. Nitrogen and Phosphorus

152
Nutrient Sediment Chemical
• 1. Source Pesticides
• 2. Problem Algae bloom
• 3. Source Fertilizer (Scat !)
• 4. Problem Blocks sunlight and covers organisms
• 5. Source Oil
• 6. Problem Affects reproduction in large
animals
• 7. Source Dirt

153
How does water go from Southwestern to the
Chesapeake Bay?
• 1.
• 2.
• 3.
• 4. Chesapeake Bay

154
• The diagram below shows some ways in which
groundwater can be affected by humans.
• 1. Which statement is best supported by the
diagram? (A) Chemicals applied by farmers lower
the level of pollution in drinking water. (B)
Drinking water can become polluted from
unsuspected sources. (C) Human activities do not
affect groundwater. (D) Toxic waste is safe if
buried below the level of the basements of nearby
homes.
• 2. What type of water pollution is the farmer
creating in this picture ?
• 3. What problems could this pollution create?

155
Three Facts and a FibWrite the of the fib out
of the four statements below.
• 1. The Susquehanna River dumps 50 of the water
into the Chesapeake Bay
• 2. The Rappahannock and James are two rivers in
the Chesapeake Bay watershed.
• 3. Maryland and New Jersey are states in the
Chesapeake Bay watershed
• 4. Plankton are microscopic drifters in the
Chesapeake Bay

156
• 1. The York River is in Virginia.
• 2. The Potomac River runs through Washington
D.C.
• 3. The James River is the most southern river in
the Bay watershed.
• 4. The Patuxent River runs through PA.

157
• 1. Sediment is the only type of water pollution.
• 2. Baltimore is a major economic center for the
Bay.
• 3. Crabs and Rockfish are two resources in the
Bay.
• 4. The Codorus Creek runs into the Susquehanna
River

158
3. MD
1PA.
• 2.W. VA

4. DE
159
Air Pollution
• 6 MC

160
• 1. Caused by car exhaust and combines with water
droplets to form a brown dust cloud
• 2. Hazardous gas that comes from the ground.
Long-term exposure can have negative effects on
the body.
• 3. Factory smoke combines with precipitation.
When it falls it drops the pH of the water.
• 4. Comes from exhaust and burning fuel. Very
harmful and fatal if large amounts of these are

161
• City administrators can encourage energy
conservation by (1) lowering parking fees (2)
building larger parking lots (3) decreasing the
cost of gasoline (4) lowering the cost of bus
and subway fares

162
• A pipe broke at the Emory Factory releasing a
large amount of oil into the Codorus Creek.
Scientists were able to trace the oil back to
this specific location.
• 1. What kind of pollution is this?
• A. Sediment
• B. Nutrient
• C. Chemical
• 2. Is this point or non-point?
• A. Point
• B. NonPoint
• 3. What kind of air pollution may a factory
create?
• A. Acid Rain
• C. Smog

163
• Which graph best represents the relationship
between the amount of pollutants in the air and
the quality of the air?

164
Global Issues
• Greenhouse Effect, Global Warming
• 5 MC
• 2 SR

165
Warm-up
• 1. The ozone layer protects us from
• A. Smog
• 2. Which statement is FALSE
• A. CFCs contribute to the ozone hole
• B. New laws ban the use of CFCs
• C. The ozone hole is not getting any bigger
• 3. In one or two sentences, how does carbon
dioxide affect the greenhouse effect and the
theory of global warming?

166
the graph below, which shows average yearly
temperatures for Earth from 1900 to 1990.
• Describe what happened to the average yearly
temperature on Earth from 1970 to 1990. Give one
possible reason why this change occurred.
• What was the lowest average yearly temperature in
the period of time shown?
• In which 10-year time interval did the average
yearly temperature show both an increase and a
decrease? 1       19151925       19251935
19451955       19751985

167
• Which factor contributes to global warming? (1)
increased use of solar-powered cars (2)
increased burning of fossil fuels (3) better
long-term weather forecasts (4) changing
distance between Earth and the Sun

168
Waste Disposal and Recycling
• 3 MC

169
Waste
• 1. What are the 3 methods of waste disposal?
• 2. Name 2 materials other than paper and plastic
that can be recycled
• 1. Name the 1 non-hazardous waste out of the
following group
• Nitroglycerin , Sour Milk, Hydrochloric acid,
Blood,

170
Agriculture
• 6 MC

171
• 1. With a partner, draw TWO best management
practices without writing down the answer. Label
them 1 and 2.
• After 5 minutes you will switch with another
group.
• (USE 6 Soil and Nutrient Run-off Conservation

172
1
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour Plowing
173
2
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour
Plowing
174
3
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour
Plowing
175
4
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour
Plowing
176
5
Water Control Structures Grass Waterways Stream
Bank Fencing Nutrient Management Contour
Plowing
177
Integrated Pest Management
• IPM