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Title: 1914 -1918: The World at War


1
1914 -1918 The World at War
2
Chapters in Brief - Questions
  • 1. What factors led to war in Europe?
  • 2. What led the United States into World War I?
  • 3. How did the war change American society?
  • 4. What was contained in the Treaty of Versailles
    and why did Americans object.

3
Chapters in Brief - Answers
  • 1. What factors led to war in Europe?
  • gt the factors that led to war in Europe were
    nationalism,
  • imperialism, militarism, and a system of
    alliances that
  • made an attack on one nation a conflict
    that involved
  • many that involved many interlinked
    allies
  • 2. What led the United States into World War I?
  • gt the United States tried to remain neutral in
    World War
  • I, but emotional and economic ties to
    Great Britain
  • gradually moved it to the side of the
    Allies
  • gt German submarine attacks convinced Wilson to
    declare
  • war

4
Chapters in Brief - Questions
  • 3. How did the war change American society?
  • gt at home during the war, production increased,
    and so did union membership.
  • gt many women entered industry, and thousands
    of
  • African Americans moved from the South
    to the North
  • seeking jobs and an end to segregation.
  • 4. What was contained in the Treaty of Versailles
    and why did Americans object.
  • gt many Americans objected to the Treaty of
    Versailles
  • because it seemed to betray the high
    principles Wilson
  • had announced
  • gt many disliked the idea of a League of
    Nations, fearing
  • it would involve the United States in
    foreign conflicts

5
Chapter Eleven The First World War
6
Background Information
  • What do you already know about WWI?
  • When was it fought?
  • Who was involved?
  • Where were the battles fought?
  • What types of weapons were used?
  • Who won?
  • What other names is WWI known under?

7
The First World War
  • Pre-Unit Video Clips (Causes of The Great War)
  • Causes part one (842)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vn7kp3vf1uKA
  • Causes part two (749)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vgjlGoe1mnw0feature
    related

8
World War I Objective
  • To understand causes of World War I, the reasons
    the United States entered the war, and the
    consequences of war

9
Chapter Eleven Section One World War I Begins
10
Causes of the War
11
Chapters in Brief
  • As World War I intensi?ed, the United States was
    forced to abandon its neutrality. Four factors
    contributed to the outbreak of World War I in
    Europe
  • Nationalism tensions grew as nations pursued
    only their own interests
  • Imperialism rivalries increased as nations
    jockeyed for power around the world
  • Militarism the nations developed strong armed
    forces to back up their growing empires
  • Alliances a series of treaties grouped the
    nations of Europe into two armed camps.
  • The war broke out in 1914 when a Serb killed the
    heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. The
    alliance system resulted in Russia defending
    Serbia against Austria-Hungary. Germany supported
    Austria-Hungary and then declared war on Russias
    ally, France. So Great Britain, Frances ally,
    declared war on Germany.

12
Chapters in Brief
  • Armies soon opposed each other across a system of
    trenches. Although neither side gained territory,
    hundreds of thousands of soldiers died.
  • The United States refused to join either side.
    Over time, though, stories of German atrocities
    and close economic ties to Great Britain and
    France moved Americans toward the Allied camp. A
    blockade prevented food and fertilizer from
    reaching Germany. As thousands of people starved,
    Germany struck back with submarine attacks on
    ships going to Great Britain.
  • U.S. public opinion turned against Germany when
    some Americans died in these attacks. Still,
    President Wilson resisted entering the war,
    winning re-election with the slogan He kept us
    out of war. In January 1917, he suggested that
    the warring powers agree to a peace. Germany
    responded that submarine attacks would resume
    and sink American ships. Finally, Wilson asked
    Congress to declare war on Germany. It did on
    April 6, 1917.

13
MAIN Causes of WWI
  • Militarism
  • Alliance System
  • Imperialism
  • Nationalism

14
MAIN Causes of WWI
  • Militarism - the development of armed forces and
    their use of a tool of diplomacy
  • each nation wanted stronger armed forces than
    those of any potential enemy
  • British and German shipyards competed to see who
    could build the largest navy
  • Alliance System - an alliance is a formal
    agreement or union between nations
  • an alliance provided a measure of international
    security because nations were reluctant to
    disturb the balance of power
  • one spark set off a major conflict

15
MAIN Causes of WWI
  • Imperialism - the policy of extending a nations
    authority over other countries
  • - economically
  • - militarily or politically
  • - cultural superiority
  • Africa is an example of imperialistic powers
    taking over foreign lands and the rivalries that
    became of this

16
MAIN Causes of WWI
  • Nationalism - a devotion to the interest and
    culture of ones nation
  • - nationalism led to antagonistic rivalries
    among nations
  • - in this atmosphere of competition, many feared
    Germanys growing power in Europe.

