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Psychological Disorders


Psychological Disorders It s Enough to Make One go Crazy Just Kidding. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Disorders

Psychological Disorders
  • Its Enough to Make One go Crazy Just Kidding.

  • A psychological disorder is a behavior patterns
    or mental processes that cause serious personal
  • They may also interfere with a persons ability
    to cope with everyday life.
  • Almost one-third of adults in the United States
    have experienced some type of psychological
  • 23 of American people admit to having
    experienced some sort of psychological disorder
    in their lifetime.

Are You Okay?
  • What is normal? What is abnormal?
  • Tough to decide, sometimes.
  • People with psychological disorders seem rather
    normal, but may demonstrate an exaggeration of
  • It is important to remember that it is difficult
    to asses whether or not another person has a
    psychological disorder.
  • Psychologists usually use several criteria to
    determine the presence of a disorder.

  • Typicality Is the behavior or mental process
    average, or typical?
  • This problem with this of course is that
    sometimes people are simply not typical!
  • Geniuses like Marie Curie, Picasso, and Einstein
    were certainly not typical.
  • They were also not subject to psychological
  • Examples of a behavior that would fall under this

  • Maladaptive the behavior impair an individuals
    ability to function adequately in everyday life.
  • Alcohol abuse is one behavior that is
  • It can destroy the alcoholics health, work,
    family life, etc.
  • Maladaptive behavior can also cause harm to
  • Remember, however, violent criminals are usually
    fine, mentally.
  • They know what they are doing and so not
    psychological disorders.
  • Other examples of a behavior that would fall
    under this criterion?

  • Emotional Discomfort severe emotional discomfort
    may be a sign of a psychological disorder.
  • People who experience depression feel helpless,
    hopeless, and extreme sadness.
  • These feelings can be so stressful that it could
    lead a person to suicide.
  • Other examples of a behavior that would fall
    under this criterion?
  • Socially Unacceptable Behavior behavior that
    violates a societys accepted norms may indicate
    a disorder.
  • Remember, however, some behaviors are
    culture-bound and seem wrong to one culture, but
    not another.
  • examples of a behavior that would fall under this

  • Anxiety refers to a general state of dread or
    uneasiness that occurs in response to a vague or
    imagined danger.
  • Everyone has experienced anxiety, BUT if the
    anxiety is out of proportion with the situation
    that causes the anxiety, then, we begin to
    consider it a disorder
  • A phobia - a word which derives from the Greek
    root phobos (meaning fear) is the most common
    anxiety DISORDER.
  • DISORDER is nice and big because everyone has
    anxiety. Its the disorder part that makes
    these phobias special.

  • Zoophobia fear of animals
  • Claustrophobia fear of enclosed places
  • Acrophobia fear of heights
  • Arachnophobia fear of spiders
  • Hematophobia fear of blood
  • Aviaphobia fear of flying
  • Again many people have these fears, but it
    becomes a DISORDER when it hinders life.
  • When a person turns down a great job offer
    because they may have to fly on a plane. Thats
    a disorder.

  • A Social Phobia is characterized by persistent
    fear of social situations.
  • People with social phobias often have panic
    attacks, or short, intense periods of fear or
    discomfort that feels a lot like a heart attack
  • Some people have such abrasive fears of social
    situation that they become closed off to the
  • Agoraphobia is a fear of being in places or
    situations in which escape may be difficult or
  • People with agoraphobia sometimes never leave
    their homes.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • This disorder is characterized by excessive or
    unrealistic worry about life circumstances
  • In order for this disorder to be diagnosed, the
    excessive worry should persist for at least 6
  • One of the most common psychological disorders,
    but few people seek treatment

  • An obsession is an unwanted thought, idea, or
    mental image that occurs over and over again.
  • Sometimes they are completely senseless,
    sometimes repulsive.
  • A compulsion is a repetitive ritual behavior.
  • When the obsession and the compulsions merge
    together to hinder ones life it becomes a .?
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder could manifest in
    many way.
  • The person who obsesses about people breaking in
    to their home will get up 25 times in the night
    to lock and re-lock the door.
  • The person who obsesses about getting sick will
    wash his or her hands 25 times a day in order to
    get rid of the germs.
  • People with severe cases of OCD have specific
    routines they must follow in order for their
    lives to remain livable.

  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder refers to intense,
    persistent feelings of anxiety that are caused by
    something SO traumatic that it makes life
  • Symptoms of PTSD
  • Flashbacks
  • Nightmares
  • Numbness of feelings
  • Avoidance of situations that remind people of the
  • Increased tension, anger, poor concentration
  • Causes war, victim of crime, accidents, etc.

