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Advanced Public Relations


Week 5 Managing Campaigns in PR Advanced Public Relations KOM 5321 Dr. Nurul Ain Mohd Hasan – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Advanced Public Relations

Week 5Managing Campaigns in PR
  • Advanced Public Relations
  • KOM 5321
  • Dr. Nurul Ain Mohd Hasan

By definition
  • A campaign is a planned set of public relations
    activities, normally over a limited period of
    time and with specific objectives addressing a
    particular issue and involving an identified
    group (Tench Yeomans, 2014).
  • For e.g A local authority may run an awareness
    campaign about GST with the aim to increase
    understanding on why GST is an important exercise
    and needs to be implemented in the country.

Public relations campaigns
  • Aspects of public relations campaigns are aimed
  • Products
  • Services
  • Ideas
  • By creating a favourable environment.
  • Its called a PR campaign when techniques and
    principles of PR are used to persuade a
    particular campaign.
  • Usually by involving the media.
  • It is often planned and usually one-way
    communication with a possibility to be two-way

Whats the aim of PR campaigns?
  • To inform and create awareness
  • To persuade, educate and motivate
  • To mobilise public opinions
  • To utilise the use of the media for public
    information and public opinions for target

The importance of campaigns in PR
  • PR campaigns provide a platform for possible
    two-way communication. However the campaign
    practices are mostly one-way communication.
  • It is an ongoing assessment for an organisation
    on what makes an organisation viable and credible
    in a fluid socioeconomic and political
    environment (Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg, 2000).
  • Even more important for transnational

Types of campaigns
  • Various types of campaigns exist
  • However, in the context of public relations
    activities in managing campaign, there are
    generally six (6) as stated by Newsom, Turk and
    Kruckeberg (2000). For instance PR has the skills
  • Put on a public awareness campaign
  • mount public information campaigns (to offer
    information together with awareness)
  • Do a public education campaigns
  • Reinforce publics attitudes and behaviour
  • Change (or attempt to change) the attitudes of
    your publics
  • Carry out behaviour modification campaigns e.g.
    healthy lifestyle campaign

Communication as a core systems asset
  • For PR to make a full contribution to the
    effectiveness and success of a public campaign,
    it has to be seen as offering more than message
    delivery or contributing to building brand and
    reputation because its superficial and has
    less substance
  • Social marketing is a new buzz word in
    campaigns especially in healthcare organisations
    (Tench Yeomans, 2014).
  • Latest trend is Brand journalism - 2015
  • The role is concerned with analysis and
    understanding and evaluating key relationships in
    order to achieve results.

Characteristics of successful campaigns
  • Studies of successful campaigns indicate that
    five (5) elements or characteristics are always
    present (Newsom, Turk Kruckeber, 2000).
  • These elements for successful campaign are
  • Educational aspect create awareness
  • Engineering change behaviour by making it
  • Enforcement change of policy, strict laws
  • Entitlement - a form of reinforcement ongoing
    campaign, change focus to highlight what success
    has come out from the campaign.
  • Evaluation annual assessment and three or five
    year evaluation of the success/challenges of the

Implementing the campaign
  • Adapting and applying tactics to strategies-
  • The framework for your whole campaign must be
    suited to its institutional environment
  • Is the institution a closed or an open
    communication system? This is determined by your
    top management.
  • Determine what goal is to be achieved? Is it for
    publicity, or advertising and/or promotion?
  • PR managers will set persuasive strategies to
    meet with the goal of a particular campaign.

Evaluating the campaign
  • Monitoring
  • Its important to monitor because you may need to
    change directions of the campaign, reallocate
    resources or redefine priorities to achieve your
  • E.g. A change of a policy or regulation must
    start with a proper campaign that sets the
    peoples minds before policy/regulation starts.
  • Issue monitoring is required
  • Monitor what the publics reaction to your
    campaign is and make changes e.g. Did the
    public accept GST in Malaysia? Or did they need
    time to be aware of what they were expecting?

