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Data Center Design Issues

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Data Center Design Issues Bill Tschudi, LBNL WFTschudi_at_lbl.gov Design Issues IT equipment load Redundancy Data center airflow Environmental conditions Zoning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Data Center Design Issues


1
Data Center Design Issues
Bill Tschudi, LBNLWFTschudi_at_lbl.gov
2
Design Issues
  • IT equipment load
  • Redundancy
  • Data center airflow
  • Environmental conditions
  • Zoning
  • Isolating hot and cold

3
IT Equipment Load
  • Predicting IT loads
  • Over sizing, at least initially, is common
  • Implement modular and scalable approaches
  • IT loads can be controlled
  • Power supply options
  • Server efficiency
  • Software efficiency (Virtualization, MAID, etc.)
  • Redundancy and back-up power
  • Low power modes
  • Reducing IT load has a multiplier effect

4
ASHRAE Prediction of Intensity Trend
5
Redundancy
  • Understand what redundancy costs is it worth
    it?
  • Different strategies have different energy
    penalties (e.g. 2N vs. N1)
  • Redundancy in electrical distribution always
    puts you down the efficiency curve

6
Measured UPS Efficiency
Redundant Operation
7
Air Flow Requirements
  • Typically, much more air is circulated through
    computer room air conditioners than is specified
    by manufacturers due to mixing and short
    circuiting of air
  • Computer manufacturers now provide ASHRAE data
    sheets which specify airflow and environmental
    requirements
  • Evaluate airflow from computer room air
    conditioners compared to server needs

8
Visualizing Air Flow
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling
  • Temperature sensor networks
  • Infrared thermography

9
Environmental Conditions
  • ASHRAE - consensus from all major IT
    manufacturers on temperature and humidity
    conditions
  • Recommended and Allowable ranges of temp and
    humidity
  • Air flow required

10
Other ASHRAE Resources
  • Four books publishedmore in preparation

11
Temperature Guidelines at The Inlet to IT
Equipment
ASHRAE Allowable Maximum
ASHRAE Recommended Maximum
ASHRAE Recommended Minimum
ASHRAE Allowable Minimum
12
Humidity Guidelines at The Inlet to IT Equipment
ASHRAE Allowable Maximum
ASHRAE Recommended Maximum
ASHRAE Recommended Minimum
ASHRAE Allowable Minimum
13
Zoning
  • Some IT equipment (e.g. storage) requires tighter
    control
  • Dont penalize the whole center for a few pieces
    of equipment
  • Different zones should be provided

14
Isolating Hot and Cold
  • Energy intensive IT equipment needs good
    isolation of cold inlet and hot discharge
  • Computer room air conditioner airflow can be
    reduced if no mixing occurs
  • Overall temperature can be raised in the data
    center if air is delivered to equipment without
    mixing
  • Coils and chillers are more efficient with higher
    temperature differences

15
Best Scenario Isolate Cold and Hot
95-100ºF
70-75ºF
16
Another Isolation Scheme
17
Fan Energy Savings 75
If mixing of cold supply air with hot return air
can be eliminated- fan speed can be reduced
18
Better Temperature Control Can Allow Raising the
Temperature in The Entire Data Center
ASHRAE Recommended Range
Ranges during demonstration
19
Take Aways
  • IT equipment loads can be improved
  • Air flow delivered by computer room air
    conditioners must satisfy IT equipment
  • Different redundancy strategies have different
    efficiencies
  • Operating within ASHRAE guidelines can save
    energy
  • Modern IT equipment is not sensitive to humidity
  • Isolating hot and cold can improve efficiency

20
  • website http//hightech.lbl.gov/datacenters/
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