17
European Alliance Systems
  • 1907 two major alliance systems in Europe
  • 1. Triple Entente turns into the Allied Powers
  • a. Britain
  • b. France
  • c. Russia
  • 2. Triple Alliance turns into the Central
    Powers
  • a. Germany
  • b. Austria-Hungary
  • c. Italy

18
Europe in 1914
19
An Assassination Leads to War
  • June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir
  • to the Austrian throne, visits Sarajevo, Bosnia
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand was shot and
    assassinated
  • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia
  • Led to the countries who were part of the
    alliance systems entering the war
  • The Great War had begun!

20
Fighting Begins
  • August 3, 1914 - Germany invades Belgium and the
    fighting begins

21
The War of the Industrial Revolution New Tech
nology
22
Chapters in Brief
  • New weapons made the ?ghting in World War I very
    destructive. Machine guns, tanks, and gas warfare
    could kill soldiers in large numbers. Fighting
    took to the air, as both sides used war planes.
    Soldiers suffered from disease and hardship as
    well. While 48,000 American soldiers died in
    combat, another 62,000 died of disease.

23
New Weapons
  • Poison Gas
  • 1. soldiers wore masks to protect themselves
  • 2. introduced by Germans both sides used
  • 3. caused blindness, severe blisters, or death
    by choking
  • Machine Guns
  • 1. fires ammunition automatically
  • 2. could wipe out waves of attackers
  • 3. made it difficult for forces to advance

24
New Weapons (continued)
  • Tank
  • 1. armored combat vehicle
  • 2. moved on chain tracks
  • 3. could cross many types of terrains
  • 4. introduced by the British 1916
  • Airplanes
  • Submarines
  • 1. 1914 introduced by Germans
  • 2. effective warship
  • 3. primary weapon against ships was the torpedo

25
Tanks
  • first used at the battle of Flers
  • named because it looked like a tank of water on a
    train car
  • allowed safer passage across No Mans Land
  • strange shape allowed them to climb over trenches
    and straight through defenses
  • top speed around 3-4 miles per hour
  • weighed around 30 tons

26
Tanks
  • Tanks Video From the Military Channel
  • (408)

27
Krupps Big Bertha Gun
28
French Renault Tank
29
British Tank at Ypres
30
Submarines
  • submarines existed pre-World War I, but the
    Germans were the first to use them significantly
  • ran on diesel engines or batteries
  • range of 5,000 miles
  • top speed of eight knots (9 mph)
  • more submersibles than true submarines
  • usually attacked from the surface
  • (diesel engines couldnt
  • function underwater)
  • mainly used torpedoes
  • terrified seamen on surface ships
  • extremely dangerous and difficult life on board a
    submarine

31
U-Boats
32
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
33
Airplanes
  • observation balloons had been previously used,
    but WWI first time actual aircraft were used in
    war
  • initially used for reconnaissance
  • a lot of skepticism existed about their use in
    war
  • planes began carrying small bombs and small arms
    to shoot at each other
  • first planes with mounted machine guns shot
    themselves down, but technology quickly improved

34
Airplanes
  • Aces High
  • pilots were seen as modern knights
  • pilots with five or more confirmed victories
    were called Aces
  • by the end of the war, there were over 1,800
    Aces
  • Top Pilots
  • William Bishop (RAF) 72
  • René Fonck (Aéronautique Militaire) 75
  • Manfred von Richthofen (Luftstreikräfte) 80
  • Edward Rickenbacker (US Army Air Service) 26

35
Airplanes
  • Dogfight from "Flyboys
  • (512)

36
The Airplane
Squadron Over the Brenta Max Edler von Poosch,
1917
37
The Flying Aces of World War I
Francesco Barraco, It.
Eddie Mick Mannoch, Br.
Eddie Rickenbacher, US
Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. The Red Baron
Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr.
Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg.
38
Looking for the Red Baron?
39
The Zeppelin
40
Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
41
Machine Guns
  • heavy, but deadly
  • (no Rambo in World War I)
  • took a crew of four to six to operate
  • in theory, fired 400-600 rounds per minute
  • frequently overheated
  • (even if water-cooled)
  • worth about 80 rifles on the battlefield
  • GREAT for defensive purposes
  • (can wipe out entire lines)

42
Machine Gun
43
Flame Throwers
Grenade Launchers
44
Machine Guns
  • Machine Gun Video from the History Channel
  • (436)

45
Chemical Weapons
Poison Gas
46
Chemical Weapons
  • both sides used chemical weapons
  • first used by the French in August 1914 (tear gas
    grenades)
  • Germans first to use poison gas (Second Battle of
    Ypres, 1915)
  • soldiers quickly began carrying gas masks in
    order to combat the chemical agents

