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Title: Animals


1
Animals
2
Introduction to Animals
3
Introduction to the Animal Kingdom
Phylum Examples Evolutionary Milestone
Porifera sponges multicellularity
Cnidaria jellyfish, hydra, coral tissues
Platyhelminthes flatworms bilateral symmetry
Nematoda roundworms pseudocoelom
Mollusca clams, squids, snails coelom
Annalida earthworms, leeches segmentation
Arthropoda insects, spiders, crustaceans jointed appendages
Echinodermata starfish deuterostomes
Chordata vertebrates notochord
4
Invertebrates vs Chordates
  • Invertebrates
  • Includes 95 of animals
  • Includes 33 Phyla
  • No vertebral column/backbone
  • Chordates
  • Includes 5 of animals
  • Includes Phylum Chordata
  • 4 Characteristics (at some point during life)
  • Nerve cord and/or Vertebral Column
  • Notchord
  • Tail ext. beyond the anus
  • Pharyngeal pouches

5
Symmetry
  • Body Symmetry
  • the body plan of an animal, how its parts are
    arranged
  • Asymmetry
  • no pattern (corals, sponges)
  • Radial Symmetry
  • shaped like a wheel (starfish, hydra, jellyfish)
  • Bilateral Symmetry
  • has a right and left side (humans, insects, cats,
    etc)

6
Germ Layers
  • The blastula develops 3 distinct layers, which
    become layers in the organism
  • Ectoderm - outer layer of skin, nervous tissue,
    sense organs
  • Endoderm - lining of digestive tract, digestive
    and respiratory system
  • Mesoderm - skeleton, muscles, excretory system

7
Body Cavity
  • Coelom
  • Fluid filled cavity in the mesoderm that is lined
    with mesodermal tissues
  • Pseudocoelom
  • Partially filled with mesoderm
  • Acoelomate
  • Have no bodycavity

8
Cephalization
  • Cephalization
  • an anterior concentration of sense organs (to
    have a head)

 
9
Cephalization Cont.
  • Anterior - toward the head
  • Posterior - toward the tail
  • Dorsal - back side
  • Ventral - belly side

10
Types of Feeders
  • Filter Feeders
  • Strain food from water
  • Detritivores
  • Feed on decaying plants/animals
  • Carnivores
  • Eat other animals
  • Herbivores
  • Eat plants
  • Omnivore
  • Eats both animals and plants
  • Nutritional Symbionts
  • Depend on another species

11
Digestion
  • Intracellular
  • Use cells to digest food
  • Used by less complex animals
  • Extracullular
  • Use a digestive system to digest food
  • Used by more complex animals

12
Mammal Digestive
  • Esophogas Connects mouth to stomach
  • Stomach Breaks down food
  • Small Intestine Digests nutrients from food
  • Large Intestine Absorbs water

13
Mammal Digestive
  • Rectum/Anus food exit
  • Liver filters blood, produces bile
  • Gallbladder stores bile
  • Pancreas breaks down carbs/fats/proteins
  • Regulates blood sugar

14
Respiration
  • All animals exchange oxygen with carbon dioxide
  • Types of Respiration
  • Skin Respiration oxygen/carbon dioxide diffuse
    across thin membranes
  • Gills
  • Lungs

15
Mammal Respiratory
  • Trachea allows air in
  • Lungs exchanges oxygen/with CO2 from
    bloodstream

16
Circulation
  • Open
  • Blood is only partially contained in blood
    vessels
  • Closed
  • Blood is contained within blood vessels
  • Types of Close
  • Single Loop
  • Single pump that forces blood in 1 direction
  • Double Loop
  • Double loop, double pump

17
Mammal Cardiovascular
  • Heart pumps blood
  • Arteries oxygenated blood away from heart
  • Veins deoxygenated blood to heart

18
Response/Nervous
  • Neurons
  • Nerve cells
  • Stimulus
  • Something in the environment that causes neurons
    to react
  • Sensory Neurons
  • Specialized neurons that vary from animal to
    animal
  • Response
  • A reaction to a stimulus

19
Types of Nervous Systems
  • Nerve Nets, Nerve Cords Ganglia
  • Simple nervous system
  • Heads
  • Cephalized animals have grouped neurons that form
    cerebral ganglia in the head region
  • Brains
  • Cerebral ganglia are further organized into a
    brain

20
Nervous
  • Brain control center
  • Cerebrum thinking region
  • Cerebellum Movement and balance
  • Medulla Oblongata controls internal organs
  • Spinal Cord sends signals to rest of body from
    brain

