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Title: WORLD HUNGER The Facts

  • More than 840 million people in the world are
    malnourished799 million of them are from the
    developing world. More than 153 million of them
    are under the age of 5.
  • 6 million children under the age of 5 die every
    year as a result of hunger.
  • Of the 6.2 billion people in today's world, 1.2
    billion live on less than 1 per day.
  • The proportion of people living on less than 1 a
    day has fallen from 29 percent to 23 percent in
    the past 10 years, although that masks
    significant regional differences.
  • East Asia has seen a drop from 28 percent to 14
  • South Asia has seen a drop from 44 percent to 37
  • Africa has seen a drop from 48 percent to only 47

World Hunger Facts
  • The amount of money that the richest 1 percent of
    the world's people make each year equals what the
    poorest 57 percent make.
  • The richest 5 percent of the world's people have
    incomes 114 times that of the poorest 5 percent.
  • Malnutrition can severely affect a child's
    intellectual development. Children who have
    stunted growth due to malnutrition score
    significantly lower on math and language
    achievement tests than do well-nourished
  • Virtually every country in the world has the
    potential of growing sufficient food on a
    sustainable basis. The Food and Agriculture
    Organization of the United Nations has set the
    minimum requirement for caloric intake per person
    per day at 2,350. Worldwide, there are 2,805
    calories available per person per day. Fifty-four
    countries fall below that requirement they do
    not produce enough food to feed their
    populations, nor can they afford to import the
    necessary commodities to make up the gap. Most of
    these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa.

World Hunger
  • Vocabulary
  • Why Food The Basics
  • Agricultural Development
  • Food Production Factors
  • Reasons for Food Crisis

World Hunger Terms
  • A temporary failure of food production or
    distribution systems in a particular region that
    leads to increased mortality due to starvation
    and diseases that result from lack of food.
  • Natural Causes drought, crop disease
  • Human Causes civil war
  • Example 1984 Famine in Ethiopia
  • Up to five children die every day
  • Read more about the Ethiopian Famine
  • Is it going to happen again?

World Hunger Terms
  • An extreme form of hunger in which people suffer
    from a total lack of energy and essential
    minerals. The body wastes away as tissue is
    consumed to provide protein and energy.
  • Malnutrition
  • a condition which damage to health is caused by
    a diet that includes either too much or too
    little of one or more essential nutrients over an
    extended period.
  • This could include obesity and high blood
    pressure as these are caused by excesses in diet
  • International development usually focuses on
    lack of nutrients or poor food quality. This type
    of malnutrition is called undernutrition.

The Importance of Food
  • Provides materials and nutrients for cell growth.
    It provides us with the energy we need for
    growth, physical activity and the basic body
    functions (breathing, thinking, temperature
    control, blood circulation and digestion,
    metabolism). Food also supplies us with the
    materials to build and maintain the body and to
    promote resistance to disease.
  • Food gives the body energy Kilojoules (KJ) or
    Calories (Note if all of the Calories that we
    eat are not burned up for energy use the body
    stores these calories as Fat).
  • An average person needs about 2200 kcal per day.
    1800 min to survive?
  • A Canadian gets on average 2900 KJ per day.
  • What pattern do you see on the following map?

Food and Agriculture Organization - The UN
Food Nutrients
  • These different functions are made possible by
    the nutrients contained in food. The types of
    nutrients in food are carbohydrates, proteins,
    fats, vitamins, minerals and water. All foods
    contain one or more of these nutrients in varying
    amounts. Each type of nutrient serves particular
    functions. This is why diversity in our diets is
    important for good health. We need all of the
    nutrients, provided by a variety of foods, for
    all of our body processes.
  • Although one may eat enough kilo-calories of
    food, one can still suffer from malnutrition, if
    there is a lack of essential nutrients.
  • This can result in a variety of diseases. One of
    the most common being PEM (protein-energy

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Food Nutrients
  • Chemical group including sugar, starch, carbon
    and oxygen.
  • Wheat, rice, corn, potatoes
  • Easy to produce. Grains are the most important in
    the world.

