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Module 18

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Title: Module 18


1
Module 18
  • Adolescence Adulthood

2
INTRODUCTION
  • Adolescence
  • Developmental period, lasting from about ages 12
    to 18, during which many biological, cognitive,
    social, and personality traits change from
    child-like to adult-like

3
PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
  • Puberty
  • Developmental period between the ages of 9 and 17
  • Individual experiences significant biological
    changes
  • Results in developing secondary sexual
    characteristics
  • Sexual maturity

4
PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONTD)
  • Girls during puberty
  • Puberty sets off physical growth
  • starts 9.6 years
  • begins 6 to 12 months before breast development
  • Puberty triggers a physiological process female
    sexual maturity
  • Menarche
  • first menstrual period
  • estrogen levels increase eightfold
  • stimulates the development of both primary and
    secondary sexual characteristics

5
PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONTD)
  • Menarche triggered by
  • Hypothalamus
  • releases hormone called kisspeptin (stimulates
    pituitary gland)
  • Pituitary gland
  • produces hormones that travel through the
    bloodstream and stimulate the ovaries to greatly
    increase production of female hormones

6
PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONTD)
  • Girls during puberty
  • Estrogen
  • one of the major female hormones
  • stimulates both primary and secondary sexual
    characteristics
  • Female secondary sexual characteristics
  • triggered by increase of estrogen secretion
  • includes growth of pubic hair, development of
    breasts, and widening of hips
  • begins about 10.5 years, continues for about 4 to
    5 years

7
PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONTD)
  • Boys during puberty
  • Increase in physical growth (height) age 13 to 14
  • Male sexual maturity, includes growth of genital
    organs
  • begins around age 11 and continues for
    approximately three years
  • sperm production begins around age 12 to 14
  • Testosterone
  • major male hormone
  • stimulates growth of genital organs
  • development of secondary sexual characteristics

8
PUBERTY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONTD)
  • Male secondary characteristics
  • triggered by increased secretion of testosterone
    includes growth of pubic hair, facial hair,
    development of muscles, and a change (deepening)
    in voice
  • occurs between 12 and 16

9
ADOLESCENTS SEXUALLY MATURE
  • BioPsychoSocial approach
  • Adolescent development as a process that occurs
    simultaneously on many levels
  • Includes
  • hormonal
  • neural
  • sexual cognitive
  • social
  • cultural
  • personality changes
  • interact and influence each other

10
COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CHANGES
  • Definition
  • How a person perceives, thinks of, and
    understands his or her world through the
    interaction and influence of genetic and learned
    factors
  • Piagets cognitive stages continued
  • Stage 4 formal operations
  • last of Piagets four cognitive stages extends
    from about age 12 through adulthood
  • adolescents and adults develop the ability to
    think about abstract or hypothetical concepts
  • consider an issue from anothers viewpoint and
    solve cognitive problems in a logical way

11
COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Brain development reason and emotion
  • Prefrontal cortex executive functions
  • located near the front of the brain
  • Vulnerability
  • around age 11 and continuing into young
    adulthood, the brain rewires and reorganizes
  • especially vulnerable to traumatic adolescent
    experiences such as physical or sexual abuse,
    bullying, feeling lonely, rejected, or depressed,
    and abusing drugs

12
COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Brain development reason and emotion
  • Prefrontal cortex executive functions
  • risk-taking behavior
  • explains why the adolescents brain (not being
    fully developed) allows for risky or
    irresponsible behavior
  • feels invulnerable and has no fear of accidents

13
COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Brain development reason and emotion
  • Limbic system emotional behaviors
  • teenagers have less control over their emotional
    and impulsive behaviors
  • moody, emotional, and impulsive behaviors
  • display a wide range of emotion
  • being ecstatic over getting a date
  • feeling depressed when failing a test
  • getting angry when being insulted
  • increased structure and function of the limbic
    system accounts for irritability and aggression

14
COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONTD)
15
COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Kohlbergs theory of moral reasoning
  • Three levels of moral reasoning
  • Self-interest preconventional level
  • lowest level of moral reasoning
  • stage 1, moral decisions are based primarily on
    fear of punishment or the need to be obedient
  • stage 2, moral reasoning is guided most by
    satisfying ones self-interest
  • may involve bargaining

16
COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Kohlbergs theory of moral reasoning
  • Three levels of moral reasoning
  • Social approval conventional level
  • represents an intermediate level of moral
    reasoning
  • stage 3, moral decisions are guided most by
    conforming to the standards of people we value
  • stage 4, moral reasoning is determined most by
    conforming to laws and society

