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Unit V 1914 - Present


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Title: Unit V 1914 - Present

Unit V1914 - Present
  • World War I
  • Great Depression
  • World War II
  • Cold War

Themes of Unit 51914-Present
  • Redefinition and repositioning of the west
    Western Europe looses position as world leader
    United States and USSR.
  • Democratic transition many nations continue to
    declare independence and establish democratic
  • Increased contact trade and cultural diffusion
  • Globalization
  • Questioning of inequality extension of civil
    rights and freedoms.
  • Anti-imperialism and colonialism
  • new reliance on Non-religious philosophies

Events of Unit 5
  • World War I 1914-1918
  • Great Depression 1929-1939
  • Worldwide economic depression
  • World War II 1939-1945
  • Cold War 1945-1989
  • Wars Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq
  • Israeli-Arab conflicts
  • Middle east conflicts Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Syria,
  • Decolonization and Anti-imperialism in India,
    Africa, and Asia

World War I
  • Causes
  • Militarism build-up of the military
    glorification of the military and war
  • Alliances brought other nations into the war
    Central Powers (Triple Alliance)- Germany,
    Austria-Hungary, Italy, Ottoman
  • Imperialism created rivalries colonies brought
    into the war
  • Nationalism pride, devotion for your country
  • June 28, 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz

World War I
  • Schlieffen Plan a massive German attack and
    defeat of France, then a single-front against
  • August 4, 1914 Germany invades neutral Belgium.
  • Outbreak of war great excitement and optimism
    (thought the war would be over by Christmas -
  • Quickly spreads to foreign countries becomes a
    world war. Impacts colonies and fought in
    Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East.

World War I
  • 1st Global War colonies FORCED to fight for
    European nations, Japanese seized islands in the
    Pacific, British stir up Arab rebellion against
    Ottoman rule.
  • Canada, Australia, New Zealand fight in war
  • Western Front trenches, stalemate, heavy loss
    of life, machine gun, poison gas
  • Eastern Front fluid, Russian retreat and
    devastating losses.

Effect of World War I on Russia
  • February Revolution provisional government
    established Romanov dynasty ended.
  • Bolshevik Revolution - 1917 led by Lenin
  • peace, land, and bread
  • Armed revolution to replace Provisional
  • Russia signs Treaty of Brest Litovsk
  • Lost huge amounts of land on western front
  • Out of world war I
  • Germany only has to fight on one front now.
  • Russia lost land, millions of deaths (mostly

U.S. entry into World War I
  • Try to remain neutral isolationist
  • German unrestricted submarine warfare British
    ship the Lusitania sunk.
  • Zimmerman note German telegraph sent to Mexico
    for them to attack America.
  • Russian Revolution
  • America enters WWI in 1917 end the war quickly

Versailles Treaty
  • Armistice November 1918
  • Very harsh terms punish Germany
  • Germany accepts responsibility for the war, lost
    colonies and military, must pay reparations to
    France and Great Britain.
  • Destroys German economy
  • Treaty creates several new countries
    Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, Lithuania.

Woodrow Wilson
  • President of the United States
  • Does not want to punish Germany at Paris Peace
  • 14 points limit militaries, end alliances,
    freedom of the seas, self-determination wants
    each nation to determine own government and
    policies (nationalism).

Versailles Treaty
  • Georges Clemenceau and David Lloyd George wanted
    revenge against Germany for losses in World War
  • Oppose Wilsons plan for lenient treatment of

League of Nations
  • Formed after WWI
  • International organization to prevent future wars
    and protect human rights.
  • America never joins
  • Extremely weak cannot enforce rules
  • Italy invades Ethiopia, Japan invades Manchuria
    League of Nations cannot enforce decisions
  • Did provide some help to refugees and
    humanitarian aid

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
  • Ottoman Empire sick man of Europe
  • Ended after World War I Central Powers
  • 1923 Kemal became first president of Turkey
  • Overthrew the Ottoman sultan
  • Modernize and Secularize
  • Known as the father of the Turks
  • Changed alphabet from Arabic to Latin
  • Introduced western-style dress and customs
  • Culture based on Europe as opposed to the Middle
  • Ruthless tactics to implement changes

  • Created by Versailles Treaty
  • Former colonies/lands of Central Powers were
    placed under the control of the League of
  • Arab leaders were frustrated by limited autonomy
    granted them as mandates
  • Britain remains in charge of former colonies.