47
Chemical Weapons
  • Chlorine Gas
  • yellow/green color
  • smells like pepper and pineapple
  • tastes metallic
  • mixes with water in the lungs to form
    hydrochloric acid (and a very bad day for whoever
    breathed it in)
  • concentrates near ground level (most who died
    from chlorine gas in WWI were injured soldiers at
    ground level)
  • not as lethal as some of the other chemical
    weapons used in World War I
  • can be combatted by putting a soaked cotton cloth
    (water or, more effectively, urine) over the
    mouth

48
Chemical Weapons
  • Mustard Gas
  • yellow/brown color
  • smells like mustard, garlic, or horseradish
  • effects can take up to 24 to occur
  • can become trapped in seams of clothing
  • causes chemical burns WHEREVER it interacts with
    tissues (skin, eyes, lungs)
  • burns can vary from first to third degree and are
    excruciatingly painful
  • can be combatted with iodine or bleach, but must
    be applied quickly (symptoms not quick to show,
    so many missed this)
  • most people who died from mustard gas drowned
    (lovely, I know)
  • even if one recovers, it triggers an increased
    risk of cancer later in life

49
(No Transcript)
50
Poison Gas
  • Primary Reading
  • During World War I, the Germans introduced the
    use of poison gases chlorine, phosgene (tear
    gas), and mustard gas in warfare. William
    Pressey, a British bombardier or noncommissioned
    artillery officer, was gassed by the Germans at
    Messines Ridge on June 7, 1917.

51
Poison Gas
  • We had been shooting most of the night and the
    Germans had been hitting back with shrapnel, high
    explosive and gas shells. With the terrific
    noise and blinding flashes of gunfire, if a lull
    occurred for only a few minutes and you were
    leaning against something, you had just to close
    your eyes and you were asleep. Nearing daylight
    we were told to rest. We dived into the dugout, I
    pulled off my tunic a type of military jacket
    and boots and was asleep in no time at all.

52
Poison Gas
  • I was awakened by a terrific crash. The roof
    came down on my chest and legs and I couldnt
    move anything but my head. I thought, So this
    is it, then. I found I could hardly breathe.
    Then I heard voices. Other fellows, with gas
    helmets on, looking very frightening in the
    half-light, were lifting timber off me and one
    was forcing a gas helmet on me. Even when you
    were all right, to wear a gas helmet was
    uncomfortable, your nose pinched, sucking air
    through a canister of chemicals. As I was
    already choking I remember fighting against
    having this helmet on.

53
Poison Gas
  • The next thing I knew I was being carried on a
    stretcher past officers and some distance from
    the guns. I heard someone ask, Whos that?
    Bombardier Pressey, sir. Bloody hell. I was
    put into an ambulance and taken to the base,
    where we were placed on the stretchers side by
    side on the floor of a marquee a larger tent
    with open sides, with about twelve inches
    between. I suppose I resembled a kind of fish
    with my mouth open gasping for air. It seemed as
    if my lungs were gradually shutting up and my
    heart pounded away in my ears like the beat of a
    drum. On looking at the chap next to me I felt
    sick, for green stuff was oozing from the side of
    his mouth.

54
Poison Gas
  • To get air into my lungs was real agony and the
    less I got the less the pain I dozed off for
    short periods but seemed to wake in a sort of
    panic. To ease the pain in my chest I may
    subconsciously have stopped breathing, until the
    pounding of my heart woke me up. I was always
    surprised when I found myself awake, for I felt
    sure that I would die in my sleep. So little was
    known about treatment for various gases, that I
    never had treatment for phosgene, the type I was
    supposed to have had. And Im sure that the gas
    some of the other poor fellows had swallowed was
    worse than phosgene. Now and then orderlies
    would carry out a stretcher.

55
Chemical Weapons
  • Chemical Weapons Video From The History Channel
  • (650)

56
Why do you think World War I is sometimes
referred to as The War of the Industrial
Revolution?
57
The First World War is sometimes called the
war of the industrial revolution because new
technology, airplanes, and machine guns made
industrial production a key factor in winning the
war
58
All of the new weapons made it almost impossible
to go on the advance. This led to both sides
digging out trenches.
59
Trench Warfare
  • trench warfare a type of warfare in which the
    opposing
  • forces attack and counterattack from
  • systems of fortified ditches rather
    than an
  • open battlefield
  • there was a barren expanse of mud pockmarked with
    shell craters and filed with barbed wire in
    between the opposing sides trenches no mans
    land

60
Trench Warfare
61
Trench Warfare
62
Trench Warfare
  • soldiers were buried in the trenches
  • decomposing bodies would be found just below the
    surface
  • the corpses and food scraps attracted rats
  • lice was also a problem in the trenches

63
Trench Warfare
  • Germans were the first to dig trenches
  • Germans chose the best places to build their
    trenches
  • forced the British to live in the worst
    conditions - amongst water and mud
  • this led to trench foot