21
Excretion
  • 2 Ways Animals Excrete
  • Eliminate ammonia from body quickly
  • Convert it into other, less toxic, nitrogenous
    compounds

22
Urinary
  • Kidney filters blood creates urine
  • Ureter passes urine from kidneys to bladder
  • Bladder holds urine
  • Urethra removes urine from body

23
Reproduction
  • Asexual
  • 1 parent
  • Benefit Can reproduce quickly
  • Drawback Less genetic diversity
  • Sexual
  • 2 parents
  • Benefit Increased genetic diversity
  • Drawbacks Both genders must be present, takes
    more time

24
Human Reproductive - Male
  • Testis creates sperm
  • Ductus Deferens moves sperm from testes to
    penis
  • Prostate Gland male hormones

25
Human Reproductive Female
  • Ovaries Holds/releases eggs
  • Fallopian Tube passes eggs from ovaries to
    uterus
  • Uterus implantation of egg occurs here/houses
    baby

26
Movement and Support
  • Skeletal For Support
  • Hydrostatic Fluid Filled Cavity
  • Exoskeleton External Skeleton
  • Endoskeleton Internal Skeleton
  • Muscles For Movement

27
Behavior
  • Behavior the way an organism reacts to stimuli
    in its environment
  • Innate behaviors Behaviors you are born with
  • Suckling of a newborn mammal
  • Weaving of a spider web

28
Behavior
  • Learned Behaviors acquiring changes in behavior
    during a lifetime
  • Habituation animal decreases or stops its
    response to a repetitive stimulus that neither
    rewards or harms the animal

29
Complex Behaviors
  • Complex Behaviors Combination of innate and
    learned
  • Imprinting Acquiring behavioral characteristics
    from parents

30
Social Behaviors
  • Courtship behavior during which members of one
    sex (usually males) advertise their willingness
    to mate and the other sex chooses which mate they
    will accept

31
Social Behaviors
  • Competition competing for the same resources
    (food, water, space, etc.)
  • Aggression threatening behaviors that one
    animal uses to exert dominance over another

32
Social Behaviors
  • Society a group of animals of the same species
    that interact closely and often cooperate
  • Bees
  • PBS Bees
  • Bees - David Attenbourgh
  • Ants

33
Communication
  • Visual signals use eyes
  • Squid change color to broadcast signals
  • Male/female color patterns
  • Fireflies send light signals
  • Chemical signals insects, fish, mammals
  • Pheromones chemical messengers that affect the
    behavior of other individuals of the same species
    (mark territories or mating)

34
Communication
  • Sound signals
  • Bottlenose dolphins each have a signature
    whistle that informs others who is sending the
    message
  • Bird calls

35
Language
  • Language combines sound, signals and gestures
    according to rules about sequence and meaning
  • Elephants, primates, dolphins
  • Dolphin learns sign language
  • Chimps Hunting Monkeys

36
Invertebrates
37
Characteristics of Sponges
  • Sponges
  • Simplest animals, multicellular
  • No organs or body systems
  • Cellular digestion
  • Asymmetry
  • Filter Feeders Sessile (do not move)
  • Reproduce sexually (sperm and eggs)
  • Reproduce asexually (regeneration)
  • Skeleton composed of spongin (soft) and spicules
    (hard)

38
Sponge Anatomy
  • Amebocytes
  • Moving cells that supply nutrients and take away
    waste
  • Choanocytes (collar cells)
  • layer of cells with flagella
  • the movement of the flagella keeps a water
    current going in the sponge
  • food vacuoles in the collar cells digest plankton
    and other small organisms (filter feeder)
  • Oscula
  • large opening at top of sponge, water exits
  • Pores
  • small openings at the side, water enters
  • Gemmules
  • Groups of archaeocytes surrounded by a tough
    layer of spicules.

39
Cnidarians
  • Examples Jellyfish, hydra, sea anemone, coral,
    Portuguese man of war
  • Characteristics of Cnidarians
  • Tentacles
  • Cnidocytes (stinging cells)
  • Nematocysts (barbs)
  • Gastrovascular cavity (digestion)
  • Most are radial symmetry, some have asymmetry
    (corals)

40
Cnidarian Body Forms
  • 2 Body Forms
  • Polyp - Medusa

 
41
Porifera vs. Cnidaria
  • Put the words with the correct phylum
  • Sessile
  • Tentacles
  • Radial Symmetry
  • Nematocyts (barbs)
  • Asymmetry
  • Spiculum
  • Cnidocytes (stinging cells)
  • Reproduces both sexually/asexually
  • Osculum
  • Sponges
  • Jellyfish
  • Coral
  • Man of War

42
Platyhelminthes - Flatworms
  • General Description Flatworms are soft flat
    worms with tissues and organ systems (are
    cephalized).
  • Symmetry Bilateral
  • Feeding
  • Free Living carnivores that eat tiny aquatic
    animals. Food passes through mouth into pharynx
    then into gastrovascular cavity where digestion
    occurs.
  • Parasitic Feed on blood of host, lets host
    digest food for them.

