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Title: Griggs Chapter 8: Personality Theories and Assessment Author: J. W. Taylor V Last modified by: Sarah Mead Created Date: 3/26/2015 3:53:05 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Personality

  • AP Psychology

AP students in psychology should be able to do
the following
  • Compare and contrast the major theories and
    approaches to explaining personality
    psychoanalytic, humanist, cognitive, trait,
    social learning, and behavioral.
  • Describe and compare research methods (e.g., case
    studies and surveys) that psychologists use to
    investigate personality.
  • Identify frequently used assessment strategies
    (e.g., the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
    Inventory MMPI, the Thematic Apperception Test
    TAT), and evaluate relative test quality based
    on reliability and validity of the instruments.
  • Speculate how cultural context can facilitate or
    constrain personality development, especially as
    it relates to self-concept (e.g., collectivistic
    versus individualistic cultures).
  • Identify key contributors to personality theory
    (e.g., Alfred Adler, Albert Bandura, Sigmund
    Freud, Carl Jung, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers).

Lesson One Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • Identify key contributors to personality theory
    (e.g., Alfred Adler, Albert Bandura, Paul Costa
    and Robert McCrae, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung,
    Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers).

Preview p.132
  • Freud called dreams the royal road to the
    unconscious. Do you believe that dreams on
    actually help us understand our hidden desires?
  • If so, explain.
  • If not, what other functions do dreams have?

  • Personality - A unique pattern of consistent
    feelings, thoughts, and behaviors that originate
    within the individual.

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Freudian Classical Psychoanalytic Theory of
  • Developed by Sigmund Freud in the late nineteenth
    century and continued until his death in 1939
  • Believed sex was a primary cause of emotional
    problems and was a critical component of his
    personality theory
  • Remains an important influence in Western culture
    pop culture

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The Id (The Devil)
  • Is the original personality, the only part
    present at birth.
  • Resides in the unconscious mind
  • Includes our biological instinctual drives
  • Life instincts for survival, reproduction, and
  • Death instincts, destructive and aggressive
    drives detrimental to survival
  • Operates on a pleasure principle -demands
    immediate gratification for these drives without
    the concern for the consequences of this

The Superego (The Angel)
  • Represents ones conscience and idealized
    standards of behavior in their culture
  • Operates on a morality principle, threatening to
    overwhelm us with guilt and shame
  • To prevent being overcome with anxiety because of
    trying to satisfy the id and superego demands,
    the ego uses what Freud called

The Ego (The Result)
  • Starts developing during the first year or so of
    life to find realistic and socially-acceptable
    outlets for the ids needs
  • Operates on the reality principle, finding
    gratification for instinctual drives within the
    constraints of reality (the norms and laws of
  • Defense mechanisms - processes that distort
    reality and protect us from anxiety

Freuds Psychosexual Stage Theory
  • Was developed chiefly from his own childhood
    memories and from his interactions with his
  • An erogenous zone is the area of the body where
    the ids pleasure-seeking psychic energy is
    focused during a particular stage of psychosexual
  • Fixation occurs when a portion of the ids
    pleasure-seeking energy remains in a stage
    because of excessive gratification or frustration
    of our instinctual needs.

Freuds Psychosexual States of Personality
Stage (age range) Erogenous Zone Activity Focus
Oral (birth - 1½ years) Mouth, lips, and tongue Sucking, biting, and chewing
Anal (1½ - 3 years) Anus Bowel retention and elimination
Phallic (3 - 6 years) Genitals Identifying with same-sex parent to learn gender role and sense of morality
Latency (6 years - puberty) None Cognitive and social development
Genital (puberty - adulthood) Genitals Mature sexual orientation and experience of intimate relationships
Potty Training
  • Parents try to get the child to have self-control
    during toilet training
  • If the child reacts to harsh toilet training by
    trying to get even with the parents by
    withholding bowel movements, an anal-retentive
    personality with the traits of orderliness,
    neatness, stinginess, and obstinacy develops
  • The anal-expulsive personality develops when the
    child rebels against the harsh training and has
    bowel movements whenever and wherever he

Phallic Stage Conflicts
  • In the Oedipus conflict, the little boy becomes
    sexually attracted to his mother and fears the
    father (his rival) will find out and castrate him
  • In the Electra conflict, the little girl is
    attracted to her father because he has a penis
    she wants one and feels inferior without one
    (penis envy)