Effect of WWI on Women
  • Women gained the right to vote in many
    industrialized countries after WWI.
  • Provided an effective home front labor force
  • Many of the jobs went back to men returning home
    after the war.
  • Women encouraged to return to the home and take
    care of domestic tasks after WWI.
  • For their role, womens suffrage movement was

  • Balfour Declaration 1917 the British government
    committed to supporting a Jewish homeland in
  • Anti-colonialism movements
  • Led by European-educated elites
  • Wanted independence
  • Mandates established
  • Unfulfilled promise becomes mandate
  • Arabs frustrated with lack of independence.

  • Stalin takes power when Lenin dies
  • Establishes totalitarian government
  • Secret police, great purge, kills all that
    opposed him, censorship, oppression.
  • 5 year Plans economic plan designed to quickly
    transform the Soviet Union into a leading
    industrial power.
  • Collectivization creation of large-state run
    farms results in lower crop production
  • Kulaks wealthy peasants lost land and power
    despised the collectivization process.

  • Chinese civil war Guomindang vs. Communist
  • Sun Yat-sen leader of the Chinese Nationalist
    Party fighting against the Communists supported
    by Europe and the United States
  • Chiang Kai-shek replaces Sun Yat-sen.
  • Mao Zedong leader of the Communist Party
    appeals to the peasants, gains a lot of support.
  • Long March solidifies Maos position as leader
    established the reputation of Mao Zedong and
    paved the way for the creation of a Communist
    state in China

Great Depression
  • 1929-1939 severe worldwide depression, plagues
    most of the interwar years.
  • Economic depression, weakness in democratic
  • Decrease in world trade, massive poverty and
    unemployment, stock market crash, bank closing
  • people turn to communism, socialism for help.
  • John Maynard Keynes supported government
    assistance, provide jobs, expand money supply,
    public work projects.
  • 1932 FDR elected President of the United States
    tries to reassure Americans fire-side chats
    elected to four terms.

WWI and Great DepressionEffect on Asia and Africa
  • Anti-colonial movements being forced to fight
    in WWI intensified resistance to colonialism.
  • Decrease in trade resulted in a decrease in
    European influence.
  • Japan greatly expanded its influence in Asia.
  • Great Britain granted limited self-government in

Effect of the Great Depression
  • Poor economy, weak government, poverty,
    unemployment led to the rise of Hitler,
    Mussolini, and Stalin.
  • Promised revenge and rise in power 3rd Reich.
  • Used propaganda to persuade citizens that giving
    up their rights was the only way to improve
    economy and end hardships.
  • Italy, Japan, Germany began process of
    militarism, imperialism, alliances, and
  • Industrialized nations suffer more than
    non-industrialized countries lack of trade

Adolf Hitler
  • 1932 becomes chancellor of Germany
  • Eliminates rivals Gestapo, secret police,
    brownshirts, and the SS
  • Establishes NAZI Party as the only party in
  • Mein Kampf extremely racist book argues for
    separation of races Aryan race is superior,
    justifies imperialism of weaker ethnic groups
    and nations.
  • Appeasement Hitler allowed to take over
    Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Rhineland.

