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Unit V 1914 - Present

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Title: Unit V 1914 - Present


1
Unit V1914 - Present
  • World War I
  • Great Depression
  • World War II
  • Cold War

2
Themes of Unit 51914-Present
  • Redefinition and repositioning of the west
    Western Europe looses position as world leader
    United States and USSR.
  • Democratic transition many nations continue to
    declare independence and establish democratic
    governments.
  • Increased contact trade and cultural diffusion
  • Globalization
  • Questioning of inequality extension of civil
    rights and freedoms.
  • Anti-imperialism and colonialism
  • new reliance on Non-religious philosophies

3
Events of Unit 5
  • World War I 1914-1918
  • Great Depression 1929-1939
  • Worldwide economic depression
  • World War II 1939-1945
  • Cold War 1945-1989
  • Wars Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq
  • Israeli-Arab conflicts
  • Middle east conflicts Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Syria,
    Jordan
  • Decolonization and Anti-imperialism in India,
    Africa, and Asia

4
World War I
  • Causes
  • Militarism build-up of the military
    glorification of the military and war
  • Alliances brought other nations into the war
    Central Powers (Triple Alliance)- Germany,
    Austria-Hungary, Italy, Ottoman
  • Imperialism created rivalries colonies brought
    into the war
  • Nationalism pride, devotion for your country
  • June 28, 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz
    Ferdinand.

5
World War I
  • Schlieffen Plan a massive German attack and
    defeat of France, then a single-front against
    Russia.
  • August 4, 1914 Germany invades neutral Belgium.
  • Outbreak of war great excitement and optimism
    (thought the war would be over by Christmas -
    NATIONALISM
  • Quickly spreads to foreign countries becomes a
    world war. Impacts colonies and fought in
    Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East.

6
World War I
  • 1st Global War colonies FORCED to fight for
    European nations, Japanese seized islands in the
    Pacific, British stir up Arab rebellion against
    Ottoman rule.
  • Canada, Australia, New Zealand fight in war
  • Western Front trenches, stalemate, heavy loss
    of life, machine gun, poison gas
  • Eastern Front fluid, Russian retreat and
    devastating losses.

7
Effect of World War I on Russia
  • February Revolution provisional government
    established Romanov dynasty ended.
  • Bolshevik Revolution - 1917 led by Lenin
  • peace, land, and bread
  • Armed revolution to replace Provisional
    government
  • Russia signs Treaty of Brest Litovsk
  • Lost huge amounts of land on western front
  • Out of world war I
  • Germany only has to fight on one front now.
  • Russia lost land, millions of deaths (mostly
    civilian).

8
U.S. entry into World War I
  • Try to remain neutral isolationist
  • German unrestricted submarine warfare British
    ship the Lusitania sunk.
  • Zimmerman note German telegraph sent to Mexico
    for them to attack America.
  • Russian Revolution
  • America enters WWI in 1917 end the war quickly

9
Versailles Treaty
  • Armistice November 1918
  • Very harsh terms punish Germany
  • Germany accepts responsibility for the war, lost
    colonies and military, must pay reparations to
    France and Great Britain.
  • Destroys German economy
  • Treaty creates several new countries
    Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, Lithuania.

10
Woodrow Wilson
  • President of the United States
  • Does not want to punish Germany at Paris Peace
    Conference
  • 14 points limit militaries, end alliances,
    freedom of the seas, self-determination wants
    each nation to determine own government and
    policies (nationalism).

11
Versailles Treaty
  • Georges Clemenceau and David Lloyd George wanted
    revenge against Germany for losses in World War
    I.
  • Oppose Wilsons plan for lenient treatment of
    Germany.

12
League of Nations
  • Formed after WWI
  • International organization to prevent future wars
    and protect human rights.
  • America never joins
  • Extremely weak cannot enforce rules
  • Italy invades Ethiopia, Japan invades Manchuria
    League of Nations cannot enforce decisions
  • Did provide some help to refugees and
    humanitarian aid

13
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
  • Ottoman Empire sick man of Europe
  • Ended after World War I Central Powers
  • 1923 Kemal became first president of Turkey
  • Overthrew the Ottoman sultan
  • Modernize and Secularize
  • Known as the father of the Turks
  • Changed alphabet from Arabic to Latin
  • Introduced western-style dress and customs
  • Culture based on Europe as opposed to the Middle
    East
  • Ruthless tactics to implement changes

14
Mandates
  • Created by Versailles Treaty
  • Former colonies/lands of Central Powers were
    placed under the control of the League of
    Nations.
  • Arab leaders were frustrated by limited autonomy
    granted them as mandates
  • Britain remains in charge of former colonies.