  • Postmortems
  • What worked? What didnt? why?
  • What was accidentally a success?
  • What could have been done better?
  • Formal research needs to be done to determine
    whether your goal has been achieved.
  • Evaluate the impact on publics
  • The effect on the organisations goals and
  • The effect of the attitude of publics toward the
  • The effect on the organisations financial
    status, ethical stance, CSR
  • The key is to measure organisations financial
    impact, ethical impact and social responsibility.

Changing behaviour applying theory to PR
  • Grunig and Hunts Four PR model
  • Press agentry Practised by PR professionals
    with a goal to only promote products, services
    and events with no intention to gain publics
    feedback in the campaign
  • Public Information Campaigns using this model
    are used largely by government agencies,
    law-enforcement agencies, educational
    institutions, and units of the military.
  • Two Way Asymmetric persuasive campaigning
    with a goal to change publics opinions, with the
    aim to resolve conflicts without compromise.
    Feedback is gained but the goal is to better
    understand a publics behaviour so as to change
    the focus of the campaign to better suit the
  • Two-Way symmetric the goal of a particular PR
    campaign is to achieve mutual understanding, to
    resolve conflict through negotiation and

Some theories from Mass Communications to apply
PR campaigns
  • Diffusion Theory -
  • The 5 steps of adoption awareness, interest,
    trial, evaluation, and adoption
  • e.g. an individual will gain steps 1 2 from a
    campaign ad, but the personal influence by family
    and friends would likely to move the individual
    towards steps 3, 4 5.

  • Maslows Hierarchy of needs

  • Agenda setting
  • The theory suggests that the media set the agenda
    for public debate and discussion.
  • When applied to public relations practice, the
    theory would place more emphasis on the media as
    opinion leaders and active participants.
  • E.g. a placement of campaign advertisement on the
    newspaper would depend on the related issues set
    by editorial board.

Government campaigns
  • Government campaigns often deal with rising
    issues of a particular country.
  • In Malaysia, one of the major issues was on
    smoking among teens and adults Tak Nak (anti
    smoking) campaign
  • Often times, government agencies often create
    alliances with NGOs that have similar purposes.
  • Healthy lifestyle the go green concept
    1Malaysia Health Campaign with environmental
    rights activitists/NGOs
  • HIV epidemic mainly on sharing of needles the
    sensitivity of the issue in the country HIV
    awareness campaign, i.e. Ministry of health
    working together with anti-drug agency and prison
  • Anti Dadah campaign

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Government PR campaign to create public
Using statistics to create public awareness.
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Tobacco campaign in Bangkok
Colgates Senyum Malaysia Campaign with support
the support of Jab Kemajuan Masyarakat (KEMAS)
The campaign is part of Colgates effort to
support Ministry of Healths National Oral Health
Plans goal to reduce dental cavities about 50
among young children at the age of 6 or below by
the year 2020.
  • KOM 5321

Research in public relations
  • Research in public relations is often viewed as
    informal by many academic writers.
  • Public relations practitioners have often relied
    on informal type of research in two ways
  • Simply counting of press releases as a form of
  • Examining media outlets to see which has carried
    those releases is another form of informal
  • Research in public relations therefore can be
    classified as informal and formal
  • (Reference see Stacks, 2011, Primer of Public
    Relations Research, 2nd Edition)

Why conduct public relations research?
  • Research is essential to any PR activity or
  • It is a beginning of a process that seeks to
    bring a specific objective. E.g. a PR campaign
    will not work effectively without understanding
    who your target group is, therefore, research is
    needed for this reason.
  • PR models for plan of action before any campaign
    is to be done
  • Hendrixs ROPE Research what is the problem,
    Objectives- set your targets, Program plan how
    you are going to meet with your target,
    Evaluation post mortem
  • RACE Research, Action, Communicating,
  • Cutlip, Center Brooms four-step process
  • Defining PR problems (whats happening now?
    situation analysis),
  • Planning and Programming (What should we do and
    say, and why? strategy)
  • Taking Action and Communicating (How and when do
    we do and say it? implementation),
  • Evaluating the programme (How did we do?

  • Research is important in PR because research is
    part and parcel of their jobs when they offer
  • communication strategies
  • Counsel on communication problems
  • Educate clients/top management as to the best PR
    strategies and actions (showing managerial tasks
    in PR)
  • Decision making requires solid foundation and
    data to support your decisions and actions.