64
Trench Warfare
No Mans Land
65
(No Transcript)
66
(No Transcript)
67
Sacrifices in War
68
War Is HELL !!
69
Trench Warfare
  • "Hell in the Trenches
  • (622)

70
America Questions Neutrality
  • public opinion about the Great War was divided in
    America
  • many Americans did not want to join the fight
    since the war did not threaten American lives or
    property
  • Americans saw no reason to join a struggle 3,000
    miles away
  • some, such as socialists, believed that the war
    was a capitalist and imperialist struggle between
    Germany and England
  • naturalized citizens from Germany and Ireland
    sympathized with the Central Powers
  • many Americans felt close to Britain, and
    sympathized with the Allies, because of common
    ancestry, language and legal systems

71
America Questions Neutrality
  • Americas financial ties were much stronger with
    the Allies than with the Central Powers
  • Allied nations, such as Britain and France,
    flooded the United States with orders for all
    sorts of war supplies
  • The majority of Americans favored victory for the
    Allies, but they did not want to join the fight

72
The War Hits Home
  • 1917 - America had mobilized for war against the
    Central Powers for two reasons
  • to ensure Allied debt repayment
  • to prevent Germans from threatening U.S. shipping
  • fighting on land, in trenches, continued while
    Britain began blockading the German coast to
    prevent military supplies from getting through
  • Britain then started banning food from entering
    ports - an estimated 750,000 Germans starved to
    death
  • Americans were angry at Britains blockade
    because it threatened freedom of the seas and
    prevented American goods from getting to Germany

73
German U-Boat Response
  • Germany responded to the British blockade with a
    counter blockade by U-boats
  • any British or Allied ship found in the waters
    around Britain would be sunk!

74
German U-Boat Response
  • On May 7, 1915, a U-boat sank the British liner,
    Lusitania.
  • 128 Americans were killed
  • Americans were outraged with Germany and turned
    against the Central Powers
  • Lusitania Video (536)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vsURi21sJsWc

75
The Sinking of the Lusitania
76
The United States Declares War
  • 1916 - Woodrow Wilson is re-elected
  • Wilson attempts to mediate between the warring
    alliances
  • he asks for a peace without victory
  • the Germans ignored Wilsons
  • call for peace
  • the Kaiser of Germany (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor
    Albert) announces that German U-boats will sink
    any and all ships in British water - neutral or
    hostile - on sight

77
German Provocation
  • Wilson is stunned by this action, but says he
    will wait for actual overt acts before
    declaring war
  • the first overt act was the Zimmerman note
  • Zimmerman Note telegram from Germany to
  • Mexico
    proposing an alliance
  • between Mexico
    and Germany
  • the note also stated that if war broke out,
    Germany would support Mexico in recovering
    territories such as Texas, New Mexico and Arizona

78
The Zimmerman Telegram
79
German Provocation
  • the second overt act was the sinking of four
    unarmed American ships
  • the third overt act was that Russias monarch
    government was replaced with a representative
    government
  • now supporters of American entry into the war
    could claim that this was a war of democracies
    against brutal monarchies

80
America Acts
  • The hope of neutrality was shattered
  • Congress to declared war on April 6, 1917
  • Wilson and many Americans believed
  • that the United States had to join the
  • war to pave the way for peace and
  • freedom

81
Essential Question
  • Which weapon was the most impactful of World War
    I? Explain.
  • Answer the question in three complete sentences
    in your summary section.

82
Chapter Eleven Section Two American Power
Tips the Balance
83
Chapters in Brief
  • The United States mobilized a large army and navy
    to help the Allies achieve victory. The United
    States was not prepared for war, but it launched
    a draft and quickly put about 3 million men in
    uniform. Women were not drafted, but the navy
    accepted women volunteers as nurses and
    secretaries. African Americans served in separate
    units some were trained as officers.
  • The government took steps to increase the amount
    of shipping available so it could transport the
    soldiers and their supplies to Europe. Along with
    Great Britain, the United States began sending
    merchant ships in large convoys guarded by naval
    vessels. This change helped cut the number of
    ships lost to submarine attacks. At ?rst,
    American soldiers were scattered among other
    armies, replacing men killed or wounded. General
    John J. Pershing insisted that the American army
    ?ght as a whole. These troopsfar fresher than
    the other Allied soldiers helped throw back some
    major German attacks. By October 1918, the
    Germans were

84
Chapters in Brief
  • weakened. In November of 1918, German sailors,
    soldiers, and civilians mutinied, refusing to
    continue the war. The German Kaiser abdicated his
    throne, and the new government surrendered.