15
Effect of WWI on Women
  • Women gained the right to vote in many
    industrialized countries after WWI.
  • Provided an effective home front labor force
  • Many of the jobs went back to men returning home
    after the war.
  • Women encouraged to return to the home and take
    care of domestic tasks after WWI.
  • For their role, womens suffrage movement was
    advanced.

16
  • Balfour Declaration 1917 the British government
    committed to supporting a Jewish homeland in
    Palestine.
  • Anti-colonialism movements
  • Led by European-educated elites
  • Wanted independence
  • Mandates established
  • Unfulfilled promise becomes mandate
  • Arabs frustrated with lack of independence.

17
Russia
  • Stalin takes power when Lenin dies
  • Establishes totalitarian government
  • Secret police, great purge, kills all that
    opposed him, censorship, oppression.
  • 5 year Plans economic plan designed to quickly
    transform the Soviet Union into a leading
    industrial power.
  • Collectivization creation of large-state run
    farms results in lower crop production
  • Kulaks wealthy peasants lost land and power
    despised the collectivization process.

18
China
  • Chinese civil war Guomindang vs. Communist
  • Sun Yat-sen leader of the Chinese Nationalist
    Party fighting against the Communists supported
    by Europe and the United States
  • Chiang Kai-shek replaces Sun Yat-sen.
  • Mao Zedong leader of the Communist Party
    appeals to the peasants, gains a lot of support.
  • Long March solidifies Maos position as leader
    established the reputation of Mao Zedong and
    paved the way for the creation of a Communist
    state in China

19
Great Depression
  • 1929-1939 severe worldwide depression, plagues
    most of the interwar years.
  • Economic depression, weakness in democratic
    governments.
  • Decrease in world trade, massive poverty and
    unemployment, stock market crash, bank closing
  • people turn to communism, socialism for help.
  • John Maynard Keynes supported government
    assistance, provide jobs, expand money supply,
    public work projects.
  • 1932 FDR elected President of the United States
    tries to reassure Americans fire-side chats
    elected to four terms.

20
WWI and Great DepressionEffect on Asia and Africa
  • Anti-colonial movements being forced to fight
    in WWI intensified resistance to colonialism.
  • Decrease in trade resulted in a decrease in
    European influence.
  • Japan greatly expanded its influence in Asia.
  • Great Britain granted limited self-government in
    India.

21
Effect of the Great Depression
  • Poor economy, weak government, poverty,
    unemployment led to the rise of Hitler,
    Mussolini, and Stalin.
  • Promised revenge and rise in power 3rd Reich.
  • Used propaganda to persuade citizens that giving
    up their rights was the only way to improve
    economy and end hardships.
  • Italy, Japan, Germany began process of
    militarism, imperialism, alliances, and
    NATIONALISM.
  • Industrialized nations suffer more than
    non-industrialized countries lack of trade

22
Adolf Hitler
  • 1932 becomes chancellor of Germany
  • Eliminates rivals Gestapo, secret police,
    brownshirts, and the SS
  • Establishes NAZI Party as the only party in
    Germany.
  • Mein Kampf extremely racist book argues for
    separation of races Aryan race is superior,
    justifies imperialism of weaker ethnic groups
    and nations.
  • Appeasement Hitler allowed to take over
    Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Rhineland.