Formal research in public relations
  • It is a systematic way of conducting research in
    public relations which often evaluates data using
    either quantitative or qualitative methodologies
  • Todays practitioner is in a business that
    demands more than simply doing informal research
  • They strive to deliver evidence that the bottom
    line (the economic justification) has been
    enhanced by the activities they conduct for their

An introduction to research
  • Research is a process of enquiry and
  • It is systematic, methodical and ethical
  • Research offers you a measure of control and
    autonomy over what you learn or understand to be
    true OR to be your interpretation of reality.
  • It gives you an opportunity to
  • Confirm
  • Clarify
  • Pursue
  • Discover

  • Review or synthesize existing knowledge
  • Investigate existing situations or problems
  • Provide solutions to problems
  • Explore and analyse more general issues
  • Construct or create new procedures or systems
  • Explain new phenomenon
  • Generate new knowledge
  • ...or a combination of any of the above
  • (Collis Hussey, 2003)

Major differences between Quantitative and
Qualitative Methods
Quantitative Qualitative
Data Collection Data Collection
Controlled Uncontrolled
Objective Subjective
Systematic observation Random Observation
Data assessment Data assessment
Can be measured reliably Cannot be measured reliably
Validity can be measured Validity is assumed
Deductively interpreted Inductively interpreted
Outcomes Outcomes
Description Description
Prediction, control Understanding
Elements of the Research Process
  • Deductive thinking (Quantitative) based on
    available facts.

Elements of the Research Process (Cont.)
  • Inductive thinking (Qualitative) based on what
    the researcher deems to be true.

Exploratory Descriptive Analytical Predictive
Undertaken when few or no previous studies exist The aim is to look for patterns, hypotheses, or ideas that can be tested which will be the starting point for further research Research techniques case studies, observation, reviews of previous related studies and data. To identify and classify the elements or characteristics of the subject e.g. looking at frequencies, numbers etc. Research techniques quantitative techniques, data collection based on surveys, analyse and summarise data. Often extends the descriptive approach To suggest or explain WHY or HOW something is happening e.g. the cause of the phenomenon Important features locating and identifying the different factors (or variables) involved. Aim is to speculate intelligently on future possibilities Predicting when and where future phenomenon or issue might take.
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Qualitative Methods
  • When should I use qualitative methods?
  • When variables cannot be quantified
  • When variables are best understood in their
    natural settings
  • When studying intimate details of roles,
    processes, and groups
  • When the paramount objective is understanding

Research is an integral aspect for the survival
of public relations practice
  • For many years, PR has been under pressure to
    prove its worth (Tench Yeomans, 2014).
  • Research in PR means evaluating actions and
    realities/roles that PR plays in the
  • Research findings support previous concepts.
  • At other times, research refute (or reject)
    previous concepts.
  • Research keeps PR on track for improved

  • Research in PR implies
  • Rigour Thoroughness in the most up to date
    practice, where your have evidence of the
    realities through research.
  • Underpins credible practice It shows
  • Generates confidence among practitioners If
    practice is evaluated and understood thoroughly,
    we can find solutions make adjustments where
    necessary why factor is answered.

Some common PR research methods
  • Outcome evaluation
  • What the organisation can benefit from a research
    done on PR
  • How research can generate sales and market the
    organisation based on statistical analysis
    surveys or structured interviews
  • Output evaluation informal type of research
  • Media coverage evaluated through the quality of
    the coverage
  • Content analysis
  • This method quantifies the textual material being
  • Identifying key messages and how these are
    effectively communicated.
  • Social media
  • Track blogs, forums, comments, analyse no. of
    twitter/insta followers, etc.

Issues of public relations research
  • Isolation and restriction are two main issues..
    This is due to
  • The failure to exchange ideas with disciplines
    close to PR PR literature and theories are
    limited often times using other theories to
    support PR research.
  • For instance, Leeper (2001) stated that the field
    of public relations has been in search of a
    unifying theory, in which many theories apply to
    PR but no PR theories.

