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Major Animal Phyla

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Title: Major Animal Phyla Author: MCPSS Last modified by: Praboda Tantri Created Date: 8/20/2008 6:08:44 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Major Animal Phyla


1
Major Animal Phyla
  • Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Annelida,
    Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata

2
Overview Check This Out First
3
Phylum Porifera Sponges
  • Have no definite shape asymmetrical
  • No tissues or organs
  • Colony of specialized cells
  • Immobile
  • Good powers of regeneration
  • Skeleton of spongin and spicules

4
CLASSES OF SPONGES
  • Class Calcarea has calcium carbonate spicules
  • Class Hexactinellida glass sponges with
    spicules of silica
  • Class Demospongiae no spicules, only spongin

5
Phylum Cnidariastinging-celled animals
  • Jellyfishes, corals, anemones
  • Radial symmetry
  • Two tissue layers with inner mesoglea
  • Primitive nerve net but no brain
  • 2-way digestive tract
  • Stinging cells for capturing food.

6
CLASSES OF CNIDARIANS
  • Class Hydrozoa Hydra, Portuguese-Man-of-War,
    Obelia mostly polyp or hydroid stage
  • Class Scyphozoa true jellyfishes mostly medusa
    stage
  • Class Anthozoa corals, anemones
  • Class Cubozoa box jellies

7
Phylum Platyhelminthesflatworms
  • First animals to exhibit bilateral symmetry
  • Have primitive brain
  • 3 tissue layers
  • Includes free-living flatworms and parasitic
    flatworms (tapeworms, flukes)

8
CLASSES OF FLATWORMS
  • Class Turbellaria free-living flatworms
  • Class Cestoda tapeworms
  • Class Trematoda - flukes

9
Phylum Annelidasegmented worms
  • Earthworms, sandworms, leeches
  • One-way digestive system
  • Have well-developed digestive and circulatory
    systems

10
CLASSES OF ANNELIDS
  • Class Oligochaeta earthworms, bloodworms
    oligo- means few and chaeta means a bristle
    or stout hair
  • Class Polychaeta many bristles and parapodia
    (fleshly lobes to walk with
  • Class Hirudinea leeches (most are NOT
    bloodsuckers)

11
Phylum Mollusca-soft bodied animals
  • includes snails, slugs, nudibranchs, chitons,
    limpets, clams, oysters, squid, octopus,
    nautilus, etc.
  • Either have no shell, one shell, or two shells
  • Many have hard mouth parts (radula in gastropods,
    beak in cephalopods).

12
CLASSES OF MOLLUSCS
  • Class Gastropoda snails, slugs, conchs,
    nudibranchs have either no shell or one shell
    name means stomach foot
  • Class Bivalvia clams, oysters, mussels have
    two shells that hinge together
  • Class Polyplacophora chitons snail-like with 8
    embedded plates on its back
  • Class Cephalopoda squid, octopus, nautilus,
    cuttlefish name means head foot
    well-developed nervous system

13
Phylum Arthropoda joint-legged animals
  • includes insects, crustaceans, centipedes,
    millipedes, and arachnids
  • exoskeleton made of chitin
  • must shed shell to grow

14
CLASSES OF ARTHROPODS
  • Class Crustacea shrimps, lobsters, crabs,
    crawfishes
  • Class Amphipoda small called scuds
  • Class Isopoda sea lice some are parasitic
  • Class Stomatopoda mantis shrimps
  • Class Pycnogonida sea spiders
  • Class Merostomata horseshoe crabs
  • Class Cirripedia - barnacles

15
Phylum Echinodermata spiney-skinned animals
  • includes sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins,
    sand dollars, sea cucumbers, and crinoids
  • reverted back to radial symmetry (radial in
    adults / bilateral in larvae)
  • tube feet and water vascular system
  • Most exhibit pentamerism

16
WHY ARE ECHINODERMS RANKED SO HIGH?
  • Clues from embryology study of the early
    development of animals
  • Protostome blastopore forms the mouth in all
    animals except echinoderms and chordates
  • Deuterostomes blastopore forms the anus in
    echinoderms and chordates

17
CLASSES OF ECHINODERMS
  • Class Asteroidea sea stars
  • Class Ophiuroidea brittle stars, serpent stars
  • Class Echinoidea sea urchins, sand dollars
  • Class Holothuroidea sea cucumbers
  • Class Crinoidea sea lilies, feather stars

18
Phylum Chordata
  • Includes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and
    mammals
  • Dorsal hollow nerve tube
  • Notochord
  • Pharyngeal gill slits
  • Post anal tail
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