23
  • European leaders believed Hitler would honor
    agreements made at the Munich Conference.
  • Weak nations, fear of war, poor economy led to
    World War II.
  • Benito Mussolini Fascist leader of Italy
  • Ultra nationalist propaganda
  • Emphasis on sacrifice for the nation state
  • Ending labor movement
  • Glorification of the military
  • Allowed free market some private business
  • Blackshirts eliminated all rivals
  • Established one-party system

24
Japan
  • Experienced a dramatic increase in world power
    between WWI and WWII.
  • Becomes very militaristic after WWI Great
    Depression really hurts their economy.
  • Japanese goal was to dominate east Asia take
    over the Chinese coast, all of Southeast Asia,
    Indonesia, New Zealand, and Australia.
  • Wanted to end European control Asia for Asia
    really meant Asia for Japan

25
Japan
  • By December 1941, Japan conquered Korea, Taiwan,
    Manchuria, large amounts of China, Beijing,
    Shanghai, and Nanjing.
  • Created the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity
    Sphere Japanese empire they conquered before
    and during WWII.
  • Abused Chinese and Southeast Asian civilians.
  • Executed thousands of prisoners of war.
  • Forced prostitution from Korea and Southeast
    Asia.
  • Performed chemical and biological experiments on
    prisoners of war.

26
Causes of World War II
  • 1939-1945
  • Fought in theaters of arenas
  • Causes
  • Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism.
  • Harsh terms of the Versailles Treaty
  • Appeasement of Hitler
  • Weakness of the League of Nations
  • Began with Japanese invasion of Manchuria (China)
  • European theater began when Germany invaded
    Poland on Sept. 1, 1939.

27
World War II
  • 55-60 million causalities over half civilians,
    trillions of dollars in destruction.
  • Axis Powers Germany, Japan, Italy
  • Allied Powers Great Britain, France, Soviet
    Union (1940), United States (1941)
  • Blitzkrieg lightening war sudden and massive
    German invasion of Poland, France.
  • Early German victories in France, Russia
    Japanese victories in the Pacific

28
Winston Churchill
  • Prime minister of Great Britain.
  • Stood alone against Hitler refused to surrender,
    encouraged civilians.
  • RAF defeated German air force in Battle of
    Britain.
  • Involved in Peace treaties after the war
  • Gave iron curtain speech during Cold War.

29
  • December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor attacked
  • America enters World War II
  • Operation Barbarossa Hitler attacks Russia
    eventually stopped at Stalingrad
  • winter weather and American supplies
  • Massive bombings on both sides
  • Tokyo, Dresden, Berlin, Doolittle Raiders
  • Holocaust 6 million Jews killed
  • Japanese-Americans put in interment camps
  • Limitation of civil rights, propaganda on both
    sides, bonds, victory gardens, recycling,
    rationing

30
World War II
  • Airplanes, tanks, aircraft carriers, atomic
    bombs, radar, code-breaking, Manhattan Project
  • Less trench warfare used
  • Machine guns, missiles, 101 Airborne
  • Midway, D-Day, Bulge, Stalingrad, Iwo Jima,
    Okinawa, Guadalcanal
  • The key to Allied victory was industrial
    production we out produced Axis Powers.
  • leapfrogging or island-hopping used in the
    Pacific theater in steps to invade Japanese
    mainland.
  • Japanese finally surrender after atomic bombing
    of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

31
World War II - Women
  • Rosie the Riveter became a symbol for increased
    involvement of women in the industrial workplace
    during WWII.
  • Return to domestic jobs after the war Communist
    nations encourage women to work outside the home.

32
Truman Doctrine
  • Containment of Communism
  • Will support any nation threatened by communist
    takeover
  • NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Collective security
  • Warsaw Pact created by Soviet Union in response
    to the creation of NATO

33
Marshall Plan
  • European Recovery Plan
  • Create allies rather than enemies
  • Rebuild Europe to prevent spread of Communism and
    stop Soviet expansion.
  • Millions of dollars spent to rebuild W. Europes
    economy.
  • Less likely to become communist

34
United Nations
  • Begins after WWII, first met in San Francisco, 50
    nations, today in New York City.
  • UN Security Council USA, China, France, GB, USSR
  • Every nation is a member today
  • International organization
  • Humanitarian aid, prevent wars
  • Human rights
  • 1947 the United Nations proposed that Palestine
    should be divided into Jewish and Arab halves.
  • Israel become an independent state
  • Arab-Israeli conflict results from lack of a
    Palestinian state.

35
Cold War the Bi-Polar World
  • State of hostility between the United States and
    the Soviet Union 1945-1991
  • Tension, fought indirectly between U.S. and USSR
    in several hot wars throughout cold war era.
  • Capitalism vs. Communism
  • Standoff between the two superpowers Soviet
    Union and the United States never fought
    directly, but an estimated 50 million people
    (half civilian) died in small-to-medium conflicts
    fought worldwide during the Cold War.