  • Psychological explanations
  • Psychoanalytic anxiety is a psychic reaction to
    danger surrounding the reactivation of a fearful
    situation from childhood
  • OCD when repressed events re-surface, they come
    back as obsessions
  • Learning phobias are learned in childhood,
    either from a traumatic event or from a parents
  • Avoiding situations re-enforces anxiety because
    avoidance reduces anxiety
  • Cognitive people make themselves anxious by
    telling themselves that they are helpless in
    certain situations, which causes anxiety
  • Biological explanations
  • The tendency to be tense is often inherited
  • A combination of many genes cause anxiety
  • Tendency to panic seems to run in families

Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociation is the separation of certain parts
    of personality or mental processes from conscious
  • For example sometimes a person can be so
    engrossed in a book or a T.V. show that they do
    not hear their name being called from the next
  • Daydreaming is the most common form of
  • This is NORMAL!

When its not Normal
  • When dissociation occurs as a result of a
    stressful event or certain feelings, it can be a
    sign of a disorder.
  • Dissociative Amnesia
  • Sudden loss of memory
  • Usually follows a stressful event
  • Cannot remember events surrounding traumatic
  • Is not caused biologically (like from a blow to
    the head), and can last from a few hours to years

  • Dissociative Fugue
  • Forgetting personal information and past events
  • Suddenly relocates and takes on a new identity
  • Caused by stressful or traumatic event
  • When it is over, the person does not remember
    period of fugue

  • Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Involves existence of two or more personalities
    within a single individual
  • Other personalities do not know of the others
  • Two personalities control behavior
  • Person suffering usually severely abused in

  • Depersonalization Disorder
  • People feel as though they are outside of their
    body, watching themselves from a distance.
  • Preceded by a traumatic event
  • Can accompany depression or anxiety
  • Can stand alone as a disorder

  • Psychoanalytic Theorists believe these disorders
    are caused by undesirable urges and repressed
    anger about the past.
  • Learning Theorists believe these individuals have
    learned NOT to think about stressful traumas in
    order to avoid pain.
  • They dissociate themselves from the event by
    selectively forgetting the event ever happened.
  • Cognitive and biological theorists have no decent

Somatoform Disorders
Somatoform Disorders
  • Somatization refers to the expression of
    psychological distress through physical symptoms.
  • People with these disorders HAVE psychological
    disorders (like depression), but EXPERIENCE
    inexplicable physical symptoms like paralysis.

  • Conversion Disorder
  • Experience a change in or loss of physical
    functioning in a major part of the body
  • No medical explanation
  • Blindness, paralysis
  • Characterized by persons lack of caring about
    his or her symptoms
  • Hypochondriacs
  • Have unhealthy fear of having serious illness
  • Is not physically ill
  • Has confusion about his or her normal bodily
  • Is my stomach supposed to gurgle like that? I
    must have cancer!

  • Explanations are mainly psychological in nature
  • Psychoanalytic theory- people repress emotions
    that relate to certain urges, and those emotions
    are expressed with physical symptoms
  • Physical symptoms are a combination of the
    unconsciouss need to express these feelings and
    the fear of expressing the feeling
  • Behavioral- somatoform symptoms reinforce an
    escape from anxiety
  • Other psychologists claim that patients literally
    convert mental stress to medical problems

Mood Disorders
Mood Disorders
  • Many people have mood changes.
  • If the mood changes are inappropriate,
    long-lasting, or if the persons mood is
    unresponsive to stimulus, there could be a deeper
  • There are two major categories of mood disorders
    depression and bipolar disorder.

  • Depression
  • Feelings of worthlessness, guilt, great sadness.
  • Persistent depressed mood all day
  • Loss of interest in seeking any kind of pleasure
  • Sleeping more or less than usual
  • Fatigue or loss of energy
  • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
  • Symptoms must be present for more than two weeks
  • 15 of severely depressed people kill themselves.