Defense Mechanisms
Repression Unknowingly placing an unpleasant memory or thought in the unconscious so that we are not anxious about them the primary defense mechanism Not remembering a traumatic incident in which you witnessed a crime
Regression Reverting back to immature behavior from an earlier stage of development Throwing temper tantrums as an adult when you dont get your way
Displacement Redirecting unacceptable feelings from the original source to a safer substitute target Taking your anger toward your boss out on your spouse or children by yelling at them and not your boss
Defense Mechanisms
Sublimation Replacing socially unacceptable impulses with socially acceptable behavior Channeling aggressive drives into playing football or inappropriate sexual desires into art
Reaction Formation Acting in exactly the opposite way to ones unacceptable impulses Being overprotective of and lavishing attention on an unwanted child
Projection Attributing ones own unacceptable feelings and thoughts to others and not yourself Accusing your boyfriend of cheating on you because you have felt like cheating on him
Rationalization Creating false excuses for ones unacceptable feelings, thoughts, or behavior Justifying cheating on an exam by saying that everyone else cheats
Defense Mechanisms
  • Quiz Quiz Trade Read the definition or example
    your partner should select the correct defense

Rationalization Displacement Sublimation Denial
Reaction Formation Projection Repression Regres
sion Intellectualization
Criticisms of Freuds theory (Neo-Freudian)
  • 1. Rejected idea that adult personality is
    completely formed by 5- or 6-years old.
  • 2. Argued that Freuds focused too much on
    biological instincts (ignored social factors.)
  • 3. The overall negative tone of Freuds theories
    was not seen as effective by later clinical

Neo-Freudian Theories of Personality
  • Agree with many of Freuds basic ideas, but
    differ in one or more important ways

Carl Jungs Collective Unconscious
Alfred Adlers Striving for Superiority
Karen Horneyand the Need for Security
Neo-Freudian thoughts
  • Many of Freuds followers joined the Vienna
    Psychoanalytic Society. This society, led by
    Freud, focused on Freuds view of personality.
  • Freud disagreed strongly with anyone who
    challenged his views.
  • Several members of the group, left to form their
    own views of personality (schools, associations).

Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • Born in Switzerland, the son of a Protestant
    Minister, Jung was a quiet, introspective child
    who kept to himself.
  • Pondered the nature of dreams visions he
  • Jung earned his M.D. degree in 1900 went on to
    study schizophrenia, consciousness, hypnosis.
  • He became interested in Freud after reading The
    Interpretation of Dreams.

More about Jung
  • Jung Freud met in 1907 became close
  • Jung formally left Freuds group in 1913.
  • Jung spent the next 7 years in intense
    introspectionled to his theory of personality.

The Collective Unconscious
  • There are common themes experiences that all
    people in all cultures experience.
  • Examples (God(s))
  • 1. Christianity God
  • 2. Islam-Allah
  • 3. Hindu Multiple Gods

The collective unconscious is made up of
primordial images.
  • These images called archetypes, are the universal
    symbolic images of a particular person, object,
    or experience.
  • Example the archetype of mother is in the
    childs collective unconscious.

Mythology Common themes across cultures
(ancient, recent)
  • If you look throughout all human history you can
    identify these following themes
  • Hero heroine
  • (Luke or Leia)
  • Villain
  • (Darth Vader)
  • Naïve youth wise old-sage
  • (Luke and Obi-Wan)

Shadow Our dark side
  • This is the unconscious part of ourselves that is
  • Jung argued you couldnt have good without evil.
  • This concept is found throughout every culture.

Other common archetypes
  • Mother/Father
  • God/Devil
  • Hero/Heroine (Knight, Warrior)
  • Damsel (Princess)
  • Alchemist (Wizard, Magician, Scientist, Inventor)
  • (Fairy Godmother/Godfather)
  • Teacher (Instructor, Mentor)

  • Jung believed that the goal of personality
    development was to realize the self
  • Individuation the process in which a person
    becomes an individual (unified whole)
  • Your opposing forces are in harmony

Carl Jungs Other Terms
  • Jung proposed two main personality attitudes,
    extraversion and introversion
  • Extraversion Outgoing
  • and excitable.
  • Introversion Quiet and
  • slower to warm up.

Alfred Adlers Striving for Superiority
  • An Austrian physician, Adler was one of the first
    to break from Freuds group (1911).
  • Rejected Freuds notion of penis envy, argued
    that women really envy mens power status.
  • Main difference Adler emphasized importance of
    conscious goal-directed behavior down played
    unconscious influences.

More about Adler
  • All humans begin life with a sense of
  • We are helpless as children need adults to
  • Adler argued we struggle the rest of our lives to
    overcome this feeling of inferiority.