  • ii. The conceptual bases of PR in research which
    often times is too scientific in nature The
    most famous use of the word excellence in PR
    (McKie, 2001, p77), gives rise to many isolation
    in research as the word restricts research to
    move towards a new development, new thinking, and
    new paradigm.
  • E.g. Tobacco company as a client of PR agency
    the term excellence in PR may be questioned. For
    instance - What excellence or best practice are
    you adopting when you are assisting Tobacco
    company to increase the culture of smoking in a
    society and to help increase sales of

  • iii. The 21st century PR research, with new
    technological advancement that comes with new
    attacks and catastrophic scenarios, PR cannot
    stick with traditional value-free and neutral
    scientific observations (McElreath Blamphin,
    1994, p. 74).
  • Therefore, new methods that studies the grey
    areas of PR needs to be conducted.
  • More critical discourse analysis can help bring
    out the richness and depth of PR profession and
    discipline because through understanding a
    specific neglected community/marginalised
    minority may help PR practitioners to plan a more
    meaningful strategy to communicate to these
    targeted group.

Updating PR research paradigms
  • Some current issues and challenges that need to
    be addressed
  • According to a study to understand the
    willingness of public to express opinions about a
    particular issue through both in-person and the
    social media, 86 percent of people were willing
    to have an in-person conversation, but just 42
    percent of Facebook and Twitter users were
    willing to post about it on those platforms. Of
    the 14 of Americans unwilling to discuss a
    particular issue in an elaborate matter in person
    with others, only 3 were willing to post about
    it on social media.
  • Another more recent issue highlighted in the IPRM
    website forum was on the clash of opinions
    between journalists and PR practitioners about
    the importance of building relationships with the
    media. Some of the journalists think that
    building relationships with them are not
    necessary and a waste of their time what they
    want is catchy news stories. Thats it!
  • These are some of the new perspectives that may
    need further research to create new avenues for
    PR researchers and practitioners to engage and
    discuss with.

  • KOM 5321

Lobbying in PR
  • When talking about lobbying it is a public
    relations activity done by activitists, mostly
    NGOs. It involves public affairs.
  • The task is to challenge the current
    legal/ethical system governed by a particular
  • It is public relations from an advocacy (publicly
    supported) standpoint.
  • International perspectives lobbying is
    predominantly a Western perspective and it lies
    to the very core of how democracy is being
    practised in the Western world. Democracy is
    understood differently, in various levels, in
    other parts of the world, including Malaysia.
  • However, international corporations and NGOs in
    Malaysia value some forms of lobbying and often
    use this for the purpose to create an awareness.

What is lobbying?
  • Closely connected to public relations the use of
    persuasion for change in society/nation/community
  • Lobbying is influencing decisions made by
    government/ legislators.
  • It includes all attempts to ensure the view
    points of an individual or organisation is
  • A lobbyist is a person who tries to influence
    government on behalf of a special interest.

The goal of a lobbyist
  • Your ultimate goal when lobbying is to ensure
    your target
  • Is informed about the issue
  • Understands your position
  • Becomes convinced that your position is the one
    they should adopt

Some questions to ask when taking part in lobbying
  • How do we gain government contract, aid or
  • Who in government should we liaise with, and why?
  • Can government promote our products or
  • How can we get a Minister to visit us or to
    support us?
  • How do we react if a campaign is launched against
    the objectives of our company?
  • What are the ethics and techniques of government

  • AWAM lobbies and advocates for improved
    legislation and policies on gender-related
    issues, including rape, domestic violence and
    sexual harassment. We collaborate with other
    womens NGOs for example, through the
    Joint-Action Group for Gender Equality (JAG) to
    give greater impetus to our lobbying and advocacy
    efforts. Historically, AWAMs advocacy work has
    focused primarily on rape. Some of our
    achievements together with other womens groups
  • The amendments to laws relating to rape (1989)
  • The enactment of the Domestic Violence Act (1994)
  • The amendment of Article 8(2) of the Federal
    Constitution to prohibit discrimination on the
    basis of gender (2001)

  • The idea behind lobbying is to challenge the
    current system, to acknowledge and make notice
    that change in the legal system is required for a
  • E.g. AWAM is also an active partner of advocacy
    campaigns on - The Convention on the Elimination
    of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