  • European leaders believed Hitler would honor
    agreements made at the Munich Conference.
  • Weak nations, fear of war, poor economy led to
    World War II.
  • Benito Mussolini Fascist leader of Italy
  • Ultra nationalist propaganda
  • Emphasis on sacrifice for the nation state
  • Ending labor movement
  • Glorification of the military
  • Allowed free market some private business
  • Blackshirts eliminated all rivals
  • Established one-party system

  • Experienced a dramatic increase in world power
    between WWI and WWII.
  • Becomes very militaristic after WWI Great
    Depression really hurts their economy.
  • Japanese goal was to dominate east Asia take
    over the Chinese coast, all of Southeast Asia,
    Indonesia, New Zealand, and Australia.
  • Wanted to end European control Asia for Asia
    really meant Asia for Japan

  • By December 1941, Japan conquered Korea, Taiwan,
    Manchuria, large amounts of China, Beijing,
    Shanghai, and Nanjing.
  • Created the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity
    Sphere Japanese empire they conquered before
    and during WWII.
  • Abused Chinese and Southeast Asian civilians.
  • Executed thousands of prisoners of war.
  • Forced prostitution from Korea and Southeast
  • Performed chemical and biological experiments on
    prisoners of war.

Causes of World War II
  • 1939-1945
  • Fought in theaters of arenas
  • Causes
  • Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism.
  • Harsh terms of the Versailles Treaty
  • Appeasement of Hitler
  • Weakness of the League of Nations
  • Began with Japanese invasion of Manchuria (China)
  • European theater began when Germany invaded
    Poland on Sept. 1, 1939.

World War II
  • 55-60 million causalities over half civilians,
    trillions of dollars in destruction.
  • Axis Powers Germany, Japan, Italy
  • Allied Powers Great Britain, France, Soviet
    Union (1940), United States (1941)
  • Blitzkrieg lightening war sudden and massive
    German invasion of Poland, France.
  • Early German victories in France, Russia
    Japanese victories in the Pacific

Winston Churchill
  • Prime minister of Great Britain.
  • Stood alone against Hitler refused to surrender,
    encouraged civilians.
  • RAF defeated German air force in Battle of
  • Involved in Peace treaties after the war
  • Gave iron curtain speech during Cold War.

  • December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor attacked
  • America enters World War II
  • Operation Barbarossa Hitler attacks Russia
    eventually stopped at Stalingrad
  • winter weather and American supplies
  • Massive bombings on both sides
  • Tokyo, Dresden, Berlin, Doolittle Raiders
  • Holocaust 6 million Jews killed
  • Japanese-Americans put in interment camps
  • Limitation of civil rights, propaganda on both
    sides, bonds, victory gardens, recycling,

World War II
  • Airplanes, tanks, aircraft carriers, atomic
    bombs, radar, code-breaking, Manhattan Project
  • Less trench warfare used
  • Machine guns, missiles, 101 Airborne
  • Midway, D-Day, Bulge, Stalingrad, Iwo Jima,
    Okinawa, Guadalcanal
  • The key to Allied victory was industrial
    production we out produced Axis Powers.
  • leapfrogging or island-hopping used in the
    Pacific theater in steps to invade Japanese
  • Japanese finally surrender after atomic bombing
    of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

World War II - Women
  • Rosie the Riveter became a symbol for increased
    involvement of women in the industrial workplace
    during WWII.
  • Return to domestic jobs after the war Communist
    nations encourage women to work outside the home.

Truman Doctrine
  • Containment of Communism
  • Will support any nation threatened by communist
  • NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Collective security
  • Warsaw Pact created by Soviet Union in response
    to the creation of NATO

Marshall Plan
  • European Recovery Plan
  • Create allies rather than enemies
  • Rebuild Europe to prevent spread of Communism and
    stop Soviet expansion.
  • Millions of dollars spent to rebuild W. Europes
  • Less likely to become communist

United Nations
  • Begins after WWII, first met in San Francisco, 50
    nations, today in New York City.
  • UN Security Council USA, China, France, GB, USSR
  • Every nation is a member today
  • International organization
  • Humanitarian aid, prevent wars
  • Human rights
  • 1947 the United Nations proposed that Palestine
    should be divided into Jewish and Arab halves.
  • Israel become an independent state
  • Arab-Israeli conflict results from lack of a
    Palestinian state.

