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Title: Verbs

  • 11 English
  • Grammar Review

  • A verb is a word that shows action, condition, or
    state of being.
  • An action verb, such as believe and protest,
    shows either mental or physical activity.
  • A linking verb, such as feel and be, describes a
    state of being and connects the subject with a
    word in the predicate.

Principal Parts of Verbs
  • Every verb has four principal parts present,
    present participle, past, and past participle.

Present vs. Present Participle
  • Present
  • Protest
  • Organize
  • Speak
  • Write
  • Present Participle
  • Is protesting
  • Is organizing
  • Is speaking
  • Is writing

Past vs. Past Participle
  • Past
  • Protested
  • Organized
  • Spoke
  • Wrote
  • Past Participle
  • Has protested
  • Has organized
  • Has spoken
  • Has written

Irregular verbs
  • Most irregular verbs can be grouped into five
    spelling patterns.
  • Group 1 present, past, and past participle are
    the same spread, is spreading, spread, has
  • Group 2 past and past participle are the same
    lead, is leading, led, has led.

Irregular Verbs
  • Group 3 form past participle by adding n or en
    to past bite, is biting, bit, has bitten.
  • Group 4 Change i in the present form to a for
    the past and to u for the past participle sink,
    is sinking, sank or sunk, has sunk.

Irregular Verbs
  • Group 5 change vowel of present to form past.
    Add n or en to form most past participles see,
    is seeing, saw, has seen.

Verb Tenses
  • There are three simple tenses (past, present, and
    future) and three perfect tenses (past perfect,
    present perfect, and future perfect).

Conjugation of simple tenses
  • Present use the present part talk
  • Past add ed to the present part for regular
    verbs talked
  • Future add will or shall to the present part
    will talk, shall talk

Using Simple Tenses
  • Use the present tense to describe an action or
    state of being
  • That is happening as it is being reported. Ex
    The biography of Mother Teresa inspires me.
  • That is regularly occurring or habitual. Ex Her
    followers do important work.
  • That will take place in the future when the
    verb is modified by and adverb or adverbial
    phrase indicating future time. Ex The play
    begins in an hour.

Using Simple Tenses
  • Use past tense to describe an action or state of
    being that began and ended in the past. Ex
    During the 1920s, Mother Teresa joined in
    religious order.
  • Use the future tense to describe an action or
    state of being that will take place some time
    after the present moment. Ex Generations of
    social activists will honor Mother Teresa.

Conjugation of Perfect Tenses
  • Present perfect add has or have to the past
    participle have talked, has talked
  • Past perfect add had to the past participle
    had talked
  • Future perfect Add will have or shall have to
    the past participle will have talked, shall have

Using Perfect Tenses
  • Use the present perfect tense to express an
    action or state of being
  • Completed at an indefinite time in the past
    Historians have noted Gandhis tremendous impact.
  • That started in the past and continues to the
    present Gandhis philosophy has left a lasting
    impression on the world.

Using Perfect Tenses
  • Use the past perfect tense to express a past
    action or state of being that occurred before
    another in the past Gandhi had embraced the
    principles of nonviolent protest long before he
    organized a demonstration against unfair tax.

Using Perfect Tenses
  • Use future perfect tense to express a future
    action or state of being that will take place
    before another in the future. Ex By the year
    2010, Gandhis reforms will have been in practice
    for more than 60 years.

Progressive Forms
  • The progressive form of a verb shows an ongoing
    action or state of being.
  • To create these forms, combine the appropriate
    simple or perfect tense of be with the present
    participle of the main verb.

Examples of Progressive Form
  • Present are striving
  • Past was striving
  • Future will be striving
  • Present perfect has been striving
  • Past perfect had been striving
  • Future perfect will have been striving

Now You Try
  • Complete the paragraph exercise on page 75 and
    questions 1-9 on page 76 of your grammar

Active and Passive Voice
  • The voice of an action verb indicates whether the
    subject performs or receives the action.
  • A verb is in active voice when the subject
    performs the action. Ex Mary Harris supported
    child labor laws.
  • A verb is in passive voice when the action is
    received by the subject. Ex Child labor laws
    were supported by Mary Harris.

Now You Try
  • Complete questions 1-11 on page 82 and questions
    1-10 on page 83 of your grammar workbook.

Commonly Confused Verbs
  • Lie vs. Lay
  • lie- to rest in a flat position lie, lay, lain
  • lay to place lay, laid, laid
  • Rise vs. Raise
  • rise to go upward raise to lift upward
  • Sit vs. Sat
  • sit to occupy a seat sit, sitting, sat
  • sat to put or place set, set, set

Now You Try
  • Complete questions 1-14 on page 88 of your
    grammar workbook.