 
 
 
43
Platyhelminthes Flatworms Cont.
  • Circulation
  • Diffusion
  • Excretion
  • Removed using Flame Cells through tiny pores in
    the skin
  • Response
  • Ganglia (nerve cells) within head attached to
    nerve cords
  • Movement
  • Cilia muscle cells
  • Reproduction
  • Hermaphrodites (has both sex organs)
  • Respiration
  • Diffusion

44
Flatworm Examples
  • Turbellarians
  • Free-living marine or freshwater flatworms
    includes planaria)
  • Flukes
  • Parasitic flatworms that infect internal organs
    in the host
  • Pass from one host to the next
  • Tapeworms
  • Flat parasitic forms that live within the
    digestive tracks of their host.
  • Can grow up to 40 ft. long
  • Attach with hooks suckers

45
Nematoda - Roundworms
  • General Description Unsegmented worms with
    pseudocoeloms and digestive systems with a mouth
    an anus.
  • Symmetry Bilateral
  • Feeding
  • Carnivores or detrivores
  • Circulation
  • Diffusion
  • Excretion
  • Diffusion

 
 
 
46
Nematoda - Roundworms
  • Response
  • Ganglia (nerve cells) within head attached to
    nerve cords
  • Sensory organs that detect chemicals
  • Movement
  • Muscle cells (length of bodies) contract to move
  • Reproduction
  • Sexual Reproduction (most have separate males
    females)
  • Internal Fertilization
  • Respiration
  • Diffusion

47
Roundworm Examples
  • Trichinosis-Causing Worms
  • Cause trichinosis
  • Live in intestines of host
  • Invade hosts organs and muscle tissue
  • Filarial Worms
  • Line in blood/lymph vessels
  • Transmitted through biting insects
  • Cause elephantitis
  • Ascarid Worms
  • Cause malnutrition, spread by eating vegetables
  • Hookworms
  • Live in soil and hook onto feet of host, burrow
    into skin and enter bloodstream
  • Suck hosts blood in lungs and intestines causing
    weakness

48
Annelida
  • General Description Segmented worms with a true
    coelem lined with mesoderm.
  • Symmetry Bilateral
  • Feeding
  • Filter feeders and carnivores
  • Earth worm crop (storage) and gizzard (grinds
    food)
  • Circulation
  • Closed circulatory system (blood vessels
    hearts)
  • 2 main vessels dorsal ventral
  • Excretion
  • Solid waste through the anus
  • Fluid waste removed by nephridia (excretory
    organs)

 
 
 
49
Annelida
  • Response
  • Nervous system brain and nerve chords
  • Adaptations sensory tentacles, chemical
    receptors and statyoysts (gravity)
  • Movement
  • 2 major groups of body muscles (alternately
    contract the 2)
  • Longitudinal Muscles
  • Contract to make worm shorter
  • Circular Muscles
  • Contract to make worm longer/thinner
  • Marine annelida have parapodia (paddlelike
    appendages)

50
Annelida
  • Reproduction
  • Sexual Reproduction
  • External Fertilization
  • Some are hermaphrodites some have separate sexes
  • Clitellum forms protective cocoon over fertilized
    eggs
  • Respiration
  • Aquatic have gills
  • Nonaquatic breathe through their skin
  • Cuticle keeps skin moist so that respiration
    can occur

51
Annelida Examples
  • Oligochates
  • Live in soil or freshwater
  • Includes earthworms
  • Leeches
  • External parasites (feed on blood of host)
  • Polychates
  • Marine annelids

52
Molluska
  • General Description Soft bodied animals with an
    internal or external shell
  • Symmetry Bilateral
  • Body Plan
  • Foot - contains mouth
  • Mantle tissue that covers the body like a cloak
  • Shell glands in the mantle secrete calcium
    carbonate to make the shell.
  • Visceral mass contains internal organs
  • Feeding
  • Herbivores, carnivores, filter feeders,
    detrivores, or parasites.

 
 
 
53
Molluska
  • Circulation
  • Open or closed circulatory system
  • Excretion
  • Nephridia (remove ammonia from blood release
    outside of the body)
  • Response
  • Clams/shelled mollusks simple ganglia
  • Octupi complex w/brain

54
Mollusks
  • Movement
  • Varies
  • Octupi uses a siphon to propel themselves
    forward
  • Reproduction
  • Sexually external fertilization or internal
    fertilization depending on the mollusk.
  • Respiration
  • Aquatic Gils
  • Nonaquatic diffusion through mantle cavity

55
Molluska
  • Gastropods (Snails Slugs)
  • Shell-less or single-shelled
  • Bivalves (Clams, Oysters, Mussels Scallops)
  • 2 shells held together by 1 or 2 powerful muscles
  • Cephalopods (Octopi, Squids and Nautiluses)
  • Soft bodied with a head attached to a single foot
    that is divided into tentacles or arms.

56
25.18 The Spiny-Skinned Echinoderms
  • Havespiny skins embedded with interlocking
    spines and plates of calcium carbonate
  • Begin life as bilateral larvae and develop into
    spiny-skinned, radial adults
  • They are brainless and have a unique
    water-vascular system for locomotion

57
Echinoderm Diversity
  • Include about 6,000 marine invertebrates
  • Echinoderms can regenerate lost body parts
  • any portion of a sea star with some of the
    central disc can regrow missing parts
  • Respiration gas exchange occur by diffusion
    across the tube feet
  • No specialized excretory organs
  • Separate sexes with external fertilization

58
Phylum Echinodermata
  • Includes 5 classes          sea urchins
    sand dollars           brittle stars
              sea cucumbers          
    starfish  (sea star)  
  • sea lilies feather stars

59
Arthropoda
  • General Description
  • Segmented body, tough exoskeleton jointed
    appendages
  • Symmetry Bilateral
  • Body Plan
  • Exoskeleton tough external cover made of chitin
  • Jointed Appendages structures that extend from
    the body such as legs and antennae
  • Feeding
  • Herbivores, carnivores omnivores
  • Mouthparts vary among species to eat specific
    foods

 
 
 
60
Arthropoda
  • Circulation
  • Open circulatory system
  • Heart pumps blood through arteries that open up
    into the tissues
  • Excretion
  • Malpighian Tubules
  • Saclike organs that extract wastes from the blood
    then add them to feces
  • Response
  • Well developed nervous system
  • All have brains
  • Most have sensory organs (eyes taste receptors
    etc.)
  • Growth Development
  • Molting arthropods shed their exoskeleton when
    they outgrow them

61
Arthropoda
  • Movement
  • Use muscles controlled by nervous system to flex
    extend
  • Reproduction
  • Terrestrial internal fertilization
  • Aquatic internal or external
  • Respiration
  • Terrestrial Arthropods
  • Tracheal Tubes branching air filled tubes
  • Spiracles small opening along the side of the
    body through which air enters
  • Spiders
  • Book Lungs layers of respiratory tissue
  • Aquatic Arthropods
  • Gills

62
Arthropoda - Crustaceans
  • Crustaceans
  • Shell-less or single-shelled
  • Crabs, crayfish barnicles

63
Arthropoda - Chelicerates
  • Chelicerates
  • Scorpions
  • Spiders
  • Horseshoe Crab
  • Mites

64
Arthropoda - Uniramians
  • Uniramians
  • Grasshopper
  • Centipede
  • Millipede
  • Butterfly
  • Bee

65
Chordates
66
Nonvertebrate Chordates
  • 2 Groups of Nonvertebrate Chordates
  • Tunicates
  • Filter feeding animals that have chordate
    features in the larval stage
  • Lancelets
  • Fishlike filter feeders

67
Fishes
  • Jawless Fishes
  • Cartilagenous Fishes
  • Bony Fishes
  • Lobe-Finned Fishes

68
Fishes
  • Fish
  • Aquatic vertebrates characterized by paired fins,
    scales and gills.
  • Paired Fins movement
  • Scales protection (catfish dont have scales)
  • Gills respiration

69
Fishes
  • Feeding
  • Carnivores like barracudas and piranhas,
    Herbivores like carp, Parasites like lampreys.
  • Respiration
  • Gills feathery fillaments full of capillaries
  • Fish pull O2 rich water into mouth and CO2 rich
    water is pumped out under the operculum
    (protective bony cover on the side of the
    pharynx)
  • Exception Lungfish lunglike organs

70
Fishes
  • Circulation
  • Closed circulatory system
  • Heart
  • Made of 2 chambers

71
Fishes
  • Excretion
  • gills and kidneys remove nitrogenous waste
  • Response
  • Olfactory Lobes sense of smell
  • Cerebrum muscle movement, instincs,
    intelligence will power
  • Optic Lobes - eyesight
  • Cerrebelum muscular coordination
  • Medulla Oblongata - involuntary responses
  • Spinal Chord nerve impulses to/from brain

72
Fishes
  • Movement
  • Muscles - Alternate contractions
  • Fins - stabilizers/direction
  • Swim bladder - gas filled organ that adjusts
    buoyancy.

73
Fishes
  • Reproduction
  • Usually external fertilization of eggs.
  • Oviparous
  • Embryos develop outside the females body
    (trout). Food in egg yolk.
  • Ovoviparous
  • Females have a live birth (guppies). Yolk in
    eggs in females.
  • Viviparous
  • Embryos get nourishment directly from the females
    body (sharks)

74
Goldfish
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Phylum Chordata
  • Subphylum Vertebrata
  • Class Actinoptergii
  • Order Cypriniformes
  • Family Cyprinidai
  • Genus Carassius
  • Species Auratus

75
Amphibians
  • Amphibian
  • Vertebrate that lives in water as a larva and
    land as an adult

76
Amphibians
  • Feeding
  • Tadpoles-filter feeders-algae
  • Adults- insects
  • Cloaca opening through which poop, urine, eggs
    sperm leave the body

77
Amphibians
  • Respiration
  • Tadpoles skin and gills.
  • Adults lungs and skin. Salamanders skin only.
  •  Circulation
  • 3 chambered heart. Double loop
  • Excretion
  • kidneys filter blood transferred via the ureters
    to the cloaca and the urinary bladder.

78
Amphibians
  •  Reproduction
  • female lays about 200 eggs in water, male
    fertilizes the eggs, eggs hatch, and tadpoles
    become young frogs. (external fertilization)
  • Movement
  • larvae- fishlike movement, salamanders walk and
    frogs walk and jump.
  • Response
  • Brain like a fish
  • Nictitating membrane protects eye and keeps it
    moist.
  • Tympanic membrane is for hearing.

79
Groups of Amphibians
  1. Salamanders
  2. Frogs and Toads
  3. Caelians

80
Reptiles
  • Reptile
  • Vertebrate with dry scaly skin, lungs and
    terrestrial eggs
  • Ectotherm animal that cant make its own body
    heat and relies on behavior to control body
    temperatures
  • Ex Lay in sun to keep warm

81
Reptiles
  • Feeding varies
  • Respiration lungs
  • Circulation Double loop (3-4 chamber heart)
  • Excretion
  • Kidneys

82
Reptiles
  • Response Brain like amphibian
  • Reproduction Internal Fertilization
  • Oviparous (most)
  • Amniotic Egg an egg with a yolk sac shell
    that protects egg from drying out

83
Groups of Reptiles
  • Lizards Snakes
  • Crocodilians
  • Turtles Tortoises
  • Tuatara
  • like a lizard but doesnt have external ears and
    has a third eye

84
Birds
  • Birds
  • Reptilelike animals that maintain constant body
    temperature, have feathers, wings two legs
    covered with scales
  • Endotherm
  • Can make control their own body heat

85
Birds
  • Feeding gain by eating food
  • Crop stores food
  • Gizzard grinds food
  • Respiration (1 way)
  • Air Sacs air first enters here before going
    into the lungs
  • Breathing Tubes air is exhaled out of the
    breathing tubes

86
Birds
  • Circulation
  • 4 chambered heart
  • Excretion kidneys
  • Response
  • Large brain
  • Movement
  • Many can fly
  • Reproduction
  • Amniotic eggs like reptiles

87
Groups of Birds
  • Pelicans
  • Parrots
  • Perching Birds sparrows, crows etc.
  • Birds of Prey eagle, hawks, owls
  • Cavity-Nesting Birds toucans, woodpeckers
  • Herons
  • Ostriches

88
Mammals
  • Common Characteristics
  • Have Hair
  • Feed young with milk from mammary glands
  • Breathe Air
  • 4-Chambered Hearts
  • Endotherms (generate their own body heat)
  • Take care of their young
  • SEE INTRO SECTION FOR MORE INFO ABOUT BODY SYSTEMS

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