Cold War the Bi-Polar World
  • State of hostility between the United States and
    the Soviet Union 1945-1991
  • Tension, fought indirectly between U.S. and USSR
    in several hot wars throughout cold war era.
  • Capitalism vs. Communism
  • Standoff between the two superpowers Soviet
    Union and the United States never fought
    directly, but an estimated 50 million people
    (half civilian) died in small-to-medium conflicts
    fought worldwide during the Cold War.

Cold War
  • Brezhnev Doctrine Soviet Union has the right to
    invade any socialist country that was hostile to
  • Stalin and the Soviet leadership pushed for as
    many concessions as possible from the U.S., both
    in Asia and Europe, but not at the risk of war.
  • Marshall plan helped Western Europe recover from
    WWII COMECON was Soviet plan to help Eastern
  • 1948 Berlin Blockade flew thousands of
    missions to bring food and supplies to West

Domino Theory
  • If one nation in area falls, others will fall to
  • Many nations had just won independence and might
    seek alignment.
  • If Soviets attempted to gain influence, America
    had to compete.
  • Cuba (Castro) 1959 Vietnam
  • America supported all anti-communist groups
    accepted dictators and other authoritarian

Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • 1948 elected President of the United States.
  • Was supreme commander of the European Theater
    during WWII.
  • Moderate Republican President during the Korean
  • Great U.S. economy during his Presidency, known
    as Ike, developed Interstate system.
  • Domino Theory, threatened use of nuclear bombs in
  • Built-up conventional weapons
  • Richard Nixon was his Vice-President

Korean War
  • 1950-1953
  • North Korea (Communist) forces invade South Korea
    (non-Communist) forces.
  • U.S. and United Nations defend the south
  • Soviet Union aids the north
  • More than 1 million deaths 52,000 Americans
  • War ended with a divided country

Arms Race / Space Race
  • Massive military build-up during the Cold War
    between the United States and the Soviet Union.
  • Everything was a competition decolonization
    caused U.S. and USSR to compete for influence in
    the regions.
  • Yuri Gagarin become first person in space John
    Glenn is first American.
  • Sputnik is the first satellite launched into
  • Both events cause Americans to worry about math
    and science education in the U.S.
  • Advancements in space race had military
    implications ICBM. Americans are nervous about
    the Soviet technological developments.

  • Former colonies are competed for by the Soviet
    Union and the United States.
  • Regions in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the
    Middle East become political and diplomatic
    battlegrounds for the Cold War.
  • Areas are forced to choose align with the U.S. or
  • Some become military battlegrounds over which the
    two superpowers compete for influence.

Latin America
  • Attempt to modernize after WWII led to
    concentration of wealth in the hands of a few
  • Argentina Juan Peron appealed to the poor
  • wife Eva was extremely popular with people
  • A brutal regime ruled from 1976-1983 ruthlessly
    purged intellectuals and dissidents, 30,000
  • Brazil and Chile also had military regimes from
    the mid 1960s to the mid 1980s.
  • Mexico was run by the Institutional
    Revolutionary Party (PRI) better economy (oil)
  • Protest against mistreatment of minorities and
    other groups.

  • 1959 Castro overthrew dictator Batista
  • Goals modernize, industrialize, increase
    literacy rates, eliminate inequality, land reform
  • Fought against U.S. imperialism and influence in
    the area
  • Created alliance with the Soviet Union
  • 1961 Bay of Pigs U.S. support of Cuban rebels
    to overthrow Castro invasion failed
  • Strengthened Castros position and ties with
    Soviet Union strengthened Castros commitment to
  • Diminished US prestige in Latin America
  • 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis Soviets put missiles
    in Cuba to protect against U.S. invasion tense
  • Closest America and the Soviet Union came to war

John F. Kennedy
  • 1960 becomes President of the United States
    youngest ever elected.
  • First Roman Catholic to be president.
  • WWII veteran, extremely popular
  • Represents youth and energy in American
  • Moderate Democrat, cut taxes, defense spending,
    started the Peace Corps., first to send American
    advisors to Vietnam.
  • President during Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile
  • Assassinated in November, 1963.
  • Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president