Food Nutrients
  • FATS
  • Tissue of animals
  • 37.8 KJ of energy for every 1 gram of fat.
  • Most concentrated form of food energy.
  • Butter, lard, liver, eggs, vegetable oil, fruit.

Food Nutrients
  • Amino acids
  • Protein is needed to grow and repair tissue.
  • Meat, milk, egg, fish, cereals and Soya beans.
  • Protein is the most expensive and scarce of the

Agricultural Development
  • First Agricultural Revolution creation of
  • Second Agricultural Revolution energy,
    tractors, diffusion of crop types
  • the development of the plough (plow) over time
    (spatial diffusion lead to widespread increase in
    cultivation some places just starting to use
    it). (started BCE into 900 CE)
  • More effective use of land intensive vs.
    extensive cropping systems.
  • The introduction of steam powered tractors,
    diffusion of crop types, fertilizers,
    specialization (1600-1870s)
  • Green Revolution or Third Agriculture Revolution
    development of High Yield Varieties (wheat)
    (1945 1970).
  • Second Green Revolution? biotechnology, GMOs,
    agribusiness, corporations, globalization. (1990-
    present date)

Food Production The Factors Required
  • Food is the basic resource of the worlds
    population. The production of food depends on the
    following factors
  • Environmental climate, soils
  • Technological irrigation, fertilizer,
    pesticides (insects), herbicides (weeds) and
    storage of food
  • Economical/Political pricing, trade,
    export/import, tariffs, subsidies, distribution,
    taxes etc.
  • The key factor, of course, is environmental.

Food Production The Factors Required
  • Climate
  • Solar energy or heat requirement.
  • This is measured by the length of the Growing
    Season (the number consecutive days where no
    frost occurs and the temperature is over 5.50 C.)
    or the number of Degree Days (summing the
    number of degrees each days average temperature
    is over 5.50 C.)
  • Moisture requirement.
  • This is measured in the amount of Precipitation.
  • Evapotranspiration. This is the movement of water
    from the soil into the atmosphere by evaporation
    from the soil and transpiration from plants.

Food Production The Factors Required
  • Soil Fertility
  • Soil is a complex substance that includes
    minerals, living and decaying organic materials,
    water and air.
  • The amount of decaying organic material (Humus)
    is most important determines the soils
  • Technologies such as irrigation and fertilizers
    add to the health of a soil.
  • Poor agricultural practices such as excessive
    cultivation of the land leads to unproductive

Food Production The Factors Required
  • Topography
  • Flat land is best for uniform crop growth.
  • Biological Organisms
  • Organisms are highly beneficial for farming.
    Earthworms are needed for soil aeration and bees
    of course for pollination. Unfortunately other
    organisms like insects can be destructive as well
    as plants like weeds.

Food Production The Factors Required
  • Few places in the world are perfect for farming
  • long enough growing season,
  • not too much and not too little moisture,
  • rich soils, level land, and just the right mix of
    biological conditions.
  • Most of the time there is some deficiency in one
    or more of the above factors and farmers must
    work at overcoming them.
  • The chart in the next slide illustrates some of
    the deficiencies and the adjustments that farmers
    need to make.

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Food Crisis
  • Population size and growthSome countries are
    having trouble matching food production to their
    population growth (reasons for this are given in
    the next few slides). Malthus of course predicted
    this, although the massive starvation and death
    did not happen on a global scale due to the
    following reasons
  • New areas of agriculture were opened up
    prairies in N.A., Australia and South Africa
    mainly due to irrigation.
  • Science and technology - Green revolution and
    GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms). Some
    crops grew faster, yielded more and were disease
  • Better transportation and storage. Reduced waste
    and allowed movement from deficit areas to
    surplus areas, especially for emergency food aid.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • 1. Low level of agricultural technologyAgricultu
    ral activities can be classified in TWO ways.The
    first (A) can classify farming as either
    Subsistence or Cash-CroppingA1. Subsistence
    Farming Farmers that grow crops and raise
    livestock for their own use. Grow enough to keep
    them and their families alive.A2. Cash-Crop
    Farming Farmers that grow a surplus and sell on
    the open or world market. Farm for a living.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • 1. Low level of agricultural technologyThe
    second way (B) classifies farming as either
    Intensive or Extensive farmingB1. Intensive
    Farming involves farming on small amounts of
    land. The farming is concentrated and labour
    intensive as well as technology. Growing fruits
    and vegetables, vineyards, and livestock in
    Canada in an example.B2. Extensive Farming
    involves large amounts of land with limited
    amounts of labour. Machines do most of the work.
    Grain farming in Western Canada is a good
    example. Ranching is also considered extensive