  • AWAM All Womens Action Socitey (NGO) an
    independent feminist organisation aimed at
    protecting the rights of women in Malaysia -
  • Lobbying and AdvocacyAWAM lobbies and advocates
    for improved legislation and policies on
    gender-related issues, including rape, domestic
    violence and sexual harassment. We collaborate
    with other womens NGOs for example, through
    the Joint-Action Group for Gender Equality (JAG)
    to give greater impetus to our lobbying and
    advocacy efforts. Historically, AWAMs advocacy
    work has focused primarily on rape. Some of our
    achievements together with other womens groups
    are The amendments to laws relating to rape
  • The enactment of the Domestic Violence Act
  • The amendment of Article 8(2) of the Federal
    Constitution to prohibit discrimination on the
    basis of gender (2001)  

Effective communication is vital when you are
trying to get your point across and influence
  • Five key aspects of effective communication are
  • Active listening
  • Valuing diversity
  • Understanding body language
  • The rhythm of three - Technique used in sales
    and marketing
  • Most people remember words and numbers best in
    groups of three For example - Phone numbers 3
    phone numbers a day OR There are three things we
    need to agree today. Firstly, how we can work
    together, secondly, where we should hold out
    meetings and finally where we apply for funding
  • Being assertive

Four most common mistakes made by organisations
in their dealings with government
  • The friends in high places syndrome
  • Common mistake lies on being over confident.
  • Just because you know minister/members of
    parliament/ senior officials does not mean your
    case will be decided automatically.
  • The eat your way out of trouble syndrome
  • A common practice to lunch with the important
    people in parliament/govt but money is well spent
    by concentrating on well-researched advocacy for
    effective and ethical lobbying.
  • The congressional syndrome
  • Think government and its other ties and links.
    One decision made by one govt institution may
    need the support from another
  • View decision-making globally.
  • The act now, think later syndrome
  • Always do your research thoroughly
  • If you do not know how the government will react
    to your case , you have not worked hard enough.

WEEK 8Writing in PR
  • KOM 5321


Mass Media
  • As communication tools are innovated so are new
    models for manipulating information
  • As communication reaches a larger and larger
    audience, it is more difficult to manage
  • As communication reaches a global audience, it is
    more difficult to target proximity (nearness in
  • As communication reaches a global audience, it is
    more difficult to identify publics
  • As communication increases in frequency, the more
    people select other messages

Communication challenges of writing for the mass
  • There is a diminishing rate of return on news
    stories, especially print
  • Most people never read a newspaper or magazine
    from cover to cover
  • The chances that someone will see an
    organisational story, with the ability to take
    action, is significantly reduced
  • There is an increasing rate of opinions overlaid
    on existing media stories
  • The circle of direct communication has shrunk as
    people get their news from a variety of secondary

The arguments on language usage in corporate
  • Abrams (1983) views language as a societys most
    important privately produced public goods.
  • Language may be viewed as the mean by which an
    organisation communicates its culture to members
    within the society in which it operates
    important to adopt a single working/suitable
    language for the entire organisation.

The economics of language Can it be measured for
its value for an organisation?
  • Dhir and Savage (2002) describe two approaches
    used by economists to empirically measure the
    value of language
  • Language is regarded as a means of exchange
  • A language is used to suit a given time and
  • E.g. MNCs outside their home-countries
    government relations communities in rural areas.
  • Language is a characteristic of those who use it
  • Language becomes an economic liability when it is
    not accessible and resulting in contradicting
  • E.g. The use of English in promoting/publicising
    an organisation will not reach the rural area who
    does not speak the language Or when there is
    ethnic language being used Or a community that
    prefers BM over English.

Writing to impress
  • The impact and cost of careless errors Bad
    grammar/Grammatical errors can impact your
    companys bottom line/ reputation/ image.
  • The misconception of spell check -
  • The most common errors made daily by public
    relations practitioners http//
  • Their vs. theyre then vs. than
  • Affect vs. effect into vs. in to
  • Its vs. its accidently vs. accidentally
  • Striving for clarity for your readership use
    active writing always (straight to the point)
  • It was determined by the committee that the
    report was inconclusive (passive)
  • The committee determined that the report was
    inconclusive (active)

Old Navy T shirts spot the error?
Victoria Secret lingerie Spot the error?
The trick is in the details Jaffri Amin, VP
  • The most effective messages prioritise the
    delivery to multiple publics
  • The most effective messages consider how every
    public will react to the message
  • The most effective messages have singular ideas,
    supported with facts for specific publics.
  • If you dont manage the message, the message will
    manage you.