17
COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Kohlbergs theory of moral reasoning
  • Three levels of moral reasoning
  • Abstract ideas postconventional level
  • stage 5, moral decisions are made after carefully
    thinking about all the alternatives and striking
    a balance between human rights and laws of
    society
  • stage 6, has been omitted because few people have
    reached it

18
COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Parenting styles and effects
  • Different styles of parenting
  • Authoritarian parents
  • attempt to shape, control, and evaluate the
    behavior and attitudes of their children in
    accordance with a set standard of conduct
  • absolute standard that comes from religious or
    respected authorities

19
COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Parenting styles and effects
  • Different styles of parenting
  • Authoritative parents
  • attempt to direct their childrens activities in
    a rational and intelligent way
  • supportive, loving, committed, encourage verbal
    give and take, and discuss their rules and
    policies with their children

20
COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Parenting styles and effects
  • Different styles of parenting
  • Permissive parents
  • less controlling and behave with a nonpunishing
    and accepting attitude toward their childrens
    impulses, desires, and actions
  • consult with their children about policy
    decisions, make few demands, and tend to use
    reason rather than direct power

21
COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Beyond adolescence
  • Changes in cognitive speed
  • 20 to 40, cognitive skills remain relatively
    stable
  • 40 to 80, general slowing of some cognitive
    processes
  • late 50s, slowing in processing speed, perceptual
    speed, and reaction time
  • Changes in memory
  • 40s and continuing into old age, most people
    complain about not remembering things

22
COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Resiliency
  • As we age, brain becomes more flexible and
    adaptable
  • Connections to other brain cells multiply and
    form meaningful connections as a result of life
    experiences
  • Left and right hemispheres become better
    integrated during middle age
  • Emotions
  • Positivity bias
  • pay less attention to negative information and
    more to positive information

23
PERSONALITY SOCIAL CHANGES
  • Personality and social development
  • Refers to how a person develops a sense of self
    or self-identity, develops relationships with
    others, and develops the skills useful in social
    interactions
  • Personal identity or self-identity
  • Refers to how we describe ourselves and includes
    our values, goals, traits, perceptions,
    interests, and motivations

24
PERSONALITY SOCIAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Development of self-esteem
  • Self-esteem
  • how much we like ourselves and how much we value
    our self-worth, importance, attractiveness, and
    social competence
  • High self-esteem develop and maintain high
    levels
  • 60 of adolescents develop and maintain a strong
    sense of self-esteem through junior high school
  • do well in school, develop rewarding friendships,
    participate in social activities, and are
    described as cheerful, assertive, warm, and
    unwilling to give up

25
PERSONALITY SOCIAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Development of self-esteem
  • Low self-esteem develop and maintain low levels
  • 15 of adolescents develop and maintain a
    chronically low self-esteem through junior high
    school
  • have continuing personal and social problems
    (shy, lonely, depressed) that have been present
    for some time and contribute to low self-esteem
  • Reversals, reverse levels
  • 25 of adolescents show dramatic reversals in
    self-esteem, either from high to low or low to
    high

26
PERSONALITY SOCIAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Adulthood Eriksons psychosocial stages
  • Stage 5 identity versus role confusion
  • adolescence (12 to 20)
  • adolescents need to leave behind the carefree,
    irresponsible, and impulsive behaviors of
    childhood and develop the more purposeful,
    planned, and responsible behaviors of adulthood
  • if successful, develop a healthy and confident
    sense of identity if not, experience role
    confusion
  • results in having low-self esteem and becoming
    unstable or socially withdrawn

27
PERSONALITY SOCIAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Adulthood Eriksons psychosocial stages
  • Stage 6 intimacy versus isolation
  • young adulthood (20 to 40)
  • young adulthood is a time for finding intimacy by
    developing loving and meaningful relationships
  • can find intimacy in caring relationships
  • without intimacy, we will have a painful feeling
    of isolation, and our relationships will be
    impersonal

28
PERSONALITY SOCIAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Adulthood Eriksons psychosocial stages
  • Stage 7 generativity versus stagnation
  • middle adulthood (40 to 65)
  • time for helping the younger generation develop
    worthwhile lives
  • positive achieve generativity by raising our own
    children
  • also by mentoring at work and helping others
  • negative lack of involvement leads to a feeling
    of stagnation, of having done nothing for the
    younger generation

29
PERSONALITY SOCIAL CHANGES (CONTD)
  • Adulthood Eriksons psychosocial stages
  • Stage 8 integrity versus despair
  • late adulthood (65 and older)
  • time for reflecting on and reviewing how we met
    previous challenges and lived our lives
  • positive if we can look back and feel content
    about how we lived and what we accomplished, we
    will have a feeling of satisfaction or integrity
  • negative if we reflect and see a series of
    crises, problems, and bad experiences, we will
    have a feeling of regret and despair

30
GENDER ROLES, LOVE, RELATIONSHIPS
  • Definition gender roles
  • Gender roles
  • traditional or stereotypical behaviors,
    attitudes, values, and personality traits that
    society says are how males and females are to
    think and behave
  • US gender roles
  • female gender role includes being caring,
    insecure, helpful, emotional, social, and shy
  • male gender role includes being arrogant,
    self-confident, aggressive, ambitious,
    unemotional, and dominant

31
GENDER ROLES, LOVE, RELATIONSHIPS (CONTD)
32
GENDER ROLES, LOVE, RELATIONSHIPS (CONTD)
  • Definition gender roles
  • Worldwide gender roles
  • male gender roles include being ambitious,
    dominant, and independent
  • female gender roles include being submissive,
    affectionate, and emotional
  • differences in gender roles are clearly defined
    because society (family, peers, bosses, and
    colleagues) encourages and rewards behaviors and
    thoughts that match expected gender roles and
    discriminates against those who dont fit

33
GENDER ROLES, LOVE, RELATIONSHIPS (CONTD)
  • Gender roles development and function
  • Evolutionary psychology theory
  • emphasizes genetic and biological forces and says
    that current gender differences are a
    continuation of the behaviors that evolved from
    early men and women who adapted these different
    behaviors in their attempts to survive the
    problems of their time
  • Social role theory
  • emphasizes social and cultural influences and
    states that gender differences between males and
    females arise from different divisions of labor

34
GENDER ROLES, LOVE, RELATIONSHIPS (CONTD)
  • Kinds of love
  • Passionate love
  • involves continuously thinking about the loved
    one and is accompanied by warm sexual feelings
    and powerful emotional reactions
  • Companionate love
  • involves having trusting and tender feelings for
    someone whose life is closely bound up with ones
    own

35
GENDER ROLES, LOVE, RELATIONSHIPS (CONTD)
36
GENDER ROLES, LOVE, RELATIONSHIPS (CONTD)
  • Kinds of love
  • Triangular theory of love
  • Passion
  • feeling physically aroused and attracted to
    someone
  • Intimacy
  • feeling close and connected to someone
  • develops through sharing and communicating
  • Commitment
  • making a pledge to nourish the feelings of love
    and to actively maintain the relationship

37
GENDER ROLES, LOVE, RELATIONSHIPS (CONTD)
38
PHYSICAL CHANGES AGING
  • Kinds of aging
  • Normal aging
  • gradual and natural slowing of our physical and
    psychological processes from middle through late
    adulthood
  • Pathological aging
  • caused by genetic defects, physiological
    problems, or diseases, such as Alzheimers
  • Gerontology
  • study of aging

39
PHYSICAL CHANGES AGING (CONTD)
  • Aging and physiological changes
  • Aging process
  • caused by combination of certain genes and
    proteins that interfere with organ functioning
    and the natural production of toxic molecules
    (free radicals)
  • causes random damage to body organs and DNA
  • damage eventually exceeds the bodys ability to
    repair itself
  • results in grater susceptibility to diseases and
    death

40
PHYSICAL CHANGES AGING (CONTD)
41
PHYSICAL CHANGES AGING (CONTD)
  • Sexual changes with aging women
  • Menopause
  • Average age 50 (range 35 to 60)
  • Involves gradual stoppage of secretion of the
    major female hormone (estrogen)
  • Results in cessation of both ovulation and
    menstrual cycle
  • Physical symptoms
  • hot flashes, some sleep disturbance, and dryness
    of the vagina, which results from a decrease and
    eventual stoppage in the secretion of estrogen

42
PHYSICAL CHANGES AGING (CONTD)
  • Menopause
  • Psychological symptoms
  • moodiness, depression, anxiety, and anger
  • Sexual activities
  • women who experienced sexual activity as
    fulfilling and enriching before menopause will
    likely continue to enjoy sexual activity after
    menopause and into late adulthood

43
PHYSICAL CHANGES AGING (CONTD)
  • Sexual changes with aging men
  • Sexual response
  • older men may require more time and stimulation
    to have an erection
  • healthy men usually have no difficulty in
    becoming sexually aroused or reaching orgasm
  • Physiological problems
  • some men see their decreased sexual abilities as
    a threat to their self-esteem
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