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Socialization, Social Groups, and Stratification

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Socialization, Social Groups, and Stratification Horizontal Mobility A change in occupation within the same social class Vertical Mobility A change upward or downward ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Socialization, Social Groups, and Stratification


1
Socialization, Social Groups, and Stratification
2
Socialization
  • The process of learning how to participate in a
    group
  • Begins at infancy
  • Agents of socialization
  • Family
  • Peers
  • Media
  • Religion
  • Education
  • Work

3
Looking Glass Self
  • An image of yourself based on what you believe
    others think of you
  • People shape themselves based on other people's
    perception, which leads the people to reinforce
    other people's perspectives on themselves

4
Self Concept
  • An image of yourself as having an identity
    separate from others
  • Contains three parts
  • 1. Self-esteem it is where one makes judgments
    about his or her self-worth.
  • Stability refers to the organization and
    continuity of one's self-concept.
  • Self-efficacy is self-confidence. It is
    specifically connected with one's abilities,
    unlike self-esteem

5
Social Interactions
  • The process of influencing each other as people
    relate

6
Significant Other
  • Those people whose reactions are most important
    to your self concept

7
Social Exchange
  • A voluntary action performed in the expectation
    of getting a reward in return
  • Social exchange theory states all human
    relationships are formed by the use of a
    subjective cost-benefit analysis and the
    comparison of alternatives.
  • If I help my mom she will give me gas money

8
Coercion
  • Interaction in which individuals or groups are
    forced to behave a particular way

9
Conformity
  • Behavior that matches the groups expectations

10
Group Think
  • Self deceptive thinking that is based on
    conformity to group beliefs and created by group
    pressure to conform

11
Cooperation
  • Interaction in which individuals/groups combine
    their efforts to reach a goal

12
Conflict
  • Interaction aimed at defeating an opponent

13
Group/Cliques
  • Composed of people who share several features
  • Usually begins in early adolescence
  • Usually consist of five or six people who are
    homogeneous in age, gender, race, social status,
    and socioeconomic background
  • During late adolescence, the clique typically
    dissolves into associated sets of couples, which
    then remain the primary social unit into and
    throughout adulthood.

14
Features of a group
  • Frequent contact with each other
  • Similar ways of thinking feeling and behavior
  • Similar reaction to one anothers behavior
  • One or more interests or goals

15
Social Category
  • People who share a social characteristic

Ethnicity/Nationality
Occupation
Gender
Race
Age
Marital Status
16
Social Aggregate
  • People temporarily in the same place at the same
    time but do not interact or share the same
    characteristics

17
Mechanical Solidarity
  • People feel connected through similar work,
    educational and religious training, and lifestyle

18
Organic Solidarity
  • Social cohesion based upon the dependence
    individuals have on each other in more advanced
    societies
  • Although individuals perform different tasks and
    often have different values and interest, the
    order and very solidarity of society depends on
    their reliance on each other to perform their
    specified tasks

19
Status
  • A position a person occupies within a social
    structure

20
Ascribed Status
  • Position that is neither earned nor chosen but it
    assigned

21
Achieved Status
  • A position that is earned or chosen

22
Master Status
  • A position that strongly affects most aspects of
    a persons life

Religious Beliefs
Sexual orientation
Age and Gender
Race and Ethnicity
23
Social Stratification
  • Division of large numbers of people according to
    power, property, gender and prestige.
  • This applies to nations, societies, sexes and
    other groups

24
Social Class
  • Segment of society whose members hold similar
    amounts of resources and share values, norms, and
    identifiable lifestyles
  • Based on money and material things

25
Income
  • The amount of money received by an individual or
    group over a specific period of time

26
Wealth
  • Total economic resources held by a person or a
    group

27
Power
  • The ability to control the behavior of others
    even against their will

28
Prestige
  • Recognition, respect, and admiration attached to
    social positions
  • Jobs that pay more, require more education,
    entail more abstract thought, offer greater
    autonomy
  • Job prestige brings power- Elite- the top people
    in corporations, military, politics that make
    nations major decisions
  • Different occupations have different levels of
    prestige

29
False Consciousness
  • Adoption of the ideas of the dominant class by
    the less powerful class

30
Class Consciousness
  • Identification with the goals and interests of a
    social class

31
Absolute Poverty
  • The absence of enough money to secure lifes
    necessities

32
Relative Poverty
  • Measure of poverty based on the economic
    disparity between those at the bottom of society
    and the rest of society

33
Social Mobility
  • The movement of individuals or groups between
    social classes

34
Horizontal Mobility
  • A change in occupation within the same social
    class

35
Vertical Mobility
  • A change upward or downward in occupation
    status/social class

36
Intergenerational Mobility
  • Class status change from one generation to the
    next
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