36
Cold War
  • Brezhnev Doctrine Soviet Union has the right to
    invade any socialist country that was hostile to
    socialism.
  • Stalin and the Soviet leadership pushed for as
    many concessions as possible from the U.S., both
    in Asia and Europe, but not at the risk of war.
  • Marshall plan helped Western Europe recover from
    WWII COMECON was Soviet plan to help Eastern
    Europe.
  • 1948 Berlin Blockade flew thousands of
    missions to bring food and supplies to West
    Berlin.

37
Domino Theory
  • If one nation in area falls, others will fall to
    communism.
  • Many nations had just won independence and might
    seek alignment.
  • If Soviets attempted to gain influence, America
    had to compete.
  • Cuba (Castro) 1959 Vietnam
  • America supported all anti-communist groups
    accepted dictators and other authoritarian
    governments

38
Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • 1948 elected President of the United States.
  • Was supreme commander of the European Theater
    during WWII.
  • Moderate Republican President during the Korean
    War,
  • Great U.S. economy during his Presidency, known
    as Ike, developed Interstate system.
  • Domino Theory, threatened use of nuclear bombs in
    Korea.
  • Built-up conventional weapons
  • Richard Nixon was his Vice-President

39
Korean War
  • 1950-1953
  • North Korea (Communist) forces invade South Korea
    (non-Communist) forces.
  • U.S. and United Nations defend the south
  • Soviet Union aids the north
  • More than 1 million deaths 52,000 Americans
    killed.
  • War ended with a divided country

40
Arms Race / Space Race
  • Massive military build-up during the Cold War
    between the United States and the Soviet Union.
  • Everything was a competition decolonization
    caused U.S. and USSR to compete for influence in
    the regions.
  • Yuri Gagarin become first person in space John
    Glenn is first American.
  • Sputnik is the first satellite launched into
    orbit.
  • Both events cause Americans to worry about math
    and science education in the U.S.
  • Advancements in space race had military
    implications ICBM. Americans are nervous about
    the Soviet technological developments.

41
Decolonization
  • Former colonies are competed for by the Soviet
    Union and the United States.
  • Regions in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the
    Middle East become political and diplomatic
    battlegrounds for the Cold War.
  • Areas are forced to choose align with the U.S. or
    USSR
  • Some become military battlegrounds over which the
    two superpowers compete for influence.

42
Latin America
  • Attempt to modernize after WWII led to
    concentration of wealth in the hands of a few
  • Argentina Juan Peron appealed to the poor
  • wife Eva was extremely popular with people
  • A brutal regime ruled from 1976-1983 ruthlessly
    purged intellectuals and dissidents, 30,000
    missing
  • Brazil and Chile also had military regimes from
    the mid 1960s to the mid 1980s.
  • Mexico was run by the Institutional
    Revolutionary Party (PRI) better economy (oil)
  • Protest against mistreatment of minorities and
    other groups.

43
Cuba
  • 1959 Castro overthrew dictator Batista
  • Goals modernize, industrialize, increase
    literacy rates, eliminate inequality, land reform
  • Fought against U.S. imperialism and influence in
    the area
  • Created alliance with the Soviet Union
  • 1961 Bay of Pigs U.S. support of Cuban rebels
    to overthrow Castro invasion failed
  • Strengthened Castros position and ties with
    Soviet Union strengthened Castros commitment to
    communism
  • Diminished US prestige in Latin America
  • 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis Soviets put missiles
    in Cuba to protect against U.S. invasion tense
    standoff.
  • Closest America and the Soviet Union came to war

44
John F. Kennedy
  • 1960 becomes President of the United States
    youngest ever elected.
  • First Roman Catholic to be president.
  • WWII veteran, extremely popular
  • Represents youth and energy in American
    society.
  • Moderate Democrat, cut taxes, defense spending,
    started the Peace Corps., first to send American
    advisors to Vietnam.
  • President during Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile
    Crisis
  • Assassinated in November, 1963.
  • Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president