We struggle to overcome inferiority.
  • Adler called this natural instinct striving for
  • Striving for superiority doesnt mean being
    superior over others, rather to improve
  • Our primary motivation is to improve ourselves.

What happens if we fail?
  • If we fail to overcome feelings of vulnerability
    weakness, we develop an inferiority complex.
  • Here, an individual believes they are inferior
    feel powerless, weak, helpless.

Birth Order shapes personality
  • First-Born- are often pampered showered with
  • Are likely to have problems later
  • Middle-Born-not pampered, must share attention
    with siblings.
  • Last-Born- pampered through out life.
  • Are likely to have problems later
  • Big Idea Pampering leads to problems

Karen Horney and The Need for Security
  • Focused on dealing with our need for security,
    rather than a sense of inferiority
  • Three neurotic personality patterns
  • Feelings of security with result in
  • Moving toward people A compliant, submissive
  • Feelings of helplessness and insecurity will
    result in
  • Moving against peopleAn aggressive, domineering
  • Moving away from people A detached, aloof person

Humanistic Approach
  • Humanistic theories developed in the 1960s as a
    part of a response to the psychoanalytic and
    behavioral psychological approaches that then
    dominated psychology and the study of personality
  • The humanistic approach emphasizes conscious free
    will in ones actions, the uniqueness of the
    individual person, and personal growth

Maslow Quotes
  • If you plan on being anything less than you are
    capable of being, you will probably be unhappy
    all the days of your life.
  • The ability to be in the present moment is a
    major component of mental wellness.
  • The story of the human race is the story of men
    and women selling themselves short.

The Humanistic Approach to Personality
  • Abraham Maslow is considered the father of the
    humanistic movement
  • Maslows hierarchy of needs is an arrangement of
    the innate needs that motivate our behavior, from
    the strongest needs at the bottom of the pyramid
    to the weakest needs at the top of the pyramid
  • Self Actualization To develop or achieve ones
    true potential.

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What do you think? - Discussion
  • What do you think about this whole concept of
  • Do you believe that all subsequent needs must be
    met before you can be self-actualized?
  • Do people have self-actualized moments in life?
  • If you achieve self-actualization, can you
  • I have seen Maslow in almost every college class
    I took (even outside of psychology and
    sociology). Do you agree that it should be

Rogers Self Theory
  • Big Idea We want acceptance by others and
  • Self Organized, consistent set of beliefs and
    perceptions about ourselves
  • 1. Develop in response to our life experiences
  • 2. We modify our self in response to the exps.
  • BIG Theory Unconditional Positive Regard We
    are born with the need to be accepted by others
    and ourselves when we arent accepted, we
    disapprove of ourselves and have low self-esteem.

  • If we dont accept who we are OR are not accepted
    by others, then we have develop problems.
  • Real Self Who we are
  • Ideal Self- Who we want to be (society can
    influence this)
  • Fully Functioning Rogers term for

Process p.132
  • Have you had someone in your life who accepted
    you unconditionally?
  • Do you think this person helped you to know
    yourself better and to develop a better image of

Preview p.134
  • With the popularity of online social networking
    forums, such as Facebook and Twitter,
    relationships have become even more complicated.
  • Do you start or maintain relationships (friendly
    or otherwise) with people you dont know in
    real life? Why or why not?
  • How can you tell if someone is being genuine
    online? What are some of your own criteria for
    determining someones personality?

George Kelly The Social-Cognitive Approach to
  • Big Idea We constantly are assessing who we are
    based on what we know and learn
  • George Kelly Personal Construct Theory
  • We use personal constructs (labels to help us
    categorize our world) to understand the world
    around us
  • We assess similarities and differences and then
    identify with what we like/dont like.

Banduras Self-System
  • Big Idea We learn who we are by observational
  • Reciprocal determinism We are who we are
    because of
  • 1. A persons characteristics how we think
  • 2. A persons behavior how we act
  • 3. The environment society
  • Self Efficacy We want to accomplish tasks so we
    feel competent.
  • Individualism We want to get better as
    individuals (American/Western European viewpoint)
  • Collectivism We want to get better as a group
    (Japan, China, India.)

