The Christian Kingdoms - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 19
About This Presentation
Title:

The Christian Kingdoms

Description:

The Christian Kingdoms – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:72
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 20
Provided by: Manu1266
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Christian Kingdoms


1
The Christian Kingdoms
2
EXPANSION OF THE CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS
3
EXPANSION OF CHRISTIAN KINGDOMSBook page 60
  • The Reconquista involved the occupation of
    territory from one river valley to another
  • In 9th and 10th centuries christian kingdoms
    advanced south of the Duero valley. It wasnt a
    conquest. This territory was abandoned by the
    muslims
  • In 11th and 12th centuries, christian kingdoms
    extended beyond the Tajo valley and the Ebro
    valley (Conquest of Toledo by Alfonso VI in 1085
    and conquest of Zaragoza by Alfonso I the Battler
    in 1118)
  • After the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212),
    christian kingdoms advanced quickly and extended
    beyond the Guadiana and Guadalquivir valleys
    http//www.youtube.com/watch?vIHKev1M140o
  • At the end of 13th century only the Nasrid
    kingdom of Granada resisted the christian forces.

4
EXPANSION OF CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS
  • After the occupation of the new territories, the
    christian kings colonised them with groups of
    peasants. This is called Repopulation
  • In order to encourage emigration, the kings gave
    privileges called fueros to the towns
  • Sometimes the territory was underpopulated, so
    the kings gave it to the military orders

5
FUERO (CARTA PUEBLA) OF CIUDAD REAL GIVEN BY
ALFONSO X
é quis que oviera hy una grand villa é bona que
corrieresn todos por fuero é que fuese cabesza de
toda aquella tierra é mandela poblar en aquel
lugar que dicen el Pozuelo de D. Gil, é púsele
nombre Real. Et Yo sobre dicho Rey D. Alfonso
otórgoles é doles para siempre jamás é á todos
los moradores que fuesen en esta Villa-Real la
sobre dicha é en todo su término que hayan el
fuero de Cuenca en todas cosas
6
THREE CULTURES
  • DURING THE RECONQUISTA THREE DIFFERENT RELIGIOUS
    CULTURES LIVED TOGETHER IN THE CHRISTIAN
    KINGDOMS
  • CHRISTIANS,
  • JEWS, SOMETIMES PERSECUTED AND
  • MUSLIMS, CALLED MUDÉJARES

7
Kingdom of Asturias and León
  • 722. Battle of Covadonga. Don Pelayo defeated the
    Muslims
  • At the End of VIII century, Alfonso II
    established the court in Oviedo
  • Alfonso III the Great expanded the Kingdom and
    moved the capital to León in the 10th century.
    The territory became the Kingdom of León

8
Kingdom of Castile
  • Castile started as a union of some counties from
    León under Fernan González that became Count of
    Castile in 930 and could achieve a relative
    independence from León in 960
  • After being annexed to Navarra, it became an
    independent Kingdom after the death of Sancho III
    de Navarra in 1035. The first King of Castile was
    Fernando I

Tomb of Fernán González en Covarrubias
9
The Kingdom of Navarra
  • During IX century, the Jimena dinasty could
    achieve independence from the carolingian Empire
  • Under Sancho III the Great (1000-1035) the
    Kingdom of Navarra became the most powerful
    kingdom in the Peninsula
  • After his death, his kingdom was divided between
    his sons Fernado became king of Castile, García
    became king of Navarra and Ramiro became king of
    Aragón

10
The Kingdom of Aragón
  • During IX century the Galindo family achieved
    independence from the Carolingian Empire with the
    count Aznar Galindo.
  • In 922 the county of Aragón was annexed to
    Navarra
  • After the death of Sancho III the Great of
    Navarra (1035), his son Ramiro I became the firs
    King of Aragón

11
The Catalan Counties
  • In 874, Wilfred the Hairy united the catalan
    counties and became independent from the
    carolingians

The Kingdom of Portugal
In 1143, Alfonso Enríquez became independent from
the Kingdom of León and was the first King of
Portugal
12
The Crown of Castile
  • After Fernando I became the first King of
    Castile, Castile gradually became the most
    powerful Kingdom. Alfonso VI conquered Toledo in
    1085 and passed the Tajo valley.
  • Alfonso VIII defeated the almohads in the Battle
    of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212
  • In 1230 Fernando III the Saint united León and
    Castile and founded the Crown of Castile

13
The Crown of Castile (II)
  • Government
  • Castile and León became a unified State, with
    same institutions and same law
  • The King had great power and the castilian
    Parliament, called Cortes, could not legislate,
    but just approve or reject new taxes
  • Economy
  • Based on agriculture, but mainly stockbreeding of
    merino sheep.
  • The wool of the merino sheep was exported to
    Europe and was economically so important that the
    kings protected its trade and granted privileges
    to the Mesta (assembly of noble sheep breeders)
    as the right to graze on peasants land.