45
Latin America
  • Castro did improve education and modernization,
    but violate human rights and freedoms.
  • Latin America became a Cold War battlefield
    America supported any regime that opposed
    communism.
  • 1979 Nicaraguan Revolution, Sandinista (Soviets
    supported) overthrew US supported Somoza
    dictator.
  • America began to support the Contras fighting to
    overthrow Sandinista

46
Asia
  • 1967 Association of Southeast Asian Nations
    boosted economic, social, and cultural
    developments and cooperation among their members.
  • The Philippines decolonized after WWII gained
    freedom in 1946
  • India earned freedom in 1945
  • Gandhi assassinated in 1948
  • Pakistan created as a Muslim republic
  • Supported by Muhammad Jinnah
  • Corruption, political repression, and military
    rule.
  • India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons
    increased tension in the area.

47
Japan
  • After WWII, Japan was occupied by American
    forces invested military and economy.
  • Japan became a parliamentary democracy, Emperor
    was figurehead and Diet (parliament) runs the
    country.
  • Japan modernized becomes superpower in region
    3rd most productive nation.
  • 1990s suffers recession and government
    corruption younger generations demand change,
    challenge traditional roles, womens rights.

48
Taiwan, South Korea
  • Developed prosperous and free societies
  • Not democracies, but anti-communists.
  • Chiang Kai-shek in control of Taiwan, until death
    in 1975.
  • 1989 free elections in S. Korea
  • Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan are known as the
    little tigers later Thailand.
  • Important for American cold war strategies,
    politically and economically.

49
Vietnam War
  • 1954-1975
  • Won independence from France Laos, Cambodia also
    achieve independence
  • United States supported the French. Use of
    guerilla warfare tactics country divided
  • Ho Chi Minh becomes communist leader of North
    Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem elected leader of South
    Vietnam.
  • 1959 - North Vietnam invades
  • 1965 LBJ sends American ground forces
  • 1968 Tet Offensive major attack by north
  • 1973 American withdrawal 1975 Northern
    capture and unify country
  • 58,000 Americans killed nation is Communist

50
  • Lyndon B. Johnson
  • President after Kennedy was assassinated in 1963.
  • Great Society war on poverty
  • Welfare programs
  • Cambodia
  • Communist Khmer Rouge movement killed over 2
    million people
  • U.S. backed Ferdinand Marcos, corrupt, violent

51
North Korea
  • Since WWII, has been Communist remained isolated
    and rigid
  • Kim II Sung dictator, ruthless, oppressive
  • Maintains a huge military
  • Pursuing nuclear technology
  • Poverty, starvation of people
  • Facing economic collapse

52
China
  • 1949 Peoples Republic of China - Mao Zedong
    becomes the Communist leader of China
    (1949-1976).
  • 1958 Great Leap Forward plan for building up
    industry, collectivization of farms
  • Led to chaos, breakdown in industry and farming
  • Famines killed over 15 million people
  • 1966-76 Cultural Revolution eliminate all
    political enemies, government censorship
  • Wife supporter of Revolution Jiang Qing
  • Professors, writers, artists sent to labor camps

53
China
  • 1978 Deng Xiaoping defeated Mao supporters and
    came to power
  • Deng wanted to modernize, he was idealistic
  • He allowed free-market reforms in China
  • Huge economic growth
  • Wages and standard of living increased
  • Greater demand for freedoms and rights.

54
India
  • The worlds largest democracy, however struggles
    with population, industrialization, religious and
    cultural division
  • Jawaharlal Nehru becomes first prime minister
    differed from Gandhi in views.
  • Modernization, industrialize, and secularize
    India
  • Caught in middle of Cold War politics decides to
    follow non-alignment strategy.
  • Indira Gandhi continued fathers philosophy of
    modernization and industrialization
  • green revolution and involuntary sterilization
  • religious differences assassinated in 1984
  • Son takes over from 1984-1991 also assassinated

55
Indonesia
  • Dutch, British, and French forced out after WWII
    Indonesia became independent in 1949.
  • Sukarno become leader of the Indonesian
    Nationalist Party became authoritarian.
  • One of the worlds largest and most populous
    nations very diverse, huge archipelago
  • 80 of population is Muslim pursued a policy of
    non-alignment
  • 1965 Communists battle for control over 500,000
    people killed
  • 1967-1998 Suharto economic growth,
    anticommunism, alliance with the United States.