Latin America
  • Castro did improve education and modernization,
    but violate human rights and freedoms.
  • Latin America became a Cold War battlefield
    America supported any regime that opposed
  • 1979 Nicaraguan Revolution, Sandinista (Soviets
    supported) overthrew US supported Somoza
  • America began to support the Contras fighting to
    overthrow Sandinista

  • 1967 Association of Southeast Asian Nations
    boosted economic, social, and cultural
    developments and cooperation among their members.
  • The Philippines decolonized after WWII gained
    freedom in 1946
  • India earned freedom in 1945
  • Gandhi assassinated in 1948
  • Pakistan created as a Muslim republic
  • Supported by Muhammad Jinnah
  • Corruption, political repression, and military
  • India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons
    increased tension in the area.

  • After WWII, Japan was occupied by American
    forces invested military and economy.
  • Japan became a parliamentary democracy, Emperor
    was figurehead and Diet (parliament) runs the
  • Japan modernized becomes superpower in region
    3rd most productive nation.
  • 1990s suffers recession and government
    corruption younger generations demand change,
    challenge traditional roles, womens rights.

Taiwan, South Korea
  • Developed prosperous and free societies
  • Not democracies, but anti-communists.
  • Chiang Kai-shek in control of Taiwan, until death
    in 1975.
  • 1989 free elections in S. Korea
  • Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan are known as the
    little tigers later Thailand.
  • Important for American cold war strategies,
    politically and economically.

Vietnam War
  • 1954-1975
  • Won independence from France Laos, Cambodia also
    achieve independence
  • United States supported the French. Use of
    guerilla warfare tactics country divided
  • Ho Chi Minh becomes communist leader of North
    Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem elected leader of South
  • 1959 - North Vietnam invades
  • 1965 LBJ sends American ground forces
  • 1968 Tet Offensive major attack by north
  • 1973 American withdrawal 1975 Northern
    capture and unify country
  • 58,000 Americans killed nation is Communist

  • Lyndon B. Johnson
  • President after Kennedy was assassinated in 1963.
  • Great Society war on poverty
  • Welfare programs
  • Cambodia
  • Communist Khmer Rouge movement killed over 2
    million people
  • U.S. backed Ferdinand Marcos, corrupt, violent

North Korea
  • Since WWII, has been Communist remained isolated
    and rigid
  • Kim II Sung dictator, ruthless, oppressive
  • Maintains a huge military
  • Pursuing nuclear technology
  • Poverty, starvation of people
  • Facing economic collapse

  • 1949 Peoples Republic of China - Mao Zedong
    becomes the Communist leader of China
  • 1958 Great Leap Forward plan for building up
    industry, collectivization of farms
  • Led to chaos, breakdown in industry and farming
  • Famines killed over 15 million people
  • 1966-76 Cultural Revolution eliminate all
    political enemies, government censorship
  • Wife supporter of Revolution Jiang Qing
  • Professors, writers, artists sent to labor camps

  • 1978 Deng Xiaoping defeated Mao supporters and
    came to power
  • Deng wanted to modernize, he was idealistic
  • He allowed free-market reforms in China
  • Huge economic growth
  • Wages and standard of living increased
  • Greater demand for freedoms and rights.

  • The worlds largest democracy, however struggles
    with population, industrialization, religious and
    cultural division
  • Jawaharlal Nehru becomes first prime minister
    differed from Gandhi in views.
  • Modernization, industrialize, and secularize
  • Caught in middle of Cold War politics decides to
    follow non-alignment strategy.
  • Indira Gandhi continued fathers philosophy of
    modernization and industrialization
  • green revolution and involuntary sterilization
  • religious differences assassinated in 1984
  • Son takes over from 1984-1991 also assassinated

  • Dutch, British, and French forced out after WWII
    Indonesia became independent in 1949.
  • Sukarno become leader of the Indonesian
    Nationalist Party became authoritarian.
  • One of the worlds largest and most populous
    nations very diverse, huge archipelago
  • 80 of population is Muslim pursued a policy of
  • 1965 Communists battle for control over 500,000
    people killed
  • 1967-1998 Suharto economic growth,
    anticommunism, alliance with the United States.

