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THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

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Title: THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR


1
THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
1861-1865
2
Causes?
3
The Civil War Union vs Confederacy
4
Confederate Union
5
The first States secede
6
Advantages of the Union
  • - population - 22 million
  • - 90 of industrial goods, esp. munitions
  • - efficient railroad system (5x more)
  • - controlled the navy, which could be
    used to blockade Southern ports
  • - capable military leaders,
  • Ulysses S. Grant
  • William Sherman
  • George Custer
  • Winfield Scott

7
General Ulysses S. Grant Ohio
8
General William T. Sherman Ohio
9
General George Custer Ohio/Michigan
10
Disadvantages of the Union
  • Not familiar with area
  • Offensive attacks
  • Others?

11
Confederate Advantages
  • Excellent generals
  • -Robert E. Lee
  • Thomas Stonewall Jackson
  • George Pickett
  • Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Defense rather than offense
  • familiar w/climate and territory
  • Farmers fight better than factory workers

12
General Robert E. Lee Virginia
13
General Thomas Stonewall Jackson Virginia (WV)
14
General George Pickett Virginia
15
General Nathan Bedford Forrest Tennessee
16
Disadvantages of the Confederacy
  • Smaller population 9 million (includes 3.5
    million slaves)
  • Have to import all industrial goods
  • Including ammunition
  • Others?

17
Firing on Fort Sumter
  • April 12, 1861 Charleston, South Carolina
  • 430 AM
  • Confederate generals began firing upon Fort
    Sumter
  • occupied by Union troops
  • SC demanded that Union abandon its occupation of
    fort
  • Bombardment lasted until the Union forces
    surrendered the fort at 230 PM, April 14.
  • Video

18
Response to Fort Sumter
  • Beginning of the Civil War
  • President Lincoln issues Proclamation calling for
    the raising of an army
  • Further secession Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee,
    North Carolina
  • President Lincoln issues a Proclamation of
    Blockade against Southern ports

19
First Bull Run
  • July 21, 1861
  • Union Army defeated at Bull Run
  • 25 miles southwest of Washington
  • General Thomas Jackson earns nickname Stonewall
  • Able to resist Union troop attacks
  • Lincoln realizes the war will be long

20
Monitor and Merrimac
  • Confederate ship Merrimac
  • Sinks 2 wooden Union ships then takes on the
    Unions Ironclad
  • Union ship Monitor
  • Naval warfare changed forever
  • Wooden ships are obsolete

21
Metal Ships
22
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23
Monitor at Dock
24
Shiloh
  • April 6/7, 1862
  • Confederate surprise attack on General Grants
    troops
  • Grant and his men are not prepared
  • 13,000 Union troops killed and wounded
  • 10,000 Confederate men killed and wounded

25
Fall of New Orleans
  • April 24, 1862
  • 17 Union ships move up the Mississippi River and
    take New Orleans
  • Souths greatest seaport
  • Impact?

26
Second Battle of Bull Run
  • August 29/30, 1862 northern Virginia
  • 75,000 Union soldiers are defeated by 55,000
    Confederate soldiers under the command of
    Stonewall Jackson
  • Union army retreats to Washington

27
Antietam
  • September 17, 1862 Maryland
  • Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Army is stopped
    by the Union Army
  • Union army is numerically superior
  • By nightfall, 26,000 men are dead, wounded, or
    missing
  • Lee withdraws to Virginia
  • Bloodiest day in U.S. military history

28
Confederate Dead at Antietam
29
Lincoln Visits Antietam
30
Fredericksburg
  • December 13, 1862 Fredericksburg, VA
  • Severe loss for the Union
  • 12,653 Union soldiers killed after 14 frontal
    assaults on entrenched Confederate soldiers
  • Confederate losses 5,309
  • We might as well have tried to take hell.

31
Emancipation Proclamation
  • January 1, 1863
  • Only freed slaves living in states that had
    seceded from the Union
  • Confederate States of America
  • Did not free slaves in border states

32
Union Draft
  • March 3, 1863
  • Congress enact a draft
  • Male citizens 20-45 required to enlist
  • Or pay 300 for a substitute
  • The blood of a poor man is as precious as that
    of the wealthy.

33
Chancellorsville
  • May 1-4, 1863 Chancellorsville, VA
  • Union army (130,000 soldiers)defeated by Lees
    army (60,000 soldiers)
  • Brilliant and daring tactics used by Lee
  • Split army into several sections
  • General Stonewall Jackson is mortally wounded by
    friendly fire, arm was amputated
  • Died 8 days later due to complications and
    pneumonia
  • Severe setback to Confederacy
  • Lee felt like he had lost his right arm
  • Union losses 17,197
  • Confederate losses 13,303

34
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36
Gettysburg- Turning Point
  • July 1-3, 1863 Gettysburg, PA
  • July 1st early Union success followed by
    Confederates pushing back and exploiting weak
    section of Union Army
  • July 2nd Confederates capture small areas but
    are not able to completely dilodge Union
    defenders
  • July 3rd Union regains lost ground, heavy
    artillery bombardment against Lee
  • Picketts Charge Confederate troops mowed down
    by Union while marching across field
  • Lee retreats back to Virginia
  • Largest battle in the history of the Western
    Hemisphere
  • Over 100,000 casualties in only 3 days
  • Approximately 51,000 from both sides killed,
    wounded, or missing
  • Last time the South invaded the North