14
The Crown of Aragón
  • In 1134 died Alfonso I the Battler without issue
  • His brother, Ramiro II, who was a monk, was
    forced to become King and to have a child
  • Ramiro II, had a daughter, Petronila, who was
    betrothed to Ramon Berenguer IV, count of
    Barcelona, at the age of one. After the marriage,
    they had a son, called Alfonso Ramon, who became
    King of Aragón and Count of Barcelona as Alfonso
    II the Chaste. This union is called the Crown of
    Aragón
  • In 13th century, James I the Conqueror expanded
    the Crown of Aragón to the south conquering
    Valencia, Alicante, Murcia and the Balearic
    islands. His son, Peter the Great conquered
    Sicily and started the expansion through the
    Mediterranean Sea

15
The almogavars
  • The almogavars were professionals soldiers, who
    served the kings of Aragón with their
    Mediterranean expansion. After conquering Sicily,
    Sardinia and Naples, the Kings of Aragón wanted
    to get rid of such violent troops and let them
    travel to help the Byzantinian Emperor against
    the muslims. After fighting the turks, they were
    betrayed by the byzantinians and their leader,
    Roger de Flor, was assassinated. The almogavars,
    in revenge, conquered Athens and its territory
    and established there the duchies of Athens and
    Neopatria. Although the duchy eventually fell to
    the Ottoman Empire, even today the King of Spain
    still holds the title of 'Duke of Athens
    and Neopatria'.

16
The almogavars
Entry of Roger de Flor in Constantinople Painting
of José Moreno (1888)
17
The Crown of Aragón (II)
  • Government
  • The Crown of Aragón was a union of different
    kingdoms (Aragón, Valencia, Mallorca) and
    counties (catalan counties). Each territory kept
    its own institutions and customs Justicia in
    Aragón, Generalitat in Catalonia and Valencia.
    The Kings of Aragón had always to seek their
    approval for starting new enterprises
  • Economy
  • Agriculture was the main economic activity in
    Aragón
  • Trade was very important too. After the
    mediterranean expansion of the Crown of Aragón,
    the catalan merchants travelled all around de
    Mediterranean Sea and founded commercial offices
    called Consulates

18
Compare the Crowns of Castile and Aragón
GOVERNMENT ECONOMY
CROWN OF CASTILE
CROWN OF ARAGÓN
UNIFIED STATES SAME INSTITUTIONS, SAME LAW FOR
ALL THE KINGDOM CORTES HAD NO POWER
AGRICULTURE BUT MAINLY STOCK BREEDING OF MERINO
SHEEP
UNION OF DIFFERENT KINGDOMS WITH THEIR OWN LAWS
AND CUSTOMS THE KINGS HAD TO SEEK THE
CORTESAPPROVAL
MAINLY AGRICULTURE AND TRADE
19
VIII IX X XI XI XII XIII
ASTURIAS DON PELAYO 722 COVADONGA ALFONSO III ESTABLISH THE COURT IN LEÓN 1230 FERNANDO III THE SAINT, CROWN OF CASTILE
LEÓN ALFONSO III ESTABLISH THE COURT IN LEÓN 1230 FERNANDO III THE SAINT, CROWN OF CASTILE
CASTILE 929 COUNT FERNÁN GONZÁLEZ SANCHO III THE GREAT (1000-1035) FERNANDO I ALFONSO VI 1230 FERNANDO III THE SAINT, CROWN OF CASTILE
NAVARRE JIMENA DINASTY SANCHO II KING OF NAVARRE AND ARAGÓN SANCHO III THE GREAT (1000-1035) GARCÍA
ARAGÓN GALINDO DINASTY AZNAR GALINDO SANCHO II KING OF NAVARRE AND ARAGÓN SANCHO III THE GREAT (1000-1035) RAMIRO I ALFONSO II THE CHASTE CROWN OF ARAGÓN JAMES I
CATALONIA WILFRED THE HAIRY 1143 ALFONSO ENRIQUEZ, KINGDOM OF PORTUGAL
PORTUGAL
AL-ANDALUS DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT EMIRATE 929 ABD AL RAMAN III CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA 1032TAIFAS 1086 ALMORAVIDS 1032TAIFAS 1086 ALMORAVIDS ALMOHADS
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com