85
World War 1 Section 2 Group Assignment
  • You will be assigned to a group and given a
    subtopic on which to answer questions
  • Answer each assigned question on a sheet of
    butcher paper
  • Draw a visual representation of the topic you
    have been assigned
  • Present this information to the class
  • EVERYONE must participate in your group list
    what each person was responsible for doing on the
    back

86
World War 1
  • Section Two Questions

87
America Mobilizes
  • 1. How did the government recruit men for
  • military service?
  • 2. How did African Americans contribute to the
  • war effort?
  • 3. How did women contribute?
  • 4. How did the U.S. manage to transport men,
  • food and equipment across the ocean?

88
America Turns the Tide
  • 1. What was a serious threat to the Allied
  • war effort?
  • 2. Name and describe the tactics used to
  • counteract this threat.
  • 3. What was a main contribution the
  • American forces brought to the Allied
  • war effort?

89
Fighting Over There
  • 1. Who were the doughboys and who were
  • they led by?
  • 2. What were the most innovative weapons used
  • at this time?
  • 3. Describe the tank (used at this time).
  • 4. Describe the airplanes used and the
  • improvements made to them.

90
The War Introduces New Hazards
  • 1. List the physical effects of the war on the
  • troops.
  • 2. Describe the psychological effects.
  • 3. Who cared for injured soldiers?

91
American Troops Go on the Defensive
  • 1. Who is Alvin York and what is he known for?
  • 2. What happened on November 3, 1918?
  • 3. When was the armistice? What did this mean?
  • 4. How many people died as a result of WWI?
  • How many of these were civilians?

92
World War 1
  • Section Two Answers

93
America Mobilizes
  • 1. How did the government recruit men for
    military
  • service?
  • gt Selective Service Act which required men to
    register with
  • the government in order to be randomly
    selected for
  • military service
  • 2. How did African Americans contribute to the
    war
  • effort?
  • gt 400,000 served in the armed forces / many
    served in
  • non-combative duties / 369th Infantry
    Regiment saw
  • more continuous duty on the front lines
    than any other
  • American Regiment

94
America Mobilizes
  • 3. How did women contribute?
  • gt not allowed to enlist / Army Corps of Nurses /
    13,000
  • women worked in non-combative duties (i.e.
    nurses,
  • secretaries, telephone operators)
  • 4. How did the U.S. manage to transport men,
    food and
  • equipment across the ocean?
  • gt expanded its fleet

95
America Turns the Tides
  • 1. What was a serious threat to the Allied war
    effort?
  • gt German U-boat attacks on merchant ships
  • 2. Name and describe the tactics used to
    counteract this
  • threat.
  • gt a convoy system where heavy guard of
    destroyers
  • escorted merchant ships back and forth
    across the
  • Atlantic in groups
  • gt US Navy helped to lay a 230 mile barrier of
    mines
  • across the North Sea designed to
    bottle-up the
  • U-Boats

96
America Turns the Tide
  • 3. What was a main contribution the American
    forces
  • brought to the Allied war effort?
  • gt numbers / fairness / freshness

97
Fighting Over There
  • 1. Who were the doughboys and who were they led
    by?
  • gt nickname for American infantry men / General
    John J.
  • Pershing
  • 2. What were the most innovative weapons used at
    this
  • time?
  • gt tanks / airplanes / machine guns / chemical
    warfare
  • 3. Describe the tank (used at this time).
  • gt ran on caterpillar treads and were built of
    steel

98
Fighting Over There
  • 4. Describe the airplanes used and the
    improvements
  • made to them.
  • gt Originally, they were flimsy and had open
    cockpits
  • where pistols were shot at the enemies
    pilots /
  • eventually machine guns were mounted and
    the
  • Germans introduced an interrupter gear
    for constant
  • firing

99
The War Introduces New Hazards
  • 1. List the physical effects of the war on the
    troops.
  • gt filth, lice, rats, and polluted water that
    caused dysentery
  • gt inhaled poison gas and stench of decaying
    bodies
  • gt battle fatigue
  • gt shell shock
  • gt trench foot and trench mouth
  • 2. Describe the psychological effects.
  • gt fatigue / shell shock
  • 3. Who cared for injured soldiers?
  • gt Red Cross with American volunteers

100
American Troops Go on the Defensive
  • 1. Who is Alvin York and what is he known for?
  • gt armed with one rifle and a revolver killed 25
    Germans
  • and captured 132 prisoners
  • 2. What happened on November 3, 1918?
  • gt Austria-Hungary surrendered / German sails
    mutinies
  • 3. When was the armistice? What did this mean?
  • gt 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month
  • gt truce
  • 4. How many people died as a result of WWI? How
    many
  • civilians?
  • gt 22 million total people / 11 million civilians

101
Essential Question
  • Explain how the arrival of new American troops
    affected the spirit of Allied troops.
  • Answer the question in three complete sentences
    in your summary section.

102
Chapter Eleven Section Three The War At Home
103
Chapters in Brief
  • World War I spurred social, political, and
    economic change in the United States. To ?ght the
    war adequately, the United States had to mobilize
    industry and labor, as well as soldiers. Wilson
    named Bernard M. Baruch to head the War
    Industries Board (WIB), the main agency
    responsible for overseeing industrial production.
    It helped boost industrial output by 20 percent.
    But prices rose as well.
  • While some industriesmetal work, shipbuilding,
    and meat packingboomed, workers lost buying
    power due to higher prices. Union membership grew
    dramatically. The Food Administration encouraged
    people to change their eating habits to save food
    for soldiers.
  • The government paid for the war by raising taxes
    and by selling bonds, which celebrities helped
    sell. To support the war effort, the Committee of
    Public Information encouraged people to aid the
    cause.

104
Chapters in Brief
  • The war brought an anti-German backlash that
    discredited things German or people of German
    background. Congress passed the Espionage and
    Sedition Acts to punish anyone who interfered
    with the draft or the sale of war bonds or who
    said anything that could be de?ned as disloyal.
    About 1,500 people were convicted under these
    laws. Some chief targets were socialists and
    union leaders. African-American leaders were
    divided over the war. Some said that helping the
    war effort would enhance the ?ght for equality.
    Others said that without equality, blacks should
    not help. The main effect of the war on African
    Americans was to spur the Great Migrationthe
    movement of thousands of blacks from the South to
    the cities of the North. They tried to escape
    harsh treatment in the South and hoped to ?nd
    jobs and equality in the North. Women played new
    roles, taking jobs that had been held only by men
    in the past. Their contribution helped increase
    support for woman suffrage and ensured
    rati?cation, in 1920, of the Nineteenth Amendment
    giving women the right to vote. About 500,000
    Americans died in a worldwide ?u epidemic of 1919.

105
Congress Gives Power to President Wilson
  • winning a war was a job for everybody not just
    the soldiers fighting in the trenches
  • WWI was such a huge conflict - that the entire
    economy had to be focused on the war effort
  • Factories went from producing consumer goods to
    producing war supplies
  • Congress gave President Wilson direct control
    over the economy
  • this enabled Wilson to fix prices and regulate
    war-related industries

106
War Industries Board
  • in order to regulate business, the War Industries
    Board (WIB) was put into place
  • this board was led by Bernard M. Baruch
  • War Industries Board agency
  • established
  • to increase
  • efficiency
  • and
  • discourage
  • waste in
    war-related
  • industries
  • the WIB encouraged companies to use mass
    production techniques (think assembly line) and
    to increase efficiency
  • the WIB also applied price controls which caused
    retail prices to soar
  • corporate profits soared as well

107
War Industries Board
  • the WIB controlled the economy
  • the Railroad Administration controlled the
    railroads
  • Fuel Administration controlled
  • - fuel supplies
  • - gasoline
  • - heating oil
  • - introduced daylight savings time to take
  • advantage of the longer days of summer

108
War Economy
  • wages rose during the war years, but food and
    housing prices were also on the rise
  • corporations and their stockholders saw enormous
    profits
  • unions boomed during this time - membership went
    from 2.5 million to 4 million

Annual incomes
Consumer Prices
109
Food Administration
  • Wilson set up the Food Administration to help
    produce and conserve food
  • he called on Americans to follow the gospel of
    the clean plate
  • he declared specific days of the week
  • meatless
  • sweetless
  • wheatless
  • porkless

110
Food Administration
  • homeowners planted victory gardens in their
    yards
  • children spent their after-school hours growing
    tomatoes and cucumbers in parks

111
Food Administration
  • American food shipments to the Allies tripled
  • President Hoover set a high price on wheat, this
    caused more wheat to be produced and farmers
    incomes increased

112
Selling the War
  • once the government extended its control over the
    economy, it focused on two things
  • raising money
  • convincing the public to support the war
  • the United States spent about 35.5 million on
    the war effort
  • 1/3 of this was raised through taxes
  • the rest was raised by selling bonds

113
Committee on Public Information
  • to make the war more popular, the government set
    up a propaganda agency - the Committee on Public
    Information (CPI)
  • The head of this agency was a former muckraker
    named George Creel
  • Creel persuaded the nations artists and
    advertising agencies (to create paintings,
    posters, etc) promoting the war

114
War Affects the Home Front
  • United States joined the war after it had been
    raging for nearly three years
  • Total War countries devoted ALL of their
    resources to the
  • war effort
  • Rationing people could buy only small amounts
    of those
  • items that were also needed for the war
    effort
  • Propaganda one sided information designed to
    persuade,
  • to keep up morale, and support for the war

115
War Propaganda
116
War Propaganda
117
Attacks on Civil Liberties Increase
  • Anti-Immigrant Hysteria
  • while the propaganda campaign promoted
    patriotism, it also caused hatred and violations
    of civil liberties
  • the main targets of anti-immigrant attacks were
    Americans who had emigrated from Germany and
    Austria-Hungary
  • many Americans with German last names lost their
    jobs
  • orchestras refused to play Mozart, Bach and
    Beethoven
  • schools stopped teaching the German language
  • the hamburger became known as the Salisbury steak
    (Hamburgers are named after the German city of
    Hamburg)

118
Espionage and Sedition Acts
  • June 1917 - congress passed the Espionage Act
  • May 1918, it passed the Sedition Act
  • under these acts, a person could be fined up to
    10,000 or sentenced to up to 20 years for
    interfering in the war effort or saying anything
    disloyal, profane or abusive about the government
    or the war effort

119
Espionage and Sedition Acts
  • these laws clearly violated the First Amendment
  • some examples
  • newspapers and magazines that opposed the war
    lost their mailing privileges
  • the House of Representatives refused to seat a
    socialist congressman because of his anti-war
    views
  • a major university fired a distinguished
    psychologist because he opposed the war

120
The War Encourages Social Change
  • black public opinion about the war was divided
  • W.E.B. Du Bois believed that blacks should
    support the war he believed this would
    strengthen calls for social justice
  • although racial inequality continued in the U.S.,
    most African Americans supported the war

121
The Great Migration
  • the greatest effect of WWI on African American
    lives was the Great Migration
  • hundreds of thousands of southern blacks moved to
    the northern cities
  • many African Americans were seeking to escape
    racial segregation in the south
  • floods, droughts and a boll weevil (beetle)
    infection had ruined most of the cotton fields

122
The Great Migration
  • North more job opportunities
  • Henry Ford opened his assembly line to black
    workers in 1914
  • racial prejudice against blacks also existed in
    the North this was intensified as thousands of
    African Americans migrated to Chicago, New York
    and Philadelphia
  • America was hypocritical in calling its role
    in the war
  • making the world safe for democracy because
  • Americans continued to discriminate against
    African
  • Americans within the United States and its
    military

123
Women in the War
  • women began moving into jobs that had been held
    exclusively by men
  • they became railroad workers, cooks, dockworkers
    and bricklayers
  • women continued too fill traditional roles such
    as nurses, clerks, and teachers

124
Women in the War
  • while women did not receive equal pay for their
    work their presence in the factories encouraged
    public support for woman suffrage
  • 1919 - Congress passed the nineteenth amendment,
    granting women the right to vote
  • the amendment was ratified in 1920

125
The Flu Epidemic
  • 1918 - an international flu epidemic affected 25
    of the United States population and the effect of
    the economy was devastating
  • the illness seemed to strike those who were in
    the best of health and death would come in a
    matter of days
  • in the army, where contagious illnesses spread
    rapidly, more than a quarter of the soldiers
    caught the disease

126
The Flu Epidemic
  • in some AEF units, one third of the troops died
  • the epidemic killed about 500,000 Americans
    before it disappeared in 1919
  • the war ended suddenly just like the epidemic
  • Americans hoped this was the war to end all
    wars
  • leaders of the victorious nations gathered in
    Versailles, France to work out the terms of peace

127
Influenza Epidemic Statistics
128
1918 Flu Pandemic Depletes All Armies
50,000,000 100,000,000 died
129
The War Ends
130
The War Ends
  • Russia withdraws in March 1917
  • Unrest in Russia due to war-related shortages
    of food and fuel forced Czar Nicholas to step
    down
  • 1917 5,500,000 Russian soldiers had been
    wounded, killed, or taken prisoner
  • Eight months after the new government took over,
    a revolution shook Russia communist leader
    Vladimir Ilyich Lenin seized power
  • Russia and Germany signed the Treaty of
    Brest-Litovsk which ended the war between them

131
The War Ends
  • November 11, 1918, both sides agreed to an
    armistice
  • The Great War ended at the 11th hour on the 11th
    day of the 11th month

132
11 a.m. - November 11, 1918
133
World War I Casualties
134
Essential Question
  • Do you think the war had a positive or negative
    effect on American society? Justify your answer.
  • Answer the question in three complete sentences
    in your summary section.

135
Chapter Eleven Section Four Wilson
Fights for Peace
136
Chapters in Brief
  • European leaders opposed most of Wilson's peace
    plan, and the U.S. Senate failed to ratify the
    peace treaty. President Wilson traveled to Europe
    to push for a peace plancalled the Fourteen
    Points that he hoped would prevent future wars.
    He hoped to remove the causes of war by
    eliminating secret treaties and reducing
    imperialism. Other points aimed at speci?c
    adjustments to boundaries. Underlying these
    points was Wilsons goal of allowing ethnic
    groups to determine their own fate. Finally,
    Wilson proposed creating an international
    organization called the League of Nations to give
    nations a chance to discuss and settle their
    disputes without resorting to war.
  • Wilson lost almost all of his points Great
    Britain, France, and Italythe victorswere
    determined to punish Germany for the war. The
    Treaty of Versailles, which established the
    peace, created nine new nations in Europe. It
    carved out parts of the Ottoman Empirewhich had
    allied with Germanyto create

137
Chapters in Brief
  • temporary colonies for Great Britain and France
    in the Middle East. It took away Germanys army
    and navy and forced Germany to pay war damages,
    or reparations, to the victors. In one provision,
    Germany had to admit to guilt for causing the
    war.
  • The treaty had three weaknesses. One was the
    harsh treatment of Germany, which weakened that
    nations economy and aroused resentment there.
    Second, the treaty ignored the new Communist
    government in Russia. Third, it did nothing to
    recognize nationalist desires in the colonies of
    European powers.
  • Many Americans opposed the treaty, which they
    believed was unjust and imperfect. The main
    debate was over the League of Nationsthe only of
    Wilsons Fourteen Points contained in the treaty.
    Many people believed that joining the League
    would involve the United States in foreign
    con?icts. Wilson refused to compromise on the
    League or accept amendments to the treaty

138
Chapters in Brief
  • proposed by Republican leaders. The Senate failed
    to ratify the treaty, and the United States never
    entered the League of Nations.
  • In Europe, the war created political instability
    and violence that lasted for decades. The
    unresolved issues or World War I, along with many
    Germans desire for vengeance, would plunge the
    world into an even greater con?ict.

139
Fourteen Points
  • President Wilson presented his plan for world
    peace even before the war was over
  • January 1918 - delivered his Fourteen Points
    speech to congress
  • The points were divide into three groups

140
Fourteen Points
  • 1. there should be no secret treaties among
    nations
  • 2. freedom of the seas should be maintained for
    all
  • 3. economic barriers should be abolished in order
    to foster free trade
  • 4. arms should be reduced to the lowest point
    consistent with domestic safety
  • 5. colonial polices should consider the interests
    of colonial peoples

141
Fourteen Points
  • the next eight points dealt with boundary changes

142
Fourteen Points
  • the fourteenth point called for a creation of an
    international organization to address crises like
    those that had sparked the war
  • League of Nations provided a forum for
  • nations to
    discuss and
  • settle their
    grievances
  • without
    having to resort
  • to war

143
Allies Reject Wilsons Plan
  • neither Russia or the Central Powers were invited
    to the peace conference
  • the Big Four who led the Allies in drafting the
    peace settlements were
  • David Lloyd George (Britain)
  • Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
  • Georges Clemenceau (France)
  • Woodrow Wilson (US)

144
Treaty of Versailles
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vhbok5tQICes
  • Read about Treaty of Versailles and take a stance

145
Treaty of Versailles
  • when President Wilson returned to the U.S. he
    faced strong opposition to the treaty
  • some believed it was too harsh others considered
    it a sell out to imperialism since it exchanged
    one set of colonial rulers for another one
  • some ethnic groups objected to the national
    boundaries being implemented
  • the main opposition was to the League of Nations
  • opponents believed that the treaty threatened the
    U.S. foreign policy of isolationism

146
Treaty of Versailles
League of Nations Territorial Losses Military Restrictions War Guilt
International peace organization enemy and neutral nations initially excluded Germany and Russia excluded Germany returns Alsace-Lorraine to France French border extended to west bank of Rhine River Germany surrenders all of its overseas colonies in Africa and the Pacific Limits set on the size of the German army Germany prohibited from importing or manufacturing weapons or war material Germany forbidden to build or buy submarines or have an air force sole responsibility for the war placed on Germanys shoulders Germany forced to pay the Allies 33 billion in reparations over 30 years Germany paid off debt on October 3, 2010
147
League of Nations
  • some feared that U.S. membership in the league
    would force the U.S. to form its foreign policy
    in accordance with the League
  • when the treaty came up for a vote in the senate,
    it was rejected
  • the United States signed a separate treaty with
    Germany and never joined the League of Nations

148
Senate Rejects the League of Nations because
  • The senate believed the U.S. would be forced
    to form its foreign policy in accordance with
    other members of the League

149
Differing Viewpoints
  • Family Feud
  • Fall of the Eagles
  • The War to End All Wars
  • The War to Make the World Safe for Democracy

150
The Legacy of the War
  • Effects of the First World War
  • Accelerated Americas emergence as the worlds
    greatest industrial power
  • Contributed to the movement of African Americans
    to North cities
  • Intensified anti-immigrant and anti-radical
    sentiments among mainstream Americans

151
Essential Question
  • Which part of the Treaty of Versailles do you
    feel was the harshest punishment for Germany?
    Explain.
  • Answer the question in three complete sentences
    in your summary section.

152
World War I Objective
  • To understand causes of World War I, the reasons
    the United States entered the war, and the
    consequences of war
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