Middle East - themes
  • OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting
    Countries, 1960
  • Control the supply and price of oil
  • Very influential
  • Islamic fundamentalism balance traditional
    beliefs and reform
  • Arab-Israeli conflicts
  • Competition between the United States and the
    USSR for influence in the region

  • 1954 Abdel Nasser takes control
  • Wanted to create a United Arab Republic effort
  • Modernized Egypt, stood up to the West
  • Nationalized industries and businesses.
  • 1956 Suez crisis French and British forces
    tried to seize canal from Egypt
  • America condemned the attack and forced British
  • Nasser sides with Soviets gain technology and
    weaponry build Aswan Dam
  • 1970 Sadat comes to power closer relationship
    with the United States first Arab leader to
    recognize Israel assassinated in 1981

  • 1948 State of Israel homeland for Jews
  • Arabs fight several wars against Israel, but with
    highly trained and motivated army and strong
    backing from the United States, Israel defeated
    Arab coalitions.
  • Israel expands, taking away Arab territory
  • 1964 PLO led by Yasser Arafat
  • 1967 Six Day War and 1973 Yom Kippur War
  • Arab-Israeli conflicts constant conflict, no
    Palestinian state, violence.
  • Terrorist groups act against Israel government
    uses violence to maintain order.
  • Tension remains high several peace agreements
    in 1990s.

  • Mohammad Pahlavi (1941-1979) modernizes and
    industrialized Iran
  • Opposed Islamic traditionalism, encouraged
    Western dress and education, unveiling of women,
    ally of the United States.
  • Used secret police and ruthless oppression to
    carry out modernization
  • 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini takes power in Iranian
    Revolution established a Islamic theocratic
    dictatorship anti-American
  • Took American hostages
  • Revolution was anti-modern and religiously based

  • 1979 Saddam Hussein takes power
  • Becomes brutal dictator
  • Opposed to the United States
  • During war with Iran, used poison gas, killed
    many civilians
  • 1990 invaded Kuwait and was ready to invade
    Saudi Arabia
  • 1991 Gulf War the first major conflict of the
    post-Cold War era - United States led coalition
    to retake Kuwait.
  • 1991-2003 trade sanctions, U.N. resolutions
  • 2003 U.S. led war regime was overthrown

  • 1960 Decolonization known as the Year of
  • 1952 Egypt and Libya declare independence 1956
    Morocco and Tunisia
  • 1954-62 Algerian War for Independence
  • North Africa were larger, more united
  • Colonizing powers left behind technology and
  • Sub-Saharan Africa more difficult
  • Ghana Kwame Kkrumah, Kenya Jomo Kenyatta, South
    Africa African National Congress
  • Mau Mau movement killed amost 2,000 people
  • Lots of violence in Zimbabwe, South Africa,
    Rwanda, Zaire, Angola, and Mozambique.

  • Decolonization of British and French for the most
    part went smoothly prepared for freedom,
    educated, self-government
  • Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) violent movement
  • Worst transitions were in Belgian and Portuguese
    colonies vicious fighting in Angola,
    Mozambique, and Rwanda (Hutu and Tutsi genocide)
  • South Africa apartheid racial segregation
  • Modern, but most repressive Nelson Mandela
    become leader of African National Congress
    imprisoned from 1964-1990 hurting economy and
    international reputation.
  • Mandela become the first black president

Problems facing Africa
  • Dictatorship and corruption
  • Failure to modernize continue to export natural
  • The Cold War became pawns in the global chess
    game between the U.S. and USSR.
  • Rapid population growth famines and food
  • HIV/AIDS caused millions of deaths
  • Lack of unity political boundaries drawn across
    social, religious, language, or cultural
  • Intertribal and interethnic conflicts
  • Treatment of women and children millions of
    children are forced to fight, women still not
    treated equally, polygamy, lack of education.