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • Low level of agricultural technologySome
    countries in the developing world are still using
    traditional farming methods. Some (Northern
    Africa) even use the old Hunting and Gathering
    technique. This method is primitive, time
    consuming, unreliable, there is no storage
    involved and it is greatly susceptible to
  • Some countries use a method called Shifting
    Cultivation or Slash and Burn. In this method an
    area will be farmed for a year, then after
    Harvest the crop will be burned to add nutrients
    and farmed again the next year. After a few years
    the soils fertility will be weak, so the farmer
    moves into a new area. Burning is again used to
    clear the new area. An example would be in the
    Rainforest in South America.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • Low level of agricultural technologyThe
    developed world uses methods that produce a very
    high yield for the area farmed. The methods have
    been called Settled agriculture, Permanent
    agriculture, Commercial agriculture, Agribusiness
    and Mixed Farming. All of these involve a
    market economy where the price is dependent on
    supply and demand. The farming is usually
    specialized in a few crops, if not one.
    Fertilizer, irrigation and herbicides are used
    extensively. The farming is heavy mechanized
    (tractors etc.). It is not family oriented, it is
    run like a business. These farms are large in
    size and are very productive.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • Low level of agricultural technologyAgribusiness
    is a unique term and relates to Vertical
    Integration, which means that a company like
    Kraft Foods will own all aspects of making a
    product like cheese. They will own the diary
    farm, the farm that grows the food for the cows,
    the processing and packaging plants as well are
    owned by Kraft.
  • 1.5 billion hectares or 11 of the earths total
    surface is devoted to crops.
  • 3.4 billion hectares or 26 to pasture land.
  • most non-agricultural land is too hot, dry or
    cold. This land is sometimes called Marginal

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • Low level of agricultural technologyAquaculture
    and Hydroponics are two other buzz words used by
    developed farmers. Aquaculture is the harvesting
    of fish in control environments. Fish are usually
    grown in large tanks. The worry of disease and
    predators is eliminated.
  • Hydroponics is the growing of crops without the
    use of soil. The medium used is water. Most of
    this type of farming is done in greenhouses and
    this removes the expense of land, weed control
    and pests. Fertilizer costs are also kept at a
    minimum and of course water shortage is not an

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Reasons For Food Crisis
  • Pests and Fertilizer use
  • Pests (especially rats) eat 10-25 of the worlds
    entire food grain output. Some say solve the
    pest problem and you will have solved the food
    problem. Even the pests droppings are a
  • Fertilizer use can lead to something called
    diminishing returns. You have to add just the
    right amount of fertilizer for optimal yields. If
    you add more the yield diminishes.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • Pests and Fertilizer use
  • Fertilizer Total Yield Increase
  • (kg) (bushels) (bushels)
  • 1 10 10
  • 2 21 11
  • 3 32 11
  • 4 42 10
  • 5 51 9
  • 6 59 8
  • In this case the point of diminishing returns is
    at 4 pounds of fertilizer.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • Pests and Fertilizer useIn the US 59 kg (130
    pounds) of fertilizer for every acre of
    cropland.The same fertilizer, which in the US
    gives only marginal returns, would dramatically
    boost output in countries or regions where
    fertilizer use is low.Improvements are being
    made with fertilizer use, especially with GPS and
    GIS to allow farmers to target the use.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • 3. Economy Controlling PricesThe developed
    world (the Haves) control the economy and trade
    and will not allow the developing world (the Have
    nots) to compete.Tariffs Tax placed on
    imported goods to allow the domestic goods to
    competeExample The Ivory Coast is a major
    producer of Cocoa. Canada allows the Cocoa in
    duty-free, since we cant grow it. But we will
    tax chocolate made in the Ivory Coast to protect
    our chocolate industry. The Ivory Coast is not
    allowed to industrialize and remains an
    agricultural supplier of Cocoa.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • 3. Economy Controlling PricesSubsidize
    Governments in developed countries give money
    (subsidies) to their farmers to keep the prices
    of certain agricultural products down so they can
    be more competitive in the world market.Aid
    The developed countries will aid the developing
    countries in food supplies, but the aid is
    sometimes connected to some other kind of favour.
    The US gives a country food, but then expects to
    be able to place a military base in that country.
    This type of aid as we will see in another unit
    is called Boomerang aid.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • 4. Military SpendingCountries would rather
    spend money of machines of death. Countries like
    North Korea, Iraq and others spend billions on
    military equipment while their populations go