Bipolar Disorder
  • Dramatic ups and downs
  • Periods of mania, or extreme excitement followed
    by deep depression
  • During times of mania
  • Inflated self-esteem
  • Inability to sit still or sleep
  • Pressure to keep talking and switching topics
  • Racing thoughts

  • Psychoanalytic theorists believe some are prone
    to depression because they suffered a real or
    imagined loss of a loves object, or person in
  • Repressed fears, emotions, etc lead to great
  • Biological theorists believe it is genetic and
    passed down through generations
  • Scientists believe that two neurotransmitters,
    serotonin and noradrenaline, contribute to these

  • Schizophrenia is characterized by the loss of
    contact with reality.
  • Schizophrenia can be extremely disabling
  • It typically appears in young adulthood, but can
    emerge later in some cases
  • If untreated, it will worsen over time

Paranoid Schizophrenia
  • Have delusions
  • Have auditory hallucinations (hear voices)
  • Have delusions of grandeur (the CIA recruited me
    to do a secret mission!)
  • May hallucinate people, places, and events
  • Can become agitated, confused, and afraid when

Disorganized Schizophrenia
  • Are incoherent in their thought and speech
  • Disorganized in their behavior
  • Have hallucinations, but they are fragmented and
  • Emotionless
  • May giggle and speak nonsense for no apparent
  • Do not care about personal hygiene and may lose
    control of bladder and bowels
  • Can become irrationally angry for no reason and
    become a danger to self and others

Catatonic Schizophrenia
  • Immobile, expressionless, coma-like state
  • May hold unusual, uncomfortable body positions
    for long periods of time.
  • Arms and legs may swell due to lack of movement
  • May become suddenly agitated
  • Not able to communicate verbally
  • No recognition of outside activity

  • Psychoanalytic theorists believe it is the result
    of the overwhelming of the ego by urges from the
  • The intense inner conflict REGRESSES the
    individual back to a child-like stage.
  • Fantasies get confused with reality leading to
    hallucinations and delusions.
  • The family with frequently critical attitudes
    towards a child could put the child at risk or
    cause someone to relapse.
  • The Biological theorists believe it is a brain
  • Schizophrenics have smaller brains than other
  • They have smaller frontal regions
  • These difficulties may result in a lack of
  • Causes? Heredity, complications during
    pregnancy/birth, maternal starvation, being born
    during the winter, too much dopamine the

Personality disorders
Personality Disorders
  • Personality disorders are patterns of inflexible
    traits that disrupt social life and cause stress
    for the individual.
  • Personality disorders are different from
    psychological disorders
  • Psychological disorder traits can be
    distinguished from the individuals typical
  • Personality disorders are enduring traits that
    are major components of the individual's
  • In other words, this is just WHO THIS PERSON IS
    and the traits have been there for a long time.

Paranoid Personality Disorder
  • Distrustful of others
  • Interpret others motives as harmful or evil
  • difficult to get along with
  • Argumentative
  • Cold and aloof
  • Do not see how their suspicions could be

Schizoid Personality Disorder
  • No interest in social relationships with others
  • Lack emotional responsiveness
  • Do not become attached to other people
  • Tend to be loners, have few friends
  • Similar to symptoms of schizophrenia without
    the hallucinations and delusions
  • They stay in touch with reality

Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Consistent disregard for, and violation of, the
    rights of others
  • Do not feel guilt or remorse for their antisocial
  • In childhood, may run away from home, hurt or
    kill animals, lie and steal
  • As adults, could become aggressive, have a hard
    time keeping a job, fail to pay bills and may
    break the law.

Avoidant Personality Disorder
  • Desire relationships with other people, but have
    great fear of rejection
  • Avoids social situations due to this fear
  • Acts shy
  • Always afraid to do something foolish or
  • More severe than SOCIAL PHOBIAS and not easy to
  • Phobias are fixable

  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder feelings of
    grandeur, need for admiration, lack of empathy
    for the feelings of others
  • Borderline Personality Disorder instability in
    interpersonal relationships, poor or deluded
  • Dependent PD extremely submissive to anyone
    offering attention, extremely clingy
  • Obsessive-Compulsive PD Obsession with control,
    perfectionist, must have order, spends life
    attempting to control everything in life.

  • Psychoanalytic theorists, like Freud, believe
    that a lack of guilt is the basis for many of
    these disorders (life antisocial PD).
  • The superego never fully develops
  • Research finds that children who are rejected and
    harshly punished by adults lack a sense of guilt
  • The child who is nurtured and disciplined with
    affection will develop guilt and will not suffer
  • Learning theorists believe that childhood
    teaches children how to relate to other people.
  • If a child only gets attention for behaving
    badly, they will continue to behave badly.
  • Role models are also important in childhood.
  • Biological theorists go for genetics again!
  • Frontal part of the brain has fewer neurons and
    therefore lack problem-solving skills