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Essential Question:

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Transition to Modern America Essential Question: What led to the economic, social, & urban changes of the Roaring 20s ? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essential Question:


1
Transition to Modern America
  • Essential Question
  • What led to the economic, social, urban changes
    of the Roaring 20s?

2
The Second Industrial Revolution
3
America in the 1920s
  • America was changed by the industrialism of the
    Gilded Age the economic boom of WWI
  • During the 1920s
  • The USA was the richest most developed country
    in the world
  • Wages rose, hours declined, Americans had
    access to new, innovative consumer goods

4
The Second Industrial Revolution
The increase of national name brands (rather than
locally produced goods) linked Americans more
than ever
  • From 1922 to 1929, the U.S. had a 2nd industrial
    boom
  • Mostly in consumer durable goods like appliances,
    cars, radios, furniture, clothing
  • Electricity replaced steam power
  • Corporations used salaried executives, plant
    managers, engineers to increase efficiency

5
The Second Industrial Revolution
  • To stop the growth of labor unions companies used
    welfare capitalism
  • Offered employees stock, house-purchase,
    insurance options
  • Used an open shop offered non-union workers
    the same rights that unions gained
  • After WWI, the federal govt Supreme Court
    reverted back to a pro-business stance

6
Henry Ford revolutionized the assembly line, the
5-day, new marketing advertising techniques,
annual model changes
The consumer goods revolution was best seen in
the auto industry
The work moves and the men stand still
Henry Fords River Rouge plant emphasized
uniformity, speed, precision, coordination
The auto industry stimulated the steel, sheet
metal, rubber, glass, petroleum industries
7
The auto industry led to the construction of
roads new filling stations
8
and new suburban shopping centers Kansas
Citys Country Club Plaza was the 1st U.S.
shopping mall (built in 1924)
9
Glenwood Stove Ad
1920s consumerism led to luxury living New
appliances like refrigerators, washing
machines, vacuums
10
1920s advertising
11
1920s consumerism led to luxury living Radios
movies boomed
100 million Americans went to the movies in 1929
per week
The first talkie
NBC was the 1st successful radio network
12
Economic Weaknesses
  • The Roaring 20s was not as prosperous as it
    appeared
  • RR, cotton textile, coal industries suffered due
    to new competition
  • Farmers boomed during WWI but a decline in demand
    after the war deflated farm prices

Farm per capita income was 273 per year vs. the
U.S. average of 681 per year
13
Economic Weaknesses
  • Union membership dropped due to improved
    conditions links to Debs radical socialism
  • Northern migration of blacks grew but workers
    gained menial jobs faced racism
  • Growth in income was unequal with middle-class
    managers, bankers, engineers benefiting the most
    from the new affluence

14
Social Changes in the Jazz Age
15
Women and the Family
  • Change ( continuity) for women
  • Female workers after WWI were limited to
    teachers, nurses, other low-paying jobs
  • The 19th Amendment
    gave women the
    right to vote but few
    women voted

16
Alice Pauls National Womens Party (NWP) failed
to pass an Equal Rights Amendment
17
Women and the Family
  • Flappers rebelled against Victorian customs
  • Divorce rates doubled

Butmost women looked forward to lives as a
mother and a wife
The creation and fulfillment of a successful
homecompares favorably with building a beautiful
cathedral. Ladies Home Journal
18
Women and the Family
  • Families became smaller due to greater access to
    birth control
  • Children were no longer need to work to support
    their families
  • Teens began to discover their adolescence
    revolt against their parents by drinking, having
    premarital sex, searching for new forms of
    excitement

I have been kissed by dozens of men. I suppose
Ill kiss dozens more. character in F. Scott
Fitzgerald novel
19
The Flowering of the Arts
  • The Harlem Renaissance reflected the explosion of
    black culture the New Negro
  • Jazz Blues expressed the social realities of
    blacks Louis Armstrong became very popular
  • Langston Hughes poetry, novels, plays promoted
    equality, condemned racism, celebrated black
    culture

20
Josephine Baker, internationally renowned
singer/dancer
You could be black proud, politically
assertive economically independent, creative
disciplinedor so it seemed
21
The Flowering of the Arts
The Waste Land focused on a sterile U.S. society
  • The 1920s gave rise to a new class of
    intellectuals who condemned the new American
    industrial society materialism
  • Pessimistic Literature TS Eliot, Ezra Pound,
    Sinclair Lewis, F Scott Fitzgerald,
    Hemmingway
  • Playwrights Eugene ONeill
  • Music Gershwin Copland

Poetry discussed a botched wasteland
Main Streetnarrow-minded small towns
Great Gatsbyhuman emptiness
Romantic individualism violence
Plays of tragic pipedreams
22

Marcus Garvey
  • Marcus Garvey was the preeminent civil rights
    activist of the 1920s
  • Oppression in the U.S. necessitated strict
    segregation black nationalism
  • He formed the United Negro Improvement Assoc
    advocated a return to Africa

The most dangerous enemy of the Negro
race W.E.B. DuBois
23
Closure Activity The Long Road to Womens
Suffrage
  • What was a typical womans role in each era in
    American history?
  • Colonial life
  • Revolutionary era
  • Antebellum South
  • 19th century sphere reform
  • Progressive era

24
The Rural Counterattack
25
  • Essential Question
  • To what extent did the new economic, social,
    urban changes of the Roaring 20s conflict with
    the traditional values of rural America?
  • Warm-Up Question
  • How did the 1920s change Americans lives?

