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The Tide of War Turns Section 4

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The Tide of War Turns Section 4 How did the Battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg change the course of the Civil War? Vocabulary: siege Gettysburg Address – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Tide of War Turns Section 4


1
The Tide of War Turns Section 4
  • How did the Battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg
    change the course of the Civil War?
  • Vocabulary
  • siege Gettysburg Address
  • Vicksburg total war
  • Gettysburg George Pickett
  • William Tecumseh Sherman

2
Turning Points of the War
Union Victory at Vicksburg Main Idea After two
years of war, the Confederacy still had
strongholds at Port Hudson, Louisiana, and
Vicksburg, Mississippi. Lincoln proclaimed that
Vicksburg was the key to reaching the wars end.
A Turning Point in the East Main Idea While
Union troops advanced in the West, the situation
was different in the East. Despite claiming
victory at Antietam, Lincoln soon replaced
General McClellan for failing to pursue the
retreating Confederates. McClellans replacement,
General Ambrose Burnside, headed south, hoping to
win a decisive victory. The Union Presses the
Advantage Main Idea The Union victories at
Gettysburg and Vicksburg dealt a severe blow to
the Confederacy. Lees troops were in retreat and
the Mississippi was in Union hands. The
Confederacy would still win some victories, such
as that at Chickamauga, Georgia, in the fall of
1863. In general, however, the situation of the
South was dire. Continued
3
Battle of Fredericksburg
  • General McClellan replaced with Ambrose Burnside
  • Burnside attacks Lee in VA by charging into
    Confederate gunfire
  • Union casualties 13,000

4
Battle of Chancellorsville
  • Burnside resigns
  • Joseph Fighting Joe Hooker takes over for North
  • Lee split forces to counter Hooker, approaching
    from the rear builds fires in camp

5
Lee and Jackson
6
Chancellorsville
  • May, 1863 On the second day, Stonewall Jackson
    attacked on right of Hooker
  • Jackson scouting at night and is hit by own
    troops arm amputated died

7
Battle of Gettysburg
  • North at low point due to losses
  • Lee weakened by blockade and lack of supplies
  • Lee hoped North would give up if he won in
    Pennsylvania

8
July 1, 1863
  • General George Meade, new Northern general
  • Northerners held hills south of town Cemetery
    Ridge
  • Southerners held Seminary Ridge field in
    between General James Longstreet, Lees second
    in command
  • He advised Lee not to attack the Norths strong
    position
  • Lee orders the attack

9
July 2, 1863
  • Meade brings reinforcements
  • Little Round Top, undefended
  • Maine soldiers under Colonel Joshua Chamberlain
    hold it and then attack with bayonets
  • Saved Union army from retreat

10
July 3, 1863
  • Lee opens with artillery barrage
  • 15,000 Confederates attack
  • Picketts Charge cut up by Northern artillery ½
    casualties

11
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12
Gettysburg
  • Bloodiest battle of war
  • Union had 23,000 casualties
  • South had 28,000 casualties
  • July 4, 1863, Lee retreats to Virginia

13
Vicksburg
  • North wanted control of the Mississippi River
  • General Ulysses S. Grant
  • Several attacks failed
  • Began a siege in May 1863
  • Surrender July 4, 1963
  • With the fall of Port Hudson, the South was split
    in two

14
Turning Point
  • Gettysburg and Vicksburg
  • Mississippi River taken by North, cutting
    Confederacy in two

15
Gettysburg Address
  • Nov. 19, 1863
  • President Lincoln explained the meaning of the
    Civil War
  • Freedom and equality belong to all

16
Transparency The Gettysburg Address
The Gettysburg Address
TRANSPARENCY
17
  • Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers
    brought forth on this continent a new nation,
    conceived in liberty and dedicated to the
    proposition that all men are created equal.
  • Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing
    whether that nation or any nation so conceived
    and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a
    great battlefield of that war. We have come to
    dedicate a portion of it as a final resting place
    for those who died here that the nation might
    live. This we may, in all propriety do. But in a
    larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot
    consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The
    brave men, living and dead who struggled here
    have hallowed it far above our poor power to add
    or detract. The world will little note nor long
    remember what we say here, but it can never
    forget what they did here.
  • It is rather for us the living, we here be
    dedicated to the great task remaining before
    us--that from these honored dead we take
    increased devotion to that cause for which they
    here gave the last full measure of devotion--that
    we here highly resolve that these dead shall not
    have died in vain, that this nation shall have a
    new birth of freedom, and that government of the
    people, by the people, for the people shall not
    perish from the earth."

18
Grant Takes Command
  • Lincoln must win battles to win the election of
    1864
  • Grant plans to use Norths superior population
    and industry to wear down the South

19
Battle of the Wilderness
  • May 5, 1864 in Virginia
  • Grant beaten, but moved south anyway
  • No retreat

20
Battle of Spotsylvania
  • May 12, 1864
  • Northern losses were huge, with bodies piled four
    deep
  • Again Grant moves his army further south

21
Battle of Cold Harbor
  • June, 1864, armies met eight miles from Richmond
  • Large Northern losses
  • Grant lost 7,000 Union soldiers in less than one
    hour

22
Quick Study Goals of Total War
Goals of Total War
QUICK STUDY
23
Sherman in Georgia
  • Sherman wanted to seize Atlanta, a rail and
    industrial center
  • 98,000 Union men
  • Confederate General -Joseph Johnston

24
Battle of Kennesaw Mountain
25
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26
Atlanta
  • Johnston wanted to delay Sherman until after the
    Nov. elections
  • Mid-July, Sherman is near Atlanta
  • Johnston replaced with General James Hood
  • Hood engaged Sherman in several battles and lost
    thousands of men
  • Sherman laid siege to the city
  • In September the Souths army left Atlanta

27
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28
March to the Sea
  • Some thought Sherman was mentally unstable
  • He ordered Atlanta burned
  • Cut a 300-mile long path of destruction
  • Captured Savannah in Dec.