Social-Cognitive Perspective
  • r
  • Reciprocal determinism
  • Interacting influences between personality and
    environmental factors

Social-Cognitive Perspective
  • Personal Control
  • our sense of controlling our environments rather
    than feeling helpless
  • External Locus of Control
  • the perception that chance or outside forces
    beyond ones personal control determine ones fate

Social-Cognitive Perspective
  • Internal Locus of Control
  • the perception that one controls ones own fate
  • Learned Helplessness
  • the hopelessness and passive resignation an
    animal or human learns when unable to avoid
    repeated aversive events

Social-Cognitive Perspective
  • Learned Helplessness

Julian Rotters Locus of Control
  • Big Idea Our sense of control makes us who were
  • Locus of control is a persons perception of the
    extent to which he/she controls what happens to
  • External locus of control refers to the
    perception that chance or external forces beyond
    your control determine your fate (learned
  • Internal locus of control refers to the
    perception that you control your own fate

  • Take a worksheet from the front of the room.
  • Complete the Locus of Control Scale

Trait Theory Gordon Allport
  • Big Idea Traits make us who we are
  • Trait A relatively permanent characteristic of
    our personality that can be used to predict our
  • Central Trait A general characteristic about us
    (shy, happy, etc.)
  • Cardinal Trait A defining characteristic of a
    person (dominates and shapes our behavior)

Hans Eysenck Personality Dimensions
  • Big Idea We express three main dimensions (at
    varying levels) to make us who we are
  • Factor Analysis Statistical procedure that
    identifies common factors to simplify a long list
    of traits
  • Extraversion How social or withdrawn you are
  • Neuroticism How moody or calm we can be
  • Psychoticism How ruthless or tender we can be

Hans Eysenck
Raymond Cattell 16 Personality Factors
  • Big Idea How are traits organized and how are
    they linked?
  • Made list of 16 basic traits that most people
  • Surface traits Visible areas of personality
    (general traits)
  • Source traits Underlying personality
    characteristics (more specific)

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Big Five Personality Factors
  • Big Idea Five factors make up who we are
  • O peness
  • C onscienctiousness
  • E xtraversion
  • A greeableness
  • N - euroticism
  • New research

Five-Factor Model of Personality
Dimension High End Low End
Openness Imaginative, independent, having broad interests, receptive to new ideas Conforming, practical, narrow interests, closed to new ideas
Conscientiousness Well-organized, dependable, careful, disciplined Disorganized, undependable, careless, impulsive
Extraversion Sociable, talkative, friendly, adventurous Reclusive, quiet, aloof, cautious
Agreeableness Sympathetic, polite, good-natured, soft-hearted Tough-minded, rude, irritable, ruthless
Neuroticism Emotional, insecure, nervous, self-pitying Calm, secure, relaxed, self-satisfied
Personality Inventories
  • Are designed to measure multiple traits of
    personality, and in some cases, disorders
  • Are a series of questions or statements for which
    the test taker must indicate whether they apply
    to him or not
  • The MMPI (the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
    Inventory) is the most widely used, translated
    into more than 100 languages

Personality Inventories
  • Empirically Derived Test
  • a test developed by testing a pool of items and
    then selecting those that discriminate between
  • such as the MMPI

Projective Tests
  • Contain a series of ambiguous stimuli, such as
    inkblots, to which the test taker must respond
    about his perceptions of the stimuli
  • Sample tests
  • Rorschach Inkblots Test
  • Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT)

Rorschach Inkblots Test
  • Contains 10 symmetric inkblots used in the test,
    in which the examiner then goes through the cards
    and asks the test taker to clarify her responses
    by identifying the various parts of the inkblot
    that led to the response
  • Assumes the test takers responses are
    projections of their personal conflicts and
    personality dynamics
  • Widely used but not demonstrated to be reliable
    and valid

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Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT)
  • Consists of 19 cards with black and white
    pictures of ambiguous settings and one blank card
  • Test taker has to make up a story for each card
    he sees (what happened before, is happening now,
    what the people are feeling and thinking, and how
    things will turn out)
  • Looks for recurring themes in the responses
  • Scoring has yet to be demonstrated to be either
    reliable or valid

Process p.128
  • Explore your possible selves
  • The self you hope to become
  • The self you fear you will become
  • The self you think you are to your friends
  • The self you think you are with your family
  • The self you are at school

Which quote do you like best?
  1. Survival of the fittest
  2. Success is a conditioned response
  3. And yesIve already analyzed you
  4. Youve got to be a little crazy to take this
  5. If Freud analyzed me, hed be scared
  6. Lets get PSYCHED!!
  7. Who let Pavlovs dogs out?
  8. Are you self-actualized?

FRQ Practice
  • Jessica has been acting out in school. She gets
    into fights and is failing many of her classes.
    Her parents are in the middle of a divorce and
    she is shuttling between their houses. Explain
    each of the concepts below. How would each apply
    to her behavior?
  • id
  • locus of control
  • trait theory
  • displacement
  • humanistic theory