Social Media Integration
  • Social media can assist public relations in
    delivering communication
  • Social media is not the only means to deliver a
    message direct to public
  • Social media requires real time supervision

Differences of writing in the social media
  • Traditional Journalists /PR practitioners
  • Write fact-based commentaries that are reasonably
  • Do not discriminates between the level of
    expertise/popularity and insight
  • Citizen journalists/ Bloggers-
  • Write some fact-based commentaries, but emphasise
    advocacy and special interest
  • Write sometimes to make friends
  • Do a lot of discriminating between
    expertise/popularity and value insight.

  • News releases
  • The origin of the modern news releases was
    established since 1907
  • Original intention to establish a story
    before other versions were put out
  • Press releases later became a tool to generate
    publicity, suggest stories, and share
  • News releases are a preferred method to
    communicate and be in contact with the
  • There is now an increase in emailing releases to
    journalists however most organisations still
    prefer faxing releases

Latest news releases
  • The modern news releases is much more interactive
  • It is on an organisations corporate website and
    allows for journalists, bloggers and the public
    to share information
  • It requires direct information, fast and easy to
    understand no jargons or Shakespeare type of
  • YouTube and video clips can also be part of an
    additional resources for news releases

In writing news releases, some criteria need to
be checked
  • Are all the facts in the story accurate and were
    they double checked?
  • Is there newsworthiness in the writing? 5 Ws and
    1 H method Who, What, When, Where, Why and How?
  • Is the story complete and in the proper context?
  • If outside opinions are included, was the story
    fair and comments fair?
  • Was the story told in an interesting way to
    capture readers attention?

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  • Planning Before you start writing, know your
    objectives, who your target audience is and what
    types of outlets youll be pitching.
  • Storytelling Its been said that good stories
    happen to those who can tell them. Honing
    (sharpening) your storytelling ability will make
    whatever youre writingwhether its a corporate
    profile, a press release or a Facebook
    updatemore engaging.

  • Empathy Put yourself in the editors/readers
    shoes and focus on their interests and needs
    rather than yours or your clients.
  • Context Help journalistsand their
    readersunderstand the broader significance of
    your story and how it fits into the larger
    context of your industry, your community or the

  • Flow Good writing has a rhythm that carries the
    reader along like a catchy melody. Pay attention
    to the way you transit between ideas, where you
    put your paragraph breaks and even the sounds of
    the individual words and sentences.
  • Structure The way you organise a storywhich
    ideas you present and in what ordercan have a
    major impact on whether an editor hits delete
    halfway through the first paragraph or reads it
    all the way till the end. this is what makes or
    breaks your story!
  • Accuracy The best writing in the world wont
    matter if you get your facts wrong.

WEEK 9PR ethics professionalism
  • KOM 5321

  • What is the difference between ethics and the

The difference is
  • Ethics is a social contract consisting of
    principles which have been agreed and accredited
    by a professional organisation or members of the
    public. Punishment is in the form of societal
    ridicule, mockery of the profession, reputational
  • Whereas the law is a legal contract which have
    been stipulated in the legal acts by a government
    of the nation. Punishment will be viewed in court
    of justice.

What is ethics in public relations then?
  • The ethical practice of public relations is all
    about earning credibility
  • Credibility begins with telling the truth
  • Absolute ethics It is what is deemed to be
    ethical despite what other variables are out
    there. or known as utilitarism - i.e. majority
  • Situational ethics - It is about filling in the
    many gray areas that may not have a direct and
    absolute truth/answer (Wright, 2012) i.e.
    anything goes approach
  • PR then, must be based on doing the right thing
    beyond what the organisation wants you to do
    this is acting ethically in PR!
  • E.g. Should a PR practitioner hide a few
    information about the organisation to the editor
    just to get a space in the media slot? OR should
    a practitioner be transparent?
  • What about managing press conferences in times of
    crisis? What are ethical values PR practitioners
    have to adhere to?
  • Numerous studies concluded that PR practitioners
    have a social conscience role to play and most
    of the times ethics are not at the same line with
    how PR is practised (Fitzpatrick, 1996 Leeper,
    1996 Wright, 2012)