37
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38
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39
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40
Vicksburg
  • July 4, 1863
  • Last area of Confederate strong hold of the
    Mississippi River
  • Surrender to General Grant
  • Union now in complete control of the Mississippi
  • Confederacy is split into two

41
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42
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43
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44
Gettysburg Address
  • that from these honored dead we take increased
    devotion to that cause for which they gave the
    last full measure of devotion -- that we here
    highly resolve that these dead shall not have
    died in vain -- that this nation, under God,
    shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that
    government of the people, by the people, for the
    people, shall not perish from the earth.
  • Abraham Lincoln

45
Gettysburg Address
  • November 19, 1863
  • 2 minute speech given by Abraham Lincoln
  • Dedicates the battlefield as a National Cemetary
  • Reiterated the reasons for this terrible war
  • Human equality bring true equality to all
  • Struggle for the preservation of the Union

46
Cold Harbor
  • June 3, 1864 Cold Harbor, Virginia
  • Costly mistake by Grant
  • 7,000 Union casualties in 20 minutes
  • Attacked well fortified rebel soldiers

47
Sherman takes Atlanta
  • May 4, 1864-November 15, 1864
  • Sherman and his soldiers (100,000) leave the west
    and make their way to Atlanta
  • Goal Capture Atlanta
  • July 20th reach Atlanta
  • September 2nd Capture Atlanta
  • Atlanta is ours, and fairly won.- telegraph to
    Lincoln

48
Shermans March to the Sea
  • After destroying Atlantas warehouses, railroads,
    etc., Sherman wants to march to the sea
  • Destroy everything in his path on his way to
    Savannah
  • Idea approved by Lincoln
  • I can make Georgia howl!-Sherman
  • December 21, 1864 Sherman reaches Savannah
  • 300 miles of destruction, 60 miles wide
  • Offers Savannah to Lincoln as a Christmas present
    through telegraph

49
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50
Text of Telegraph
To his Excellency, President Lincoln, I beg to
present you as a Christmas gift the city of
Savannah with 150 heavy guns and plenty of
ammunition, and also about twenty-five thousand
bales of cotton. W. T. Sherman Maj-Genl
51
Blacks in the Military
  • After the Emancipation Proclamation blacks began
    to join the Union Army
  • Initially they were only used for manual labor
  • Eventually, Blacks saw live combat
  • 54th regiment out of Massachusetts

William Carney
52
The 54th Regiment attack on Fort Wagner, SC- July
18, 1863
53
Appomattox Courthouse
  • April 3, 1865 - Grant took Richmond Va. - final
    blow to Lee's army
  • Lee surrenders on April 9, 1865 at APPOMATTOX
    COURTHOUSE
  • All Confed. troops forced to take an oath of
    loyalty to U.S.
  • otherwise, terms of surrender were lenient
  • Lincoln didn't want a humiliated South and
    further conflict
  • issue of states' rights now "solved"- fed. gov't
    had asserted its status

54
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55
After four bloody years of civil war, the South
was defeated.
56
Over 618,000 military deaths during Civil War.
57
  • POLITICAL / ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS
  • Without Southerners in fed. gov't, many changes
    occurred that benefited the North
  • 1) Homestead Act passed by Congress in 1862 -
    encouraged W. expansion w/o slavery
  • - 165 acres given to anyone who would farm
    it 5 yrs.
  • 2) Union-Pacific Railway was authorized - great
    trade potential, focused on the Northern States.
  • 3) Tariffs were put in place to protect Northern
    industry

58
  • 4) single federal currency established - same
    value in all states - known as "Greenbacks"
  • 5) to cover war debts, Union gov't issued war
    bonds and introduced income tax
  • 6) in a further illustration of fed. gov't power,
    Lincoln's gov't restricted civil liberties so
    nothing would detract from Union war effort
    (suspended Habeas Corpus)
  • - free press/ speech also interrupted
  • 7) 1864 Election - only in Union
  • - pitted Republican Lincoln against Democrat
    General McClellan ? Lincoln won easily, assuring
    that war will continue (N. Democrats wanted an
    end)

59
Lincolns Reelection
  • Election of 1864
  • Lincoln wins 55 percent of the popular vote and
    213/233 electoral college votes

60
  • EFFECTS OF CIVIL WAR
  • creation of a single unified country
  • abolition of slavery
  • increased power to fed. gov't killed the issue
    of states rights
  • U.S. now an industrial nation
  • a stronger sense of nationalism
  • w. lands increasingly opened to settlement
  • South was economically and physically devastated,
    w/ the plantation system crippled...thus
    Reconstruction (rebuilding the U.S.) - but a deep
    hatred of the North remained...

61
Thirteenth Amendment
  • January 31, 1865
  • US Congress approves thirteenth amendment
  • Abolishes slavery
  • Amendment submitted to the states for ratification

62
Before After
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