29
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30
Election of 1864
  • Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, Vice President
  • McClellan, Democrat
  • Capture of Atlanta helped Lincoln win reelection

31
Note Taking Reading Skill Summarize
Reading Skill Summarize
NOTE TAKING
32
A New Birth of Freedom Section 5
  • What was the final outcome and impact of the
    Civil War?
  • Vocabulary
  • Thirteenth Amendment
  • John Wilkes Booth
  • Mathew Brady
  • Land Grant College Act

33
The Wars End and Impact
The Wars Final Days Main Idea In the summer
of 1864, the Confederates made a desperate stand
at Petersburg, a vital railroad center. Grant
knew that if he captured Petersburg, he could cut
all supply lines to Richmond. Therefore he
applied his siege tactics to Petersburg and
ultimately achieved victory. Richmond, then
defenseless, was evacuated and set on fire. Why
the North Won Main Idea The Union victory was
a result of several key factors. Northerners were
able to take advantage of their greater
technological prowess, larger population, and
more abundant resources. The Union was also able
to develop new advantages, particularly brilliant
and fearless military leaders who were willing to
do everything it took to win the war. Meanwhile,
the South used up its resources, unable to call
upon fresh troops and supplies. The Wars
Lasting Impact Main Idea The Civil War produced
extraordinary levels of casualties and
destruction. Also, social and political
disillusionment on both sides fed economic greed.
However, the Civil War managed to ease the
history of disunity of in American political life
and helped to cement federal authority.
34
Siege of Petersburg
  • Grant moved around capital of Richmond and
    attacks Petersburg
  • In last two months, Grant lost 65,000 men
  • Lee has trouble replacing casualties and waits

35
Thirteenth Amendment
  • Passed by Congress in February, 1865
  • Ratified by the states and became law on Dec. 18,
    1865
  • Ended slavery in the U.S.

36
End of the War
  • Sherman moved through South Carolina, burning
    most houses
  • Did not destroy North Carolina

37
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38
Appomattox Court House
  • April 9, 1865 Lee met Grant and surrendered
  • Grant offered food and ordered celebration by
    Northern troops ended

39
Note Taking Reading Skill Recognize Sequence
Reading Skill Recognize Sequence
NOTE TAKING
40
1809
  • Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, l809 in
    a log cabin on the Kentucky frontier.
  • Lincoln was named after his grandfather.
  • His parents were Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks.
  • He had one sister Sarah. 

41
1834
  • Lincoln, age 24, served in the state government
    of Illinois.
  • He was elected to the legislature as a Whig
  • He denounced slavery, saying it was "founded on
    both injustice and bad policy."

42
1836
  • September 9, Lincoln received his law license
  • Is made a leader of the Whig party.
  • He first practices law in Springfield, Illinois.

43
1842
  • November 4, Lincoln married Mary Todd.
  • Had four children Robert (1843-1926), Edward
    (1846-1850), William (1850-1862), and Thomas
    (1853-1871).

44
1860
  • Lincoln is elected the 16th President of the
    United States
  • Is the first Republican to Be elected
  • Was a difficult time for Lincoln, since many
    Southern states did not agree with him on slavery
  • Declared they were not a part of the United
    States.

45
1861
  • The South leaves the Union and the Civil war
    begins
  • Began with an attack on Fort Sumter
  • The U.S. struggled in The Civil war for four
    year, 1861-1865.

46
1863
  • On January 1, Lincoln issues the final
    Emancipation Proclamation
  • Freed all slaves in territories held by
    Confederates
  • Emphasized the enlisting of black soldiers in the
    Union Army.

47
1864
  • Lincoln is reelected President.
  • He won the election defeating Democrat George B.
    McClellan.
  • He received 55 percent of the popular votes and
    2l2 of 233 electoral votes.

48
1865
  • Civil War ends.
  • General Lee's troops were surrounded and on April
    7, Grant called upon Lee to surrender.
  • The two commanders met on April 9, and agreed on
    the terms of surrender.

49
Lincolns Assassination
  • April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln
    while he was watching a play
  • Lincoln died the next day and Booth was killed in
    Virginia

50
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51
1865
  • On April 13, Lincoln attended a play at Ford's
    Theatre and was shot.
  • John Wilkes Booth, had shot the President.
  • Lincoln died on the morning of April 15, 1865.

52
John Wilkes Booth
53
Note Taking Reading Skill Understand Effects
Reading Skill Understand Effects
NOTE TAKING
54
Effects of the War
  • Both sides suffered great losses more than half
    a million people died
  • Union preserved
  • Slavery abolished
  • Economy
  • -Union costs 6 billion, Confederate costs 2
    billion
  • -Southern farms, factories, and railroads
    destroyed
  • -Southern industry crippled
  • -Confederate states lost two thirds of their
    wealth

55
Two Important Acts
  • Homestead Act 1862, Congress passed act, making
    western land available at a very low cost to
    those who would farm it.
  • Land Grant College Act 1862, legislation that
    gave money from the sale of public lands to
    states for the establishment of universities that
    taught agriculture and mechanical arts

56
Chart Economic Costs of the Civil War
Economic Costs of the Civil War
CHART
57
Chart War Deaths
War Deaths
CHART
58
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