Being ethical is not always easy to do for PR
  • General reputation of PR has been scarred due to
    peoples perception that PR is all about gaining
    publicity, all about gaining organisations
    economic standing/business development.
  • Some publics view PR as manipulators of the
    public mind.
  • E.g. Tench Yeomans (2014) states that ethics
    is challenging for PR when there is a question on
    whether or not PR is an actual profession.

Public relations have often been accused of
  • Withholding information from the public
  • Directly and indirectly paying for views and
    opinions (bribing, giving gifts to the media for
    a story)
  • Biased
  • Distorting the reality (turning the wrong to the
  • Propaganda e.g. biased towards one particular
    goal to win the hearts and minds of the people
    HOWEVER practising misinformation of the truth.
  • Promoting products that are detrimental OR have
    negative impacts to society/community and
  • Events that are ONLY to gain publicity

  • If PR is about publicity, about getting a space
    in the media slot, gaining publics interest,
    ensuring each stakeholder is happy (investors,
    suppliers, stockholders, customers etc).
  • How then, can PR practise ethical values?

To sustain professionalism and being ethical
  • PR practice needs to be accredited (officially
    recognised by members of the public as a
    profession/as a strong practice)
  • E.g.
  • A collective agreement made by a professional
    association to list down responsibilities,
  • Define standards of acceptable conducts,
  • Clearly stated and well researched guideline for
    the profession.
  • Institute of Public Relations Malaysia (IPRM) has
    clearly stated guideline for PR professionals.
    They are accredited, and PR practitioners are all
    encouraged to be a member with IPRM to get
    accredited and remain in good standards.

Ethical codes of conduct by IPRM
  • The objective of these codes of conduct is to
    encourage high standards of professionalism among
    PR practitioners, as shown below
  • A member of IPRM must practise professionally and
    respectfully with the aim to benefit the general
  • A member of IPRM must act truthfully and fairly
  • PR practitioners must ensure that every
    information that is disseminated is the truth
  • PR practitioners CANNOT influence the mass media
    in dissemination of a story or news
  • PR practitioners must have a strong knowledge
    about the organisation that they represent.

Public relations ethics professionalism and the
issues of globalisation
  • The challenge lies in the ability for
    corporations to separate themselves from
    BOTTOMLINE/ profit maximisation
  • There must be reconceptualisation of how
    TO) their environmental publics (Stark
    Kruckeberg, 2001).
  • Public relations ethics in the new global
    village is to ensure relationships are made not
    only for the benefit of the organisations but
    also that it benefits the community
  • Putnams research showed that research done in
    Italy indicated that healthy networks of
    nonmarket relationships built a good sense of
    trust that increase efficiency of human
    relationships (in Korten, 1995)

PR ethics is an integral aspect of todays
corporate practice because
  • In a world where communication technology has
    become a dynamic force - a new global community
    is rapidly emerging
  • For PR practitioners, the challenge is to build
    credibility of their roles in a world where every
    moves, every actions, every intentions are judged
    at a global scale (think social media).
  • New ways of viewing PR practitioners are needed
    NOT JUST for publicity, not just for event
    planning to gain more profits, and it certainly
    no longer about propaganda and campaigning
    without long term benefit for the community.
  • Public relations should be perceived and
    practised as communication that contributes to
    restoring and maintaining community. Thats what
    being ethical in PR!

But how? Some key words for PR ethics
  • A new approach to accountability (Stark
    Kruckerg, 2001) conduct and account for
    business in a way that is inclusive of
    stakeholders meaning transparency in EVERYTHING
    you in the organisation.
  • Increasing value to CSR initiatives.
  • E.g. Financial statement does not measure the
    total effect of a corporations activities on
    everybody the bottom line may look good, but
    employees may be trading their health for their
    jobs (Estes, 1996).
  • Customers may be buying products that will cause
    long term side effects (Sharp, 1996, p. 60).