Third World
  • lagged behind in economic and political
    development unstable
  • Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Mid East
  • Kept under political and economic control
  • Attempted overthrow of dictators
  • Strongly influenced by Soviet Union or the United
    States competition for influence
  • Balkans and African colonies have suffered
    because political boundaries were drawn without
    regard to ethnic or tribal groups.

20th 21st Century Themes
  • Social, cultural, and intellectual changes
    scientific and technological advancement is
    faster than ever before.
  • Increase in world population
  • World economies are interconnected
  • 4 Tracks
  • Western Europe, U.S. Canada stable, great
    economic prosperity, urbanization, individual
    liberties, social welfare programs to achieve
    social equality, cutting-edge technology,
    consumerism, service based
  • Japan, Taiwan, S.Korea, Indonesia, and Singapore
    economic and technological modernization,
    urbanization, high-tech, slow to embrace
    diversity, individualism, and civil liberties

20th 21st Century Themes
  • 4 tracks (cont.)
  • Soviet Union and Eastern Europe remain
    industrial, not as advanced in technology and
    science, dictatorships, not as democratic or
    economically prosperous
  • Asia, Africa, the Mid-east, and Latin America
    mixed civil war, dictatorships, modernization,
    industrialization China
  • Modern period 1800-1945 postmodern era or
    contemporary era
  • Industrialization, representative governments,
    economic equality, multiculturalism

Economic Globalization
  • During the Great Depression nations practiced
    protectionism, but after WWII nations had
    increased contact.
  • GATT/World Trade Organization rules for
    imports, exports, and economic interaction
    Bretton Woods System includes over 100 nations.
  • Eastern bloc refused to join cut off from the
    rest of the world.
  • Cultural imperialism Americanization of
    foreign cultures cause conflict.
  • Internet, McDonalds

Multinational Corporations
  • Economic recovery during the 1980s
  • Development of huge multinational corporations
    factories, wages, employ thousands of people
  • Help local economy
  • Further globalization and integration
  • Difficult to regulate and control
  • Exploit labor, harm the environment, prevent
    domestic companies

Trade Organizations
  • The U.S., Canada, Japan, and Western Europe
    great prosperity.
  • European Economic Community eliminate tariffs
    and encourage free movement of money, goods, and
    services, and labor.
  • NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
    U.S., Mexico, Canada
  • Creation of free trade zone
  • G-8 Association the worlds largest economies
  • United States, Canada, GB, Japan, Germany,
    France, Italy, and Russia

  • Fear that nations own indigenous cultures are
    being crushed under the force of foreign popular
    culture and values.
  • Competition - with cheap food and other products
    from other parts of the world.
  • Interdependence war, revolution, can cause
    economic problems in other parts of the world.
  • Social effects elimination of legal distinctions
    between social classes, meritocracy, creation of
    middle class, urbanization, social welfare
    system, universal education, equal rights for
    women and minorities

Standard of Living Disparity
  • Gap between the develop and developing world
  • U.S consumes 25 of worlds energy 5 of
  • Migrations of the 20th Century from
    non-industrialized to industrialized nations.
  • North-South Split most of the worlds advanced,
    postindustrial societies are located north of the
  • 1st World developed industrialized nations
  • United States, Great Britain, Germany, Japan
  • 2nd World developing, industrializing nations
  • China, India, Brazil
  • 3rd World non-industrialized, non-developed
  • African nations, Haiti, Vietnam

Major Trends
  • Migration millions migrate for economic
    opportunity, violence in developing world, and
    political repression.
  • Provide much needed labor force, cultural
  • Population Growth
  • 1900 population was 1.6 billion 2000 6 billion
  • China, India over 1 billion each
  • Africa increasing by 3 per year
  • Latin America 1950 - 165 million, 1980 400
  • Mexico City, Shanghai, and Buenos Aires densely
    populated cities
  • Overconsumption of food and energy

  • Consumer societies inexpensive, mass produced
    goods are available to most people. Fewer people
    earn living by farming or industrial production
    based on services.
  • Social activism demonstrations, protests, and
    strikes have brought about social, political, and
    economic change.
  • Helped end wars, toppled regimes, womens
  • Environmentalism green movement
  • Pollution, species extinction are threat to
  • Rachel Carsons Silent Spring insecticide DDT
  • Kyoto agreement of 1997 carbon emissions,
    global warming
  • Earth Day (1970), Greenpeace, Sierra Club