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • Land Holdings If a farmer owns his/her own
    land they will take better care of it. The
    U.S.S.R. had a system (Collective farming) where
    the government owned the land and the farmers
    worked there much like a factory. This system was
    a disaster since the farmer had no incentive to
    improve the land.
  • Absentee Landlords In many countries the rich
    own the land and they either leave the land alone
    or they rent it out to peasant farmers.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  1. Land Holdings Gavelkind Laws As a farmers
    family increases each successive generation gets
    a piece of land. The land is divided into smaller
    units that are not as productive. Eg. A farmer
    has four children, his farm is divided into four.
    One child decides to leave his land and not farm.
    The others are left with 1/3 of the original
  2. Lack of an InfrastructureThe developing world
    lacks electricity, roads, trucks, railways,
    storage facilities and distribution networks.
    Even if they did grow food it would be difficult
    for them to distribute it.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • 7. The Physical Environment20 too dry20
    too mountainous20 too cold10 the soil is
    poor21 potentially arable something has to be
    done to the landOnly 9 of the earth is
    cultivated. One fear worth mentioning at this
    time is the expansion of cities. Cities tend to
    locate near cultivated land. Once the city starts
    to grow, valuable farmland is lost. The area
    surrounding Toronto is a perfect example.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • Political OrganizationsCommunist Countries
    set the price for food there is no incentive
    for the farmer to improve his/her output. Many
    times the farmer sells only to the government (at
    a low price) and the government sells to the
    people.Capitalist Countries Price is dependent
    on Supply and Demand. Rich countries can
    manipulate supply and demand and in turn control
    the price.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • Political OrganizationsIf Supply goes up
    (increase in surplus food) and the demand stays
    constant, the price of the food should drop. The
    rich countrys farmers can afford to a. Store
    the surplus food b. destroy the surplus or c.
    the government will pay them NOT to grow any
    more. The above method lowers the supply thus
    increasing the price allowing the farmer to
    control the price and get more money for his
    crops. This allows the rich farmer to better
    compete on the world market. The poor countrys
    farmers have not control and thus have difficulty

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • Political OrganizationsThe rich farmers can
    even increase demand through advertisement. Today
    it is in style to advertise healthy, low fat
    food.In a capitalist system the rich farmer can
    get loans and credit and the poor farmer has
    difficulty staying in business. Co-operatives
    have been created to make the small farmer more
    competitive. A Co-op is when many farmers get
    together and buy seed and equipment as one. The
    cost is lowered. This is also called Economies
    of Scale. Buy in bulk so to speak.

Reasons For Food Crisis
  • Surplus in Developed CountriesWhen a surplus
    is grown in the developed world, much of it is
    stored or destroyed in order to keep the prices
    up. This extra food could be given as aid to
    starving people.
  • Animals and PetsSince meat is a major part of
    the developed worlds diet. A lot of food is
    given to animals to beef them up so to speak.
    Cattle and Pigs are the main recipients.
  • A lot of food is also used for the making of pet