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Sports in Society: Issues

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Sports in Society: Issues & Controversies Chapter 5 Sports and Children: Are Organized Programs Worth the Effort? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sports in Society: Issues


1
Sports in SocietyIssues Controversies
  • Chapter 5
  • Sports and Children
  • Are Organized Programs Worth the Effort?

2
Origins of Organized Youth Sports
  • Organized youth sports emerged in the 20th
    Century
  • The first programs focused on masculinizing
    boys
  • Organized youth sports grew rapidly in many
    industrialized countries after World War II
  • Programs in the US emphasized competition as
    preparation for future occupational success
  • Girls interests generally were ignored

3
Youth sports grew after World War II
4
Social Changes Related to the Growth of Organized
Youth Sports
  • Increase in families with both parents working
    outside the home
  • New definitions of what it means to be a good
    parent
  • Growing belief that informal activities provide
    occasions for kids to get into trouble
  • Growing belief that the world is a dangerous
    place for children
  • Increased visibility of high-performance and
    professional sports in society

5
Youth Sports
6
Major Trends in Youth Sports Today
  • Organized programs have become increasingly
    privatized
  • Organized programs increasingly emphasize the
    performance ethic
  • An increased in elite training facilities
  • Increased involvement and concerns among parents
  • Increased participation in alternative sports

7
Youth SportsTypes of Sponsors
  1. Public, tax-supported community recreation
    programs
  2. Public, non-profit community organizations
  3. Private, nonprofit sport organizations
  4. Private commercial clubs

8
Privatized Youth Sport Programs
  • Growth is associated with the decline in publicly
    funded programs
  • Most common in middle- and upper-middle income
    areas
  • May reproduce economic and ethnic inequalities in
    society
  • May not be committed to gender equity
  • Private programs are not accountable in the same
    way as public programs

9
Tennis
  • Junior Tennis Tournaments
  • 10 and under
  • 10-12
  • 14-16
  • 16-18
  • 18s

10
The Performance Ethic
  • Refers to emphasizing measured outcomes as
    indicators of the quality of sport experiences
  • Fun becoming better
  • Emphasized in private programs
  • Related to parental notions of investing in their
    childrens future

11
Elite Sport Training Programs
  • Most common in private, commercial programs
  • Emphasize the potential for children to gain
    material rewards through sports
  • Children often work long hours and become like
    laborers, but programs are not governed by
    child labor laws
  • Raise ethical issues about adult-child
    relationships

12
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13
New Interests in Alternative Sports
  • A response to highly structured, adult-controlled
    organized programs
  • Revolve around desires to be expressive and
    spontaneous
  • May have high injury rates and patterns of
    exclusion related to gender and social class
  • Are being appropriated by large corporations for
    advertising purposes

14
Different Experiences
  • Formal Sports Emphasize
  • Formal rules
  • Set positions
  • Systematic guidance by adults
  • Status and outcomes
  • Informal Sports Emphasize
  • Action
  • Personal involvement
  • Challenging experiences
  • Reaffirming friendships

15
Different Outcomes
  • Formal Sports Emphasize
  • Relationships with authority figures
  • Learning rules and strategies
  • Rule-governed teamwork achievement
  • Informal Sports Emphasize
  • Interpersonal decision-making skills
  • Cooperation
  • Improvisation
  • Problem solving

16
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17
When Are Children Ready to Play Organized,
Competitive Sports?
  • Prior to age 12, many children dont have the
    ability to fully understand competitive team
    sports
  • They play beehive soccer
  • Children must lean how to cooperate before they
    can learn how to compete
  • Team sorts require the use of a third party
    perspective

18
COMPETITION
19
What Are the Dynamics of Family Relationships in
Youth Sports?
  • Sports have the potential to bring families
    together
  • Being together does not always mean that close
    communication occurs
  • Children may feel pressure from parents
  • Parent labor in youth sports often reproduces
    gendered ideas about work and family

20
Tiger Woods and His Dad
21
How Do Social Factors Influence Youth Sport
Experiences?
  • Participation opportunities vary by social class.
  • Encouragement often varies by gender and
    ability/disability.
  • Self-perceptions and social consequences of
    participation vary by social class, gender,
    race/ethnicity, ability/disability, and sexuality.

22
Recommendations for Changing Informal
Alternative Sports
  • Make play spaces more safe and accessible to as
    many children as possible
  • Be sensitive to social class and gender patterns
  • Provide indirect guidance without being
    controlling
  • Treat these sports as worthwhile sites for facing
    challenges and developing competence

23
Recommendations for Changing Organized Sports
  • Increase action
  • Increase personal involvement
  • Facilitate close scores and realistic challenges
  • Facilitate friendship formation and maintenance

24
Recommendations for Changing High-performance
Programs
  • Establish policies, procedures, and rules to
    account for the rights and interests of children
    participants
  • Create less controlling environments designed to
    promote growth, development, and empowerment

25
Coaching Education Programs
  • Are useful when they provide coaches with
    information on
  • Dealing with children safely and responsibly
  • Organizing practices and teaching skills
  • Can be problematic when they foster a
    techno-science approach to controlling children
    as they teach skills
  • Creating sports efficiency experts should not
    be the goal

26
TEST Part 1
  • True/False
  • ____1. Organize youth emerged in the 20th
    century.
  • ____2. Youth sport grew quickly after World War
    I.
  • ____3. Girls interest after the war was ignored.
  • ____4. A major trend today in youth sport is an
    increase in elite training facilities.
  • ____5. Type of sponsors for youth today is
    private only.
  • ____6. Private sponsors of youth sport always
    commit to gender equity.
  • ____7. An example today of organize youth sport
    is tennis tournament.
  • ____8. Today, all youth sport are traditional
    sports.
  • ____9. Children must learn to cooperate before
    they learn how to compete.

27
TEST Part 2
  • Select either A. Formal Sport B. Informal
    Sport
  • ____10. Learning rules and strategies
  • ____11. Relationship with authority figures
  • ____12. Cooperation
  • ____13. Rule governed teamwork
  • ____14. Improvisation
  • ____15. Problem solving

28
TEST Part III
  • Match the statements with topics
  • A. Recommendation for Changing High Performance.
  • B. Recommendation for Changing Organized Programs
  • C. Recommendation for changing Informal Sport
  • D. Coaching Education Program
  • E. Social Factor Influences on Youth Experience
  • ____16. Participation opportunities vary by
    social class.
  • ____17. Make play spaces more safe and
    accessible.
  • ____18. Create less controlling environment.
  • ____19. Creating sport experts should not be the
    goal.
  • ____20. Increase personal involvement.
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