Major Trends
  • Terrorism assassination of Archduke
  • Used to achieve goals through violence and
  • PLO Palestinian Liberation Organization
  • IRA - Irish Republican Army
  • Hamas, Hizbollah anti-Israeli groups
  • AL-Qaeda
  • September 11, 2001- attack on World Trade Center
    and U.S. Pentagon killed over 3,000
  • Osama bin Laden
  • Extreme nationalism - genocide

20th 21st Century
  • Womens suffrage
  • Gained after World War I
  • Communist nations gave women more equality
  • During the Great Depression many women
  • During WWII the image of Rosie the Riveter
    became a symbol for the role of women in U.S.
    wartime production
  • After the war many returned to home
  • leave it to Beaver

20th 21st Century
  • 1949 Soviet Union detonates their own first
    atomic bomb.
  • 1954 Brown vs. the Board of Education Supreme
    court ruled to end segregation.
  • Multiculturalism the interaction and fusion of
    the worlds various ethnic, artistic, and
    intellectual traditions.
  • Decolonization of Eastern Europe 1989-1990
    Eastern European nations declared independence
    from the Soviet Union
  • Provided an example for others to declare

20th 21st Century
  • Mass media increase of information
  • Political purposes, propaganda, and
    indoctrination, advertisement, information
  • Powerful tools of westernization
  • Disney, McDonalds, Coca-cola are recognizable
    symbols of America.
  • Can draw people together creation of a global
    village Internet and World Wide Web.
  • Literature nonwestern authors and artists have
    adopted Western forms of writing and painting.
  • Diego Rivera (Mexico) murals that showed plight
    of the working poor reverence for indigenous

Cold War
  • Détente reduction in hostility between nations
  • cooling off period of the Cold War
  • Science and Technology made great strides during
    this time.
  • great innovations, space technology
  • Albert Einstein theory of relativity
  • Nuclear power, rockets, genetics, DNA, computers

Cold War
  • World War II diminished European power and
    control over world trade.
  • The spread of United States mass culture is often
    seen as a threat to local or indigenous cultures.
  • Sino-Soviet Alliance during the late 1960s and
    1970s broke apart and the relationship became
    quite unfriendly.

Independence movements
  • Gandhi
  • Satyagraha the policy o f nonviolent
    resistance, mixed with Hindu principle, preached
    by Gandhi.
  • Mandela became first black president of South
  • King used Gandhis principle in U.S. during the
    civil rights movement.

U.S. Presidents
  • Richard Nixon (1968-1975)
  • Vice-President for Eisenhower excellent foreign
    policy, first to visit China
  • Ended Vietnam War, resigned after Watergate
  • Jimmy Carter (1976-1980)
  • Signed peace treaties and SALT treaties
  • Poor economy, recession, terrorism
  • Ronald Reagan (1980-1988)
  • Increased defense spending STAR WARS defense
  • Free market capitalism, cut taxes to increase
  • Greatly improved the economy Reaganonmics
  • Ended the cold war

Soviet Leaders
  • Nikita Khrushchev strong defender of communism
  • leader during the Cuban missile crisis lost
  • Began the process of de-Stalinization
  • Mikhail Gorbachev
  • Brought massive reform to the Soviet Union
    beginning in 1985 glasnost
  • Allowed political and cultural liberalization
  • Perestroika increased levels of free-market
    economic activity allowed by the government

World Leaders
  • Charles de Gaulle President of France
  • Followed non-alignment policy
  • Resisted American domination of European affairs
  • Margaret Thatcher Prime Minister of G. B.
  • First female prime minister, privatized programs
  • Close ally of Reagan and Bush opposing communism
  • Helmut Kohl West Germany
  • Led country to economic dominance during the
  • Reunification of Germany in 1990 after the
    collapse of the Soviet Union.
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