56
Middle East - themes
  • OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting
    Countries, 1960
  • Control the supply and price of oil
  • Very influential
  • Islamic fundamentalism balance traditional
    beliefs and reform
  • Arab-Israeli conflicts
  • Competition between the United States and the
    USSR for influence in the region

57
Egypt
  • 1954 Abdel Nasser takes control
  • Wanted to create a United Arab Republic effort
    failed
  • Modernized Egypt, stood up to the West
  • Nationalized industries and businesses.
  • 1956 Suez crisis French and British forces
    tried to seize canal from Egypt
  • America condemned the attack and forced British
    withdrawal.
  • Nasser sides with Soviets gain technology and
    weaponry build Aswan Dam
  • 1970 Sadat comes to power closer relationship
    with the United States first Arab leader to
    recognize Israel assassinated in 1981

58
Israel
  • 1948 State of Israel homeland for Jews
  • Arabs fight several wars against Israel, but with
    highly trained and motivated army and strong
    backing from the United States, Israel defeated
    Arab coalitions.
  • Israel expands, taking away Arab territory
  • 1964 PLO led by Yasser Arafat
  • 1967 Six Day War and 1973 Yom Kippur War
  • Arab-Israeli conflicts constant conflict, no
    Palestinian state, violence.
  • Terrorist groups act against Israel government
    uses violence to maintain order.
  • Tension remains high several peace agreements
    in 1990s.

59
Iran
  • Mohammad Pahlavi (1941-1979) modernizes and
    industrialized Iran
  • Opposed Islamic traditionalism, encouraged
    Western dress and education, unveiling of women,
    ally of the United States.
  • Used secret police and ruthless oppression to
    carry out modernization
  • 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini takes power in Iranian
    Revolution established a Islamic theocratic
    dictatorship anti-American
  • Took American hostages
  • Revolution was anti-modern and religiously based

60
Iraq
  • 1979 Saddam Hussein takes power
  • Becomes brutal dictator
  • Opposed to the United States
  • During war with Iran, used poison gas, killed
    many civilians
  • 1990 invaded Kuwait and was ready to invade
    Saudi Arabia
  • 1991 Gulf War the first major conflict of the
    post-Cold War era - United States led coalition
    to retake Kuwait.
  • 1991-2003 trade sanctions, U.N. resolutions
  • 2003 U.S. led war regime was overthrown

61
Africa
  • 1960 Decolonization known as the Year of
    Africa
  • 1952 Egypt and Libya declare independence 1956
    Morocco and Tunisia
  • 1954-62 Algerian War for Independence
  • North Africa were larger, more united
  • Colonizing powers left behind technology and
    industrialization
  • Sub-Saharan Africa more difficult
  • Ghana Kwame Kkrumah, Kenya Jomo Kenyatta, South
    Africa African National Congress
  • Mau Mau movement killed amost 2,000 people
  • Lots of violence in Zimbabwe, South Africa,
    Rwanda, Zaire, Angola, and Mozambique.

62
Africa
  • Decolonization of British and French for the most
    part went smoothly prepared for freedom,
    educated, self-government
  • Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) violent movement
  • Worst transitions were in Belgian and Portuguese
    colonies vicious fighting in Angola,
    Mozambique, and Rwanda (Hutu and Tutsi genocide)
  • South Africa apartheid racial segregation
  • Modern, but most repressive Nelson Mandela
    become leader of African National Congress
    imprisoned from 1964-1990 hurting economy and
    international reputation.
  • Mandela become the first black president

63
Problems facing Africa
  • Dictatorship and corruption
  • Failure to modernize continue to export natural
    resources.
  • The Cold War became pawns in the global chess
    game between the U.S. and USSR.
  • Rapid population growth famines and food
    shortages.
  • HIV/AIDS caused millions of deaths
  • Lack of unity political boundaries drawn across
    social, religious, language, or cultural
    differences
  • Intertribal and interethnic conflicts
  • Treatment of women and children millions of
    children are forced to fight, women still not
    treated equally, polygamy, lack of education.