26
City Life in the Jazz Age
The shift in focus from the countryside revealed
that urban life was different traditional ties
of home, church, schools were absent
  • The 1920 census revealed for the 1st time that
    more Americans lived in cities than the
    countryside

The New York City skyline in 1930
Skyscrapers gave cities a unique architectural
style
27
The Rural Counterattack
  • Rural Americans identified cities with saloons,
    whorehouses, communist cells, immorality
  • The 1920s saw an attempt to restore a
    Protestant culture in America an attack on
    any un-American behavior like drinking,
    illiteracy, immigration

28
Prohibition
  • In Jan 1920, Congress passed the Volstead Act to
    enforce the 18th Amendment (1919)
  • 26 states had already banned alcohol but the real
    conflict came when prohibition was applied to
    urban ethnic groups
  • Rural America became dry urban consumption
    dropped but was severely resisted

A rural, Protestant attack on the social disease
of drunkenness
29
(No Transcript)
30
Per capita consumption of alcohol (1910-1929)
31
(No Transcript)
32
The Ku Klux Klan
  • The rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan in 1915 (Stone
    Mtn, GA) was aimed at blacks, immigrants, Jews,
    Catholics, prostitutes
  • The Invisible Empire sought to ease rural
    anxieties in the face of changing cultural
    attitudes
  • Used violence, kidnapping, murder, politics to
    affect change

33
The KKK provided a sense of identity to its
members Womens Order, Junior Order for boys,
Tri-K Klub for girls, Krusaders for assimilated
immigrants
Klan violence met resistance membership
declined by 1925
34
D.W. Griffiths The Birth of a Nation (1915) was
one of the most controversial films in movie
history. Set during after the Civil War, the
film glorifies white supremacy the KKK
35
The Fear of Radicalism
  • The most dramatic rural reaction was the Red
    Scare (1919-1920)
  • A general workers strike in Seattle, police
    strike in Boston, series of mail bombs led to
    fears of anarchy socialism
  • Deportation without due process, searches without
    warrants, imprisonment of innocent people was
    initially backed by the American people

Including the bombing of Attorney General
Palmers house in 1919
36
Palmers Soviet Ark
The solution is simple S.O.S.ship or shoot
Place the Bolsheviks on ships of stone with
sails of lead
Stand them up before the firing squad and save
space on our ships
37
Italian immigrants Nicola Sacco Bartolomeo
Vanzetti were executed for armed robbery murder
without evidence
The judge in the case even referred to Sacco
Vanzetti as those anarchist bastards
38
Immigration Restriction
This act still allowed over 500,000 immigrants
mostly from South East Europe
  • Many feared mass immigration to the U.S. among
    Europeans escaping post-war rebuilding
  • The Immigration Act (1921) placed a cap on
    European immigration to 3 of each ethnic groups
    U.S. population
  • The National Origins Quota Act (1924) limited
    U.S. immigration to 150,000 total Allocated most
    spots to British, Irish, Germans

Immigration restrictions (unlike the Red
Scare, Prohibition, or the KKK) lasted beyond the
1920s (into 1960s)
39
The Fundamentalist Challenge
Pentecostals, Church of Christ, Jehovahs
Witnesses all grew in membership
  • The most long-lasting reaction of rural America
    was a retreat to Christian beliefs
  • Aggressive fundamentalist churches provided a
    haven for rural American values
  • The Scopes Monkey Trial revealed the rural
    attack on evolution in schools

40
Conclusions
  • Urban America came to define all of the United
    States in the 1920s
  • Radio, movies, advertising reflected urban
    culture
  • Consumer goods were made in American cities
  • Small-town whites, blacks, immigrants moved to
    cities
  • But, conservative rural Americans (religious
    fundamentalists KKK) attacked these new, urban
    ideas

41
Closure ActivityThe Urban vs. Rural Debate
  • Examine the list of events of the 1920s. Pick 4
    and describe urban and rural perspectives for
    each.
  • Discussion questions
  • Why did the rural counter-attack occur in the
    1920s? Why not earlier?
  • Are any of the arguments among rural Americans
    justified? Explain
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