  • As PR educators/practitioners
  • Should encourage ethical values to corporations
    to provide accurate and complete information to
    all publics, including the communities
    surrounding the organisations.
  • A major contribution that PR educators can make
    is to help students become interculturally
    literate among present and future PR
    practitioners e.g. train PR practitioners to be
    interculturally competent, to be able to adjust
    and communicate with each public in a community
    based on their set values, not yours or your
    organisations. Another e.g. is properly ensure
    that organisations train interns.

WEEK 10PR practices roles in various sectors
  • KOM 5321

PR roles and practices in various sectors
  • Public sectors
  • Emphasis is on Management perception and image
  • Promote governments policies, programmes and
    activities through promotional planning and
    strategic publicity
  • Disseminate information strategically and
  • Monitor and evaluate media coverage and its
    effects media monitoring
  • Customer and members of the public complaints
  • Build relationships with both local and global
  • Speech writers to ministers/ image consultant
  • Write ups of press releases, brochures, etc.

The differences between public and private sectors
  • Private sector practitioners would normally not
    write speeches for their bosses
  • At times press releases are assigned to PR agents
    especially big MNCs
  • MNCs and other private organisations main focus
    is to build relationships with various publics,
    in particular, NGOs, Government agencies and the
  • Often times, work closely with other departments
    such as advertising and marketing departments for
    CSR activities and promotional events. E.g. Honda
    working closely with Marketing dept for Save the
    Rhino campaign.
  • Their campaigns are sales driven e.g. Colgate
  • Disseminating of information does NOT directly
    focus on nation building, but is aimed at
    increasing the bottom line through reputation
    building of the organisation.

However, similarities exist
  • Both PR in public and private sectors hold to
    these core objectives
  • Building corporate identity. Inclusive of all
    channeling of information from organisation to
    publics with the aim to gain support from the
    publics about policies and operations of the
  • Face crisis rationally and effectively in order
    to gain the trust and confidence of the publics
  • Assist with improving the communities in the
    nation through CSR work, and alike.

What makes these two sectors different is
  • Public sector focuses on excellence in services
    for the general public
  • Private sectors PR practice is often related
    with profitable gains through how many customers
    feel confident to buy the products and be loyal
    to the organisation based on its reputation and

Culture and organisation
  • To understand how culture works in an
    organisation, one must understand the roots of
    how the organisation was shaped.
  • Classical theorists such as Max Weber (1818-1883)
    and his ideas of beaurocracy According to Weber,
    bureaucracy involves
  • Clearly defined hierarchy
  • Division of labour - No team work.
  • Centralisation look at a pyramid from above.
    Its central in which everyone focuses to do work
    to achieve only one goal profit!
  • Closed systems
  • Importance of rules

Can we say now, that organisational culture is
free from classical (bureaucratic) culture?
  • Despite a shift from bureaucratic organisational
    forms toward more flexible, less formal
    structures bureaucratic control is still common
    in many organisations (Mumby, 2013).
  • As a form of control, organisational
    bureaucracy exists as a system of rules, formal
    structures and enable members to gain advancement
    on merit not based on ones contacts and
    connections (Mumby, 2013).
  • In public sectors, this type of organisational
    structure and culture is aimed at working
    together systematically and efficiently.

Some challenges for PR in a public sector are
  • Public relations practitioners working in a
    bureaucratic culture restricts their ability to
    move about freely in their tasks and roles. too
    many people to answer to.
  • Communication breakdown sometimes occur due to
    information being lost in the process, making
    public relations roles and tasks inefficient.
  • Practitioners in this culture always end up doing
    technical tasks due to the systematic rules and
    tasks that is already set by the organisation.

  • The movement of corporate culture, which is a
    change from bureaucratic control to ideological
    control, emerged in the 1980s (Mumby, 2013).
  • In Malaysia, Mat Tazin and Kaur (2012) suggested
    that as a result of the privatisation process in
    1980s, PR practitioners were given more public
    relations roles that allow them to grow as
    practitioners, not just merely administrative
  • Ideological control can be an effective means of
    creating an engaged and energised workforce.
  • The terms such as team family are terms
    used to create ideological corporate culture.