64
Third World
  • lagged behind in economic and political
    development unstable
  • Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Mid East
  • Kept under political and economic control
  • Attempted overthrow of dictators
  • Strongly influenced by Soviet Union or the United
    States competition for influence
  • Balkans and African colonies have suffered
    because political boundaries were drawn without
    regard to ethnic or tribal groups.

65
20th 21st Century Themes
  • Social, cultural, and intellectual changes
    scientific and technological advancement is
    faster than ever before.
  • Increase in world population
  • World economies are interconnected
  • 4 Tracks
  • Western Europe, U.S. Canada stable, great
    economic prosperity, urbanization, individual
    liberties, social welfare programs to achieve
    social equality, cutting-edge technology,
    consumerism, service based
  • Japan, Taiwan, S.Korea, Indonesia, and Singapore
    economic and technological modernization,
    urbanization, high-tech, slow to embrace
    diversity, individualism, and civil liberties

66
20th 21st Century Themes
  • 4 tracks (cont.)
  • Soviet Union and Eastern Europe remain
    industrial, not as advanced in technology and
    science, dictatorships, not as democratic or
    economically prosperous
  • Asia, Africa, the Mid-east, and Latin America
    mixed civil war, dictatorships, modernization,
    industrialization China
  • Modern period 1800-1945 postmodern era or
    contemporary era
  • Industrialization, representative governments,
    economic equality, multiculturalism

67
Economic Globalization
  • During the Great Depression nations practiced
    protectionism, but after WWII nations had
    increased contact.
  • GATT/World Trade Organization rules for
    imports, exports, and economic interaction
    Bretton Woods System includes over 100 nations.
  • Eastern bloc refused to join cut off from the
    rest of the world.
  • Cultural imperialism Americanization of
    foreign cultures cause conflict.
  • Internet, McDonalds

68
Multinational Corporations
  • Economic recovery during the 1980s
  • Development of huge multinational corporations
    factories, wages, employ thousands of people
  • Help local economy
  • Further globalization and integration
  • Difficult to regulate and control
  • Exploit labor, harm the environment, prevent
    domestic companies

69
Trade Organizations
  • The U.S., Canada, Japan, and Western Europe
    great prosperity.
  • European Economic Community eliminate tariffs
    and encourage free movement of money, goods, and
    services, and labor.
  • NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
    U.S., Mexico, Canada
  • Creation of free trade zone
  • G-8 Association the worlds largest economies
  • United States, Canada, GB, Japan, Germany,
    France, Italy, and Russia

70
Globalization
  • Fear that nations own indigenous cultures are
    being crushed under the force of foreign popular
    culture and values.
  • Competition - with cheap food and other products
    from other parts of the world.
  • Interdependence war, revolution, can cause
    economic problems in other parts of the world.
  • Social effects elimination of legal distinctions
    between social classes, meritocracy, creation of
    middle class, urbanization, social welfare
    system, universal education, equal rights for
    women and minorities

71
Standard of Living Disparity
  • Gap between the develop and developing world
  • U.S consumes 25 of worlds energy 5 of
    population
  • Migrations of the 20th Century from
    non-industrialized to industrialized nations.
  • North-South Split most of the worlds advanced,
    postindustrial societies are located north of the
    equator
  • 1st World developed industrialized nations
  • United States, Great Britain, Germany, Japan
  • 2nd World developing, industrializing nations
  • China, India, Brazil
  • 3rd World non-industrialized, non-developed
  • African nations, Haiti, Vietnam

72
Major Trends
  • Migration millions migrate for economic
    opportunity, violence in developing world, and
    political repression.
  • Provide much needed labor force, cultural
    diversity
  • Population Growth
  • 1900 population was 1.6 billion 2000 6 billion
  • China, India over 1 billion each
  • Africa increasing by 3 per year
  • Latin America 1950 - 165 million, 1980 400
    million
  • Mexico City, Shanghai, and Buenos Aires densely
    populated cities
  • Overconsumption of food and energy

73
  • Consumer societies inexpensive, mass produced
    goods are available to most people. Fewer people
    earn living by farming or industrial production
    based on services.
  • Social activism demonstrations, protests, and
    strikes have brought about social, political, and
    economic change.
  • Helped end wars, toppled regimes, womens
    liberation
  • Environmentalism green movement
  • Pollution, species extinction are threat to
    environment
  • Rachel Carsons Silent Spring insecticide DDT
  • Kyoto agreement of 1997 carbon emissions,
    global warming
  • Earth Day (1970), Greenpeace, Sierra Club

74
Major Trends
  • Terrorism assassination of Archduke
  • Used to achieve goals through violence and
    assassination
  • PLO Palestinian Liberation Organization
  • IRA - Irish Republican Army
  • Hamas, Hizbollah anti-Israeli groups
  • AL-Qaeda
  • September 11, 2001- attack on World Trade Center
    and U.S. Pentagon killed over 3,000
  • Osama bin Laden
  • Extreme nationalism - genocide

75
20th 21st Century
  • Womens suffrage
  • Gained after World War I
  • Communist nations gave women more equality
  • During the Great Depression many women
    unemployed
  • During WWII the image of Rosie the Riveter
    became a symbol for the role of women in U.S.
    wartime production
  • After the war many returned to home
  • leave it to Beaver

76
20th 21st Century
  • 1949 Soviet Union detonates their own first
    atomic bomb.
  • 1954 Brown vs. the Board of Education Supreme
    court ruled to end segregation.
  • Multiculturalism the interaction and fusion of
    the worlds various ethnic, artistic, and
    intellectual traditions.
  • Decolonization of Eastern Europe 1989-1990
    Eastern European nations declared independence
    from the Soviet Union
  • Provided an example for others to declare
    independence

77
20th 21st Century
  • Mass media increase of information
  • Political purposes, propaganda, and
    indoctrination, advertisement, information
  • Powerful tools of westernization
  • Disney, McDonalds, Coca-cola are recognizable
    symbols of America.
  • Can draw people together creation of a global
    village Internet and World Wide Web.
  • Literature nonwestern authors and artists have
    adopted Western forms of writing and painting.
  • Diego Rivera (Mexico) murals that showed plight
    of the working poor reverence for indigenous
    people

78
Cold War
  • Détente reduction in hostility between nations
  • cooling off period of the Cold War
  • Science and Technology made great strides during
    this time.
  • great innovations, space technology
  • Albert Einstein theory of relativity
  • Nuclear power, rockets, genetics, DNA, computers

79
Cold War
  • World War II diminished European power and
    control over world trade.
  • The spread of United States mass culture is often
    seen as a threat to local or indigenous cultures.
  • Sino-Soviet Alliance during the late 1960s and
    1970s broke apart and the relationship became
    quite unfriendly.

80
Independence movements
  • Gandhi
  • Satyagraha the policy o f nonviolent
    resistance, mixed with Hindu principle, preached
    by Gandhi.
  • Mandela became first black president of South
    Africa
  • King used Gandhis principle in U.S. during the
    civil rights movement.

81
U.S. Presidents
  • Richard Nixon (1968-1975)
  • Vice-President for Eisenhower excellent foreign
    policy, first to visit China
  • Ended Vietnam War, resigned after Watergate
    scandal.
  • Jimmy Carter (1976-1980)
  • Signed peace treaties and SALT treaties
  • Poor economy, recession, terrorism
  • Ronald Reagan (1980-1988)
  • Increased defense spending STAR WARS defense
    program
  • Free market capitalism, cut taxes to increase
    revenues
  • Greatly improved the economy Reaganonmics
  • Ended the cold war

82
Soviet Leaders
  • Nikita Khrushchev strong defender of communism
  • leader during the Cuban missile crisis lost
    prestige
  • Began the process of de-Stalinization
  • Mikhail Gorbachev
  • Brought massive reform to the Soviet Union
    beginning in 1985 glasnost
  • Allowed political and cultural liberalization
  • Perestroika increased levels of free-market
    economic activity allowed by the government

83
World Leaders
  • Charles de Gaulle President of France
  • Followed non-alignment policy
  • Resisted American domination of European affairs
  • Margaret Thatcher Prime Minister of G. B.
  • First female prime minister, privatized programs
  • Close ally of Reagan and Bush opposing communism
  • Helmut Kohl West Germany
  • Led country to economic dominance during the
    1980s
  • Reunification of Germany in 1990 after the
    